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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: macaca
cipher variations:
nbdbdb ocecec pdfdfd qegege rfhfhf
sgigig thjhjh uikiki vjljlj wkmkmk
xlnlnl ymomom znpnpn aoqoqo bprprp
cqsqsq drtrtr esusus ftvtvt guwuwu
hvxvxv iwywyw jxzxzx kyayay lzbzbz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: macaca
Cipher: nzxzxz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: macaca
Cipher: ABABB AAAAA AAABA AAAAA AAABA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: macaca
cipher variations:
nbdbdblbhbhbjblblbhbpbpbfbtbtbdbxbxbzbfbfbxbjbjb
vbnbnbtbrbrbrbvbvbpbzbzbocececmcicickcmcmcicqcqc
gcucucecycycacgcgcyckckcwcococucscscscwcwcqcacac
pdfdfdndjdjdldndndjdrdrdhdvdvdfdzdzdbdhdhdzdldld
xdpdpdvdtdtdtdxdxdrdbdbdqegegeoekekemeoeoekesese
iewewegeaeaeceieieaememeyeqeqeweueueueyeyesecece
rfhfhfpflflfnfpfpflftftfjfxfxfhfbfbfdfjfjfbfnfnf
zfrfrfxfvfvfvfzfzftfdfdfsgigigqgmgmgogqgqgmgugug
kgygygigcgcgegkgkgcgogogagsgsgygwgwgwgagagugegeg
thjhjhrhnhnhphrhrhnhvhvhlhzhzhjhdhdhfhlhlhdhphph
bhththzhxhxhxhbhbhvhfhfhuikikisioioiqisisioiwiwi
miaiaikieieigimimieiqiqiciuiuiaiyiyiyiciciwigigi
vjljljtjpjpjrjtjtjpjxjxjnjbjbjljfjfjhjnjnjfjrjrj
djvjvjbjzjzjzjdjdjxjhjhjwkmkmkukqkqkskukukqkykyk
okckckmkgkgkikokokgkskskekwkwkckakakakekekykikik
xlnlnlvlrlrltlvlvlrlzlzlpldldlnlhlhljlplplhltltl
flxlxldlblblblflflzljljlymomomwmsmsmumwmwmsmamam
qmememomimimkmqmqmimumumgmymymemcmcmcmgmgmamkmkm
znpnpnxntntnvnxnxntnbnbnrnfnfnpnjnjnlnrnrnjnvnvn
hnznznfndndndnhnhnbnlnlnaoqoqoyououowoyoyouococo
sogogoqokokomososokowowoioaoaogoeoeoeoioiocomomo
bprprpzpvpvpxpzpzpvpdpdptphphprplplpnptptplpxpxp
jpbpbphpfpfpfpjpjpdpnpnpcqsqsqaqwqwqyqaqaqwqeqeq
uqiqiqsqmqmqoququqmqyqyqkqcqcqiqgqgqgqkqkqeqoqoq
drtrtrbrxrxrzrbrbrxrfrfrvrjrjrtrnrnrprvrvrnrzrzr
lrdrdrjrhrhrhrlrlrfrprpresususcsysysascscsysgsgs
wsksksusososqswswsosasasmsesesksisisismsmsgsqsqs
ftvtvtdtztztbtdtdtzththtxtltltvtptptrtxtxtptbtbt
ntftftltjtjtjtntnthtrtrtguwuwueuauaucueueuauiuiu
yumumuwuququsuyuyuqucucuougugumukukukuououiususu
hvxvxvfvbvbvdvfvfvbvjvjvzvnvnvxvrvrvtvzvzvrvdvdv
pvhvhvnvlvlvlvpvpvjvtvtviwywywgwcwcwewgwgwcwkwkw
awowowywswswuwawawswewewqwiwiwowmwmwmwqwqwkwuwuw
jxzxzxhxdxdxfxhxhxdxlxlxbxpxpxzxtxtxvxbxbxtxfxfx
rxjxjxpxnxnxnxrxrxlxvxvxkyayayiyeyeygyiyiyeymymy
cyqyqyayuyuywycycyuygygysykykyqyoyoyoysysymywywy
lzbzbzjzfzfzhzjzjzfznznzdzrzrzbzvzvzxzdzdzvzhzhz
tzlzlzrzpzpzpztztznzxzxzmacacakagagaiakakagaoaoa
easasacawawayaeaeawaiaiauamamasaqaqaqauauaoayaya

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: macaca
Cipher: znpnpn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: macaca
Cipher: 231131113111

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: macaca
method variations:
rfhfhfwlnlnlbqsqsqgvxvxv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m a c a c a 
2 1 3 1 3 1 
3 1 1 1 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
213131311111
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: macaca
Cipher: bcccaa

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: macaca
method variations:
clalaf lalafc alafcl
lafcla afclal fclala

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: macaca

all 720 cipher variations:
macaca macaac maccaa maccaa macaca macaac maacca maacac maacca maacac maaacc
maaacc macaca macaac maccaa maccaa macaca macaac maaacc maaacc maacac maacca
maacca maacac mcaaca mcaaac mcacaa mcacaa mcaaca mcaaac mcaaca mcaaac mcacaa
mcacaa mcaaca mcaaac mccaaa mccaaa mccaaa mccaaa mccaaa mccaaa mcaaca mcaaac
mcacaa mcacaa mcaaca mcaaac macaca macaac maccaa maccaa macaca macaac maacca
maacac maacca maacac maaacc maaacc macaca macaac maccaa maccaa macaca macaac
maaacc maaacc maacac maacca maacca maacac mccaaa mccaaa mccaaa mccaaa mccaaa
mccaaa mcacaa mcacaa mcaaca mcaaac mcaaac mcaaca mcaaca mcaaac mcacaa mcacaa
mcaaca mcaaac mcaaac mcaaca mcaaac mcaaca mcacaa mcacaa macaca macaac maccaa
maccaa macaca macaac maacca maacac maacca maacac maaacc maaacc macaca macaac
maccaa maccaa macaca macaac maaacc maaacc maacac maacca maacca maacac amcaca
amcaac amccaa amccaa amcaca amcaac amacca amacac amacca amacac amaacc amaacc
amcaca amcaac amccaa amccaa amcaca amcaac amaacc amaacc amacac amacca amacca
amacac acmaca acmaac acmcaa acmcaa acmaca acmaac acamca acamac acacma acacam
acaacm acaamc accama accaam accmaa accmaa accama accaam acaacm acaamc acacam
acacma acamca acamac aacmca aacmac aaccma aaccam aacacm aacamc aamcca aamcac
aamcca aamcac aamacc aamacc aacmca aacmac aaccma aaccam aacacm aacamc aaamcc
aaamcc aaacmc aaaccm aaaccm aaacmc accama accaam accmaa accmaa accama accaam
acacma acacam acamca acamac acaamc acaacm acmaca acmaac acmcaa acmcaa acmaca
acmaac acaamc acaacm acamac acamca acacma acacam aacacm aacamc aaccam aaccma
aacmca aacmac aaaccm aaacmc aaaccm aaacmc aaamcc aaamcc aacacm aacamc aaccam
aaccma aacmca aacmac aamacc aamacc aamcac aamcca aamcca aamcac camaca camaac
camcaa camcaa camaca camaac caamca caamac caacma caacam caaacm caaamc cacama
cacaam cacmaa cacmaa cacama cacaam caaacm caaamc caacam caacma caamca caamac
cmaaca cmaaac cmacaa cmacaa cmaaca cmaaac cmaaca cmaaac cmacaa cmacaa cmaaca
cmaaac cmcaaa cmcaaa cmcaaa cmcaaa cmcaaa cmcaaa cmaaca cmaaac cmacaa cmacaa
cmaaca cmaaac camaca camaac camcaa camcaa camaca camaac caamca caamac caacma
caacam caaacm caaamc cacama cacaam cacmaa cacmaa cacama cacaam caaacm caaamc
caacam caacma caamca caamac ccmaaa ccmaaa ccmaaa ccmaaa ccmaaa ccmaaa ccamaa
ccamaa ccaama ccaaam ccaaam ccaama ccaama ccaaam ccamaa ccamaa ccaama ccaaam
ccaaam ccaama ccaaam ccaama ccamaa ccamaa camaca camaac camcaa camcaa camaca
camaac caamca caamac caacma caacam caaacm caaamc cacama cacaam cacmaa cacmaa
cacama cacaam caaacm caaamc caacam caacma caamca caamac aacmca aacmac aaccma
aaccam aacacm aacamc aamcca aamcac aamcca aamcac aamacc aamacc aacmca aacmac
aaccma aaccam aacacm aacamc aaamcc aaamcc aaacmc aaaccm aaaccm aaacmc acamca
acamac acacma acacam acaacm acaamc acmaca acmaac acmcaa acmcaa acmaca acmaac
accmaa accmaa accama accaam accaam accama acamca acamac acacma acacam acaacm
acaamc amcaca amcaac amccaa amccaa amcaca amcaac amacca amacac amacca amacac
amaacc amaacc amcaca amcaac amccaa amccaa amcaca amcaac amaacc amaacc amacac
amacca amacca amacac accmaa accmaa accama accaam accaam accama acmcaa acmcaa
acmaca acmaac acmaac acmaca acamca acamac acacma acacam acaacm acaamc acamac
acamca acaamc acaacm acacam acacma aacmca aacmac aaccma aaccam aacacm aacamc
aamcca aamcac aamcca aamcac aamacc aamacc aacmca aacmac aaccma aaccam aacacm
aacamc aaamcc aaamcc aaacmc aaaccm aaaccm aaacmc cacama cacaam cacmaa cacmaa
cacama cacaam caacma caacam caamca caamac caaamc caaacm camaca camaac camcaa
camcaa camaca camaac caaamc caaacm caamac caamca caacma caacam ccaama ccaaam
ccamaa ccamaa ccaama ccaaam ccaama ccaaam ccamaa ccamaa ccaama ccaaam ccmaaa
ccmaaa ccmaaa ccmaaa ccmaaa ccmaaa ccaama ccaaam ccamaa ccamaa ccaama ccaaam
cacama cacaam cacmaa cacmaa cacama cacaam caacma caacam caamca caamac caaamc
caaacm camaca camaac camcaa camcaa camaca camaac caaamc caaacm caamac caamca
caacma caacam cmcaaa cmcaaa cmcaaa cmcaaa cmcaaa cmcaaa cmacaa cmacaa cmaaca
cmaaac cmaaac cmaaca cmaaca cmaaac cmacaa cmacaa cmaaca cmaaac cmaaac cmaaca
cmaaac cmaaca cmacaa cmacaa cacama cacaam cacmaa cacmaa cacama cacaam caacma
caacam caamca caamac caaamc caaacm camaca camaac camcaa camcaa camaca camaac
caaamc caaacm caamac caamca caacma caacam aacacm aacamc aaccam aaccma aacmca
aacmac aaaccm aaacmc aaaccm aaacmc aaamcc aaamcc aacacm aacamc aaccam aaccma
aacmca aacmac aamacc aamacc aamcac aamcca aamcca aamcac acaacm acaamc acacam
acacma acamca acamac acaacm acaamc acacam acacma acamca acamac accaam accama
accaam accama accmaa accmaa acmaca acmaac acmcaa acmcaa acmaca acmaac aacacm
aacamc aaccam aaccma aacmca aacmac aaaccm aaacmc aaaccm aaacmc aaamcc aaamcc
aacacm aacamc aaccam aaccma aacmca aacmac aamacc aamacc aamcac aamcca aamcca
aamcac accaam accama accaam accama accmaa accmaa acacam acacma acaacm acaamc
acamac acamca acaacm acaamc acacam acacma acamca acamac acmaac acmaca acmaac
acmaca acmcaa acmcaa amcaca amcaac amccaa amccaa amcaca amcaac amacca amacac
amacca amacac amaacc amaacc amcaca amcaac amccaa amccaa amcaca amcaac amaacc
amaacc amacac amacca amacca amacac

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

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