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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: lowery
cipher variations:
mpxfsz nqygta orzhub psaivc qtbjwd
ruckxe svdlyf twemzg uxfnah vygobi
wzhpcj xaiqdk ybjrel zcksfm adltgn
bemuho cfnvip dgowjq ehpxkr fiqyls
gjrzmt hksanu iltbov jmucpw knvdqx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: lowery
Cipher: oldvib

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: lowery

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: lowery
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: lowery
Cipher: ybjrel

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: lowery
Cipher: 134325512445

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: lowery
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l o w e r y 
1 4 2 5 2 4 
3 3 5 1 4 5 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: lowery
Cipher: qwrney

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Method #3

Plaintext: lowery
method variations:
shzfte hzftes zftesh
fteshz teshzf eshzft

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: lowery

all 720 cipher variations:
lowery loweyr lowrey lowrye lowyre lowyer loewry loewyr loerwy loeryw loeyrw
loeywr lorewy loreyw lorwey lorwye lorywe loryew loyerw loyewr loyrew loyrwe
loywre loywer lwoery lwoeyr lworey lworye lwoyre lwoyer lweory lweoyr lweroy
lweryo lweyro lweyor lwreoy lwreyo lwroey lwroye lwryoe lwryeo lwyero lwyeor
lwyreo lwyroe lwyore lwyoer lewory lewoyr lewroy lewryo lewyro lewyor leowry
leowyr leorwy leoryw leoyrw leoywr lerowy leroyw lerwoy lerwyo lerywo leryow
leyorw leyowr leyrow leyrwo leywro leywor lrweoy lrweyo lrwoey lrwoye lrwyoe
lrwyeo lrewoy lrewyo lreowy lreoyw lreyow lreywo lroewy lroeyw lrowey lrowye
lroywe lroyew lryeow lryewo lryoew lryowe lrywoe lryweo lywero lyweor lywreo
lywroe lywore lywoer lyewro lyewor lyerwo lyerow lyeorw lyeowr lyrewo lyreow
lyrweo lyrwoe lyrowe lyroew lyoerw lyoewr lyorew lyorwe lyowre lyower olwery
olweyr olwrey olwrye olwyre olwyer olewry olewyr olerwy oleryw oleyrw oleywr
olrewy olreyw olrwey olrwye olrywe olryew olyerw olyewr olyrew olyrwe olywre
olywer owlery owleyr owlrey owlrye owlyre owlyer owelry owelyr owerly oweryl
oweyrl oweylr owrely owreyl owrley owrlye owryle owryel owyerl owyelr owyrel
owyrle owylre owyler oewlry oewlyr oewrly oewryl oewyrl oewylr oelwry oelwyr
oelrwy oelryw oelyrw oelywr oerlwy oerlyw oerwly oerwyl oerywl oerylw oeylrw
oeylwr oeyrlw oeyrwl oeywrl oeywlr orwely orweyl orwley orwlye orwyle orwyel
orewly orewyl orelwy orelyw oreylw oreywl orlewy orleyw orlwey orlwye orlywe
orlyew oryelw oryewl orylew orylwe orywle orywel oywerl oywelr oywrel oywrle
oywlre oywler oyewrl oyewlr oyerwl oyerlw oyelrw oyelwr oyrewl oyrelw oyrwel
oyrwle oyrlwe oyrlew oylerw oylewr oylrew oylrwe oylwre oylwer wolery woleyr
wolrey wolrye wolyre wolyer woelry woelyr woerly woeryl woeyrl woeylr worely
woreyl worley worlye woryle woryel woyerl woyelr woyrel woyrle woylre woyler
wloery wloeyr wlorey wlorye wloyre wloyer wleory wleoyr wleroy wleryo wleyro
wleyor wlreoy wlreyo wlroey wlroye wlryoe wlryeo wlyero wlyeor wlyreo wlyroe
wlyore wlyoer welory weloyr welroy welryo welyro welyor weolry weolyr weorly
weoryl weoyrl weoylr weroly weroyl werloy werlyo werylo weryol weyorl weyolr
weyrol weyrlo weylro weylor wrleoy wrleyo wrloey wrloye wrlyoe wrlyeo wreloy
wrelyo wreoly wreoyl wreyol wreylo wroely wroeyl wroley wrolye wroyle wroyel
wryeol wryelo wryoel wryole wryloe wryleo wylero wyleor wylreo wylroe wylore
wyloer wyelro wyelor wyerlo wyerol wyeorl wyeolr wyrelo wyreol wyrleo wyrloe
wyrole wyroel wyoerl wyoelr wyorel wyorle wyolre wyoler eowlry eowlyr eowrly
eowryl eowyrl eowylr eolwry eolwyr eolrwy eolryw eolyrw eolywr eorlwy eorlyw
eorwly eorwyl eorywl eorylw eoylrw eoylwr eoyrlw eoyrwl eoywrl eoywlr ewolry
ewolyr eworly eworyl ewoyrl ewoylr ewlory ewloyr ewlroy ewlryo ewlyro ewlyor
ewrloy ewrlyo ewroly ewroyl ewryol ewrylo ewylro ewylor ewyrlo ewyrol ewyorl
ewyolr elwory elwoyr elwroy elwryo elwyro elwyor elowry elowyr elorwy eloryw
eloyrw eloywr elrowy elroyw elrwoy elrwyo elrywo elryow elyorw elyowr elyrow
elyrwo elywro elywor erwloy erwlyo erwoly erwoyl erwyol erwylo erlwoy erlwyo
erlowy erloyw erlyow erlywo erolwy erolyw erowly erowyl eroywl eroylw erylow
erylwo eryolw eryowl erywol erywlo eywlro eywlor eywrlo eywrol eyworl eywolr
eylwro eylwor eylrwo eylrow eylorw eylowr eyrlwo eyrlow eyrwlo eyrwol eyrowl
eyrolw eyolrw eyolwr eyorlw eyorwl eyowrl eyowlr rowely roweyl rowley rowlye
rowyle rowyel roewly roewyl roelwy roelyw roeylw roeywl rolewy roleyw rolwey
rolwye rolywe rolyew royelw royewl roylew roylwe roywle roywel rwoely rwoeyl
rwoley rwolye rwoyle rwoyel rweoly rweoyl rweloy rwelyo rweylo rweyol rwleoy
rwleyo rwloey rwloye rwlyoe rwlyeo rwyelo rwyeol rwyleo rwyloe rwyole rwyoel
rewoly rewoyl rewloy rewlyo rewylo rewyol reowly reowyl reolwy reolyw reoylw
reoywl relowy reloyw relwoy relwyo relywo relyow reyolw reyowl reylow reylwo
reywlo reywol rlweoy rlweyo rlwoey rlwoye rlwyoe rlwyeo rlewoy rlewyo rleowy
rleoyw rleyow rleywo rloewy rloeyw rlowey rlowye rloywe rloyew rlyeow rlyewo
rlyoew rlyowe rlywoe rlyweo rywelo ryweol rywleo rywloe rywole rywoel ryewlo
ryewol ryelwo ryelow ryeolw ryeowl rylewo ryleow rylweo rylwoe rylowe ryloew
ryoelw ryoewl ryolew ryolwe ryowle ryowel yowerl yowelr yowrel yowrle yowlre
yowler yoewrl yoewlr yoerwl yoerlw yoelrw yoelwr yorewl yorelw yorwel yorwle
yorlwe yorlew yolerw yolewr yolrew yolrwe yolwre yolwer ywoerl ywoelr yworel
yworle ywolre ywoler yweorl yweolr ywerol ywerlo ywelro ywelor ywreol ywrelo
ywroel ywrole ywrloe ywrleo ywlero ywleor ywlreo ywlroe ywlore ywloer yeworl
yewolr yewrol yewrlo yewlro yewlor yeowrl yeowlr yeorwl yeorlw yeolrw yeolwr
yerowl yerolw yerwol yerwlo yerlwo yerlow yelorw yelowr yelrow yelrwo yelwro
yelwor yrweol yrwelo yrwoel yrwole yrwloe yrwleo yrewol yrewlo yreowl yreolw
yrelow yrelwo yroewl yroelw yrowel yrowle yrolwe yrolew yrleow yrlewo yrloew
yrlowe yrlwoe yrlweo ylwero ylweor ylwreo ylwroe ylwore ylwoer ylewro ylewor
ylerwo ylerow yleorw yleowr ylrewo ylreow ylrweo ylrwoe ylrowe ylroew yloerw
yloewr ylorew ylorwe ylowre ylower

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History of cryptography
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