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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: malick
cipher variations:
nbmjdl ocnkem pdolfn qepmgo rfqnhp
sgroiq thspjr uitqks vjurlt wkvsmu
xlwtnv ymxuow znyvpx aozwqy bpaxrz
cqbysa drcztb esdauc ftebvd gufcwe
hvgdxf iwheyg jxifzh kyjgai lzkhbj

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: malick
Cipher: nzorxp

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: malick

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: malick
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: malick
Cipher: znyvpx

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: malick
Cipher: 231113423152

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: malick
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m a l i c k 
2 1 1 4 3 5 
3 1 3 2 1 2 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: malick
Cipher: bqxchf

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Method #3

Plaintext: malick
method variations:
casmvg asmvgc smvgca
mvgcas vgcasm gcasmv

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: malick

all 720 cipher variations:
malick malikc malcik malcki malkci malkic mailck mailkc maiclk maickl maikcl
maiklc macilk macikl maclik maclki mackli mackil makicl makilc makcil makcli
maklci maklic mlaick mlaikc mlacik mlacki mlakci mlakic mliack mliakc mlicak
mlicka mlikca mlikac mlciak mlcika mlcaik mlcaki mlckai mlckia mlkica mlkiac
mlkcia mlkcai mlkaci mlkaic milack milakc milcak milcka milkca milkac mialck
mialkc miaclk miackl miakcl miaklc micalk micakl miclak miclka mickla mickal
mikacl mikalc mikcal mikcla miklca miklac mcliak mclika mclaik mclaki mclkai
mclkia mcilak mcilka mcialk mciakl mcikal mcikla mcailk mcaikl mcalik mcalki
mcakli mcakil mckial mckila mckail mckali mcklai mcklia mklica mkliac mklcia
mklcai mklaci mklaic mkilca mkilac mkicla mkical mkiacl mkialc mkcila mkcial
mkclia mkclai mkcali mkcail mkaicl mkailc mkacil mkacli mkalci mkalic amlick
amlikc amlcik amlcki amlkci amlkic amilck amilkc amiclk amickl amikcl amiklc
amcilk amcikl amclik amclki amckli amckil amkicl amkilc amkcil amkcli amklci
amklic almick almikc almcik almcki almkci almkic alimck alimkc alicmk alickm
alikcm alikmc alcimk alcikm alcmik alcmki alckmi alckim alkicm alkimc alkcim
alkcmi alkmci alkmic ailmck ailmkc ailcmk ailckm ailkcm ailkmc aimlck aimlkc
aimclk aimckl aimkcl aimklc aicmlk aicmkl aiclmk aiclkm aicklm aickml aikmcl
aikmlc aikcml aikclm aiklcm aiklmc aclimk aclikm aclmik aclmki aclkmi aclkim
acilmk acilkm acimlk acimkl acikml aciklm acmilk acmikl acmlik acmlki acmkli
acmkil ackiml ackilm ackmil ackmli acklmi acklim aklicm aklimc aklcim aklcmi
aklmci aklmic akilcm akilmc akiclm akicml akimcl akimlc akcilm akciml akclim
akclmi akcmli akcmil akmicl akmilc akmcil akmcli akmlci akmlic lamick lamikc
lamcik lamcki lamkci lamkic laimck laimkc laicmk laickm laikcm laikmc lacimk
lacikm lacmik lacmki lackmi lackim lakicm lakimc lakcim lakcmi lakmci lakmic
lmaick lmaikc lmacik lmacki lmakci lmakic lmiack lmiakc lmicak lmicka lmikca
lmikac lmciak lmcika lmcaik lmcaki lmckai lmckia lmkica lmkiac lmkcia lmkcai
lmkaci lmkaic limack limakc limcak limcka limkca limkac liamck liamkc liacmk
liackm liakcm liakmc licamk licakm licmak licmka lickma lickam likacm likamc
likcam likcma likmca likmac lcmiak lcmika lcmaik lcmaki lcmkai lcmkia lcimak
lcimka lciamk lciakm lcikam lcikma lcaimk lcaikm lcamik lcamki lcakmi lcakim
lckiam lckima lckaim lckami lckmai lckmia lkmica lkmiac lkmcia lkmcai lkmaci
lkmaic lkimca lkimac lkicma lkicam lkiacm lkiamc lkcima lkciam lkcmia lkcmai
lkcami lkcaim lkaicm lkaimc lkacim lkacmi lkamci lkamic ialmck ialmkc ialcmk
ialckm ialkcm ialkmc iamlck iamlkc iamclk iamckl iamkcl iamklc iacmlk iacmkl
iaclmk iaclkm iacklm iackml iakmcl iakmlc iakcml iakclm iaklcm iaklmc ilamck
ilamkc ilacmk ilackm ilakcm ilakmc ilmack ilmakc ilmcak ilmcka ilmkca ilmkac
ilcmak ilcmka ilcamk ilcakm ilckam ilckma ilkmca ilkmac ilkcma ilkcam ilkacm
ilkamc imlack imlakc imlcak imlcka imlkca imlkac imalck imalkc imaclk imackl
imakcl imaklc imcalk imcakl imclak imclka imckla imckal imkacl imkalc imkcal
imkcla imklca imklac iclmak iclmka iclamk iclakm iclkam iclkma icmlak icmlka
icmalk icmakl icmkal icmkla icamlk icamkl icalmk icalkm icaklm icakml ickmal
ickmla ickaml ickalm icklam icklma iklmca iklmac iklcma iklcam iklacm iklamc
ikmlca ikmlac ikmcla ikmcal ikmacl ikmalc ikcmla ikcmal ikclma ikclam ikcalm
ikcaml ikamcl ikamlc ikacml ikaclm ikalcm ikalmc calimk calikm calmik calmki
calkmi calkim cailmk cailkm caimlk caimkl caikml caiklm camilk camikl camlik
camlki camkli camkil cakiml cakilm cakmil cakmli caklmi caklim claimk claikm
clamik clamki clakmi clakim cliamk cliakm climak climka clikma clikam clmiak
clmika clmaik clmaki clmkai clmkia clkima clkiam clkmia clkmai clkami clkaim
cilamk cilakm cilmak cilmka cilkma cilkam cialmk cialkm ciamlk ciamkl ciakml
ciaklm cimalk cimakl cimlak cimlka cimkla cimkal cikaml cikalm cikmal cikmla
ciklma ciklam cmliak cmlika cmlaik cmlaki cmlkai cmlkia cmilak cmilka cmialk
cmiakl cmikal cmikla cmailk cmaikl cmalik cmalki cmakli cmakil cmkial cmkila
cmkail cmkali cmklai cmklia cklima ckliam cklmia cklmai cklami cklaim ckilma
ckilam ckimla ckimal ckiaml ckialm ckmila ckmial ckmlia ckmlai ckmali ckmail
ckaiml ckailm ckamil ckamli ckalmi ckalim kalicm kalimc kalcim kalcmi kalmci
kalmic kailcm kailmc kaiclm kaicml kaimcl kaimlc kacilm kaciml kaclim kaclmi
kacmli kacmil kamicl kamilc kamcil kamcli kamlci kamlic klaicm klaimc klacim
klacmi klamci klamic kliacm kliamc klicam klicma klimca klimac klciam klcima
klcaim klcami klcmai klcmia klmica klmiac klmcia klmcai klmaci klmaic kilacm
kilamc kilcam kilcma kilmca kilmac kialcm kialmc kiaclm kiacml kiamcl kiamlc
kicalm kicaml kiclam kiclma kicmla kicmal kimacl kimalc kimcal kimcla kimlca
kimlac kcliam kclima kclaim kclami kclmai kclmia kcilam kcilma kcialm kciaml
kcimal kcimla kcailm kcaiml kcalim kcalmi kcamli kcamil kcmial kcmila kcmail
kcmali kcmlai kcmlia kmlica kmliac kmlcia kmlcai kmlaci kmlaic kmilca kmilac
kmicla kmical kmiacl kmialc kmcila kmcial kmclia kmclai kmcali kmcail kmaicl
kmailc kmacil kmacli kmalci kmalic

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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