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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: loulan
cipher variations:
mpvmbo nqwncp orxodq psyper qtzqfs
ruargt svbshu twctiv uxdujw vyevkx
wzfwly xagxmz ybhyna zcizob adjapc
bekbqd cflcre dgmdsf ehnetg fiofuh
gjpgvi hkqhwj ilrixk jmsjyl kntkzm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: loulan
Cipher: olfozm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: loulan
Cipher: ABABA ABBAB BAABB ABABA AAAAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: loulan
cipher variations:
mpvmboirjiboetxeboavlabowxzwbosznsbokdpkbogfdgbo
chrcboyjfyboultuboqnhqbonqwncpjskjcpfuyfcpbwmbcp
xyaxcptaotcpleqlcphgehcpdisdcpzkgzcpvmuvcproircp
orxodqktlkdqgvzgdqcxncdqyzbydqubpudqmfrmdqihfidq
ejtedqalhadqwnvwdqspjsdqpsyperlumlerhwaherdyoder
zaczervcqverngsnerjigjerfkuferbmiberxowxertqkter
qtzqfsmvnmfsixbifsezpefsabdafswdrwfsohtofskjhkfs
glvgfscnjcfsypxyfsurlufsruargtnwongtjycjgtfaqfgt
bcebgtxesxgtpiupgtlkilgthmwhgtdokdgtzqyzgtvsmvgt
svbshuoxpohukzdkhugbrghucdfchuyftyhuqjvqhumljmhu
inxihueplehuarzahuwtnwhutwctivpyqpivlaelivhcshiv
degdivzguzivrkwrivnmknivjoyjivfqmfivbsabivxuoxiv
uxdujwqzrqjwmbfmjwidtijwefhejwahvajwslxsjwonlojw
kpzkjwgrngjwctbcjwyvpyjwvyevkxrasrkxncgnkxjeujkx
fgifkxbiwbkxtmytkxpompkxlqalkxhsohkxducdkxzwqzkx
wzfwlysbtslyodholykfvklyghjglycjxclyunzulyqpnqly
mrbmlyitpilyevdelyaxralyxagxmztcutmzpeipmzlgwlmz
hikhmzdkydmzvoavmzrqormznscnmzjuqjmzfwefmzbysbmz
ybhynaudvunaqfjqnamhxmnaijlinaelzenawpbwnasrpsna
otdonakvrknagxfgnacztcnazcizobvewvobrgkrobniynob
jkmjobfmafobxqcxobtsqtobpuepoblwslobhyghobdaudob
adjapcwfxwpcshlspcojzopcklnkpcgnbgpcyrdypcutrupc
qvfqpcmxtmpcizhipcebvepcbekbqdxgyxqdtimtqdpkapqd
lmolqdhochqdzsezqdvusvqdrwgrqdnyunqdjaijqdfcwfqd
cflcreyhzyreujnureqlbqremnpmreipdireatfarewvtwre
sxhsreozvorekbjkregdxgredgmdsfziazsfvkovsfrmcrsf
noqnsfjqejsfbugbsfxwuxsftyitsfpawpsflcklsfheyhsf
ehnetgajbatgwlpwtgsndstgoprotgkrfktgcvhctgyxvytg
uzjutgqbxqtgmdlmtgifzitgfiofuhbkcbuhxmqxuhtoetuh
pqspuhlsgluhdwiduhzywzuhvakvuhrcyruhnemnuhjgajuh
gjpgvicldcviynryviupfuviqrtqvimthmviexjeviazxavi
wblwvisdzsviofnovikhbkvihkqhwjdmedwjzoszwjvqgvwj
rsurwjnuinwjfykfwjbaybwjxcmxwjteatwjpgopwjliclwj
ilrixkenfexkaptaxkwrhwxkstvsxkovjoxkgzlgxkcbzcxk
ydnyxkufbuxkqhpqxkmjdmxkjmsjylfogfylbqubylxsixyl
tuwtylpwkpylhamhyldcadylzeozylvgcvylriqrylnkenyl
kntkzmgphgzmcrvczmytjyzmuvxuzmqxlqzmibnizmedbezm
afpazmwhdwzmsjrszmolfozmloulanhqihandswdanzukzan
vwyvanrymranjcojanfecfanbgqbanxiexantkstanpmgpan

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: loulan
Cipher: ybhyna

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: loulan
Cipher: 134354131133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: loulan
method variations:
qtzqfsvyevlxadkaqcfipfvh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l o u l a n 
1 4 5 1 1 3 
3 3 4 3 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
145113334313
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: loulan
Cipher: qelnol

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: loulan
method variations:
sxdclc xdclcs dclcsx
clcsxd lcsxdc csxdcl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: loulan

all 720 cipher variations:
loulan loulna loualn louanl lounal lounla loluan loluna lolaun lolanu lolnau
lolnua loalun loalnu loauln loaunl loanul loanlu lonlau lonlua lonalu lonaul
lonual lonula luolan luolna luoaln luoanl luonal luonla luloan lulona lulaon
lulano lulnao lulnoa lualon lualno luaoln luaonl luanol luanlo lunlao lunloa
lunalo lunaol lunoal lunola lluoan lluona lluaon lluano llunao llunoa llouan
llouna lloaun lloanu llonau llonua llaoun llaonu llauon llauno llanuo llanou
llnoau llnoua llnaou llnauo llnuao llnuoa laulon laulno lauoln lauonl launol
launlo laluon laluno laloun lalonu lalnou lalnuo laolun laolnu laouln laounl
laonul laonlu lanlou lanluo lanolu lanoul lanuol lanulo lnulao lnuloa lnualo
lnuaol lnuoal lnuola lnluao lnluoa lnlauo lnlaou lnloau lnloua lnaluo lnalou
lnaulo lnauol lnaoul lnaolu lnolau lnolua lnoalu lnoaul lnoual lnoula olulan
olulna olualn oluanl olunal olunla olluan olluna ollaun ollanu ollnau ollnua
olalun olalnu olauln olaunl olanul olanlu olnlau olnlua olnalu olnaul olnual
olnula oullan oullna oulaln oulanl oulnal oulnla oullan oullna oulaln oulanl
oulnal oulnla oualln oualnl oualln oualnl ouanll ouanll ounlal ounlla ounall
ounall ounlal ounlla olulan olulna olualn oluanl olunal olunla olluan olluna
ollaun ollanu ollnau ollnua olalun olalnu olauln olaunl olanul olanlu olnlau
olnlua olnalu olnaul olnual olnula oaulln oaulnl oaulln oaulnl oaunll oaunll
oaluln oalunl oallun oallnu oalnlu oalnul oallun oallnu oaluln oalunl oalnul
oalnlu oanllu oanlul oanllu oanlul oanull oanull onulal onulla onuall onuall
onulal onulla onlual onlula onlaul onlalu onllau onllua onalul onallu onaull
onaull onalul onallu onllau onllua onlalu onlaul onlual onlula uollan uollna
uolaln uolanl uolnal uolnla uollan uollna uolaln uolanl uolnal uolnla uoalln
uoalnl uoalln uoalnl uoanll uoanll uonlal uonlla uonall uonall uonlal uonlla
ulolan ulolna uloaln uloanl ulonal ulonla ulloan ullona ullaon ullano ullnao
ullnoa ulalon ulalno ulaoln ulaonl ulanol ulanlo ulnlao ulnloa ulnalo ulnaol
ulnoal ulnola ulloan ullona ullaon ullano ullnao ullnoa ulolan ulolna uloaln
uloanl ulonal ulonla ulaoln ulaonl ulalon ulalno ulanlo ulanol ulnoal ulnola
ulnaol ulnalo ulnlao ulnloa uallon uallno ualoln ualonl ualnol ualnlo uallon
uallno ualoln ualonl ualnol ualnlo uaolln uaolnl uaolln uaolnl uaonll uaonll
uanlol uanllo uanoll uanoll uanlol uanllo unllao unlloa unlalo unlaol unloal
unlola unllao unlloa unlalo unlaol unloal unlola unallo unalol unallo unalol
unaoll unaoll unolal unolla unoall unoall unolal unolla loulan loulna loualn
louanl lounal lounla loluan loluna lolaun lolanu lolnau lolnua loalun loalnu
loauln loaunl loanul loanlu lonlau lonlua lonalu lonaul lonual lonula luolan
luolna luoaln luoanl luonal luonla luloan lulona lulaon lulano lulnao lulnoa
lualon lualno luaoln luaonl luanol luanlo lunlao lunloa lunalo lunaol lunoal
lunola lluoan lluona lluaon lluano llunao llunoa llouan llouna lloaun lloanu
llonau llonua llaoun llaonu llauon llauno llanuo llanou llnoau llnoua llnaou
llnauo llnuao llnuoa laulon laulno lauoln lauonl launol launlo laluon laluno
laloun lalonu lalnou lalnuo laolun laolnu laouln laounl laonul laonlu lanlou
lanluo lanolu lanoul lanuol lanulo lnulao lnuloa lnualo lnuaol lnuoal lnuola
lnluao lnluoa lnlauo lnlaou lnloau lnloua lnaluo lnalou lnaulo lnauol lnaoul
lnaolu lnolau lnolua lnoalu lnoaul lnoual lnoula aoulln aoulnl aoulln aoulnl
aounll aounll aoluln aolunl aollun aollnu aolnlu aolnul aollun aollnu aoluln
aolunl aolnul aolnlu aonllu aonlul aonllu aonlul aonull aonull auolln auolnl
auolln auolnl auonll auonll auloln aulonl aullon aullno aulnlo aulnol aullon
aullno auloln aulonl aulnol aulnlo aunllo aunlol aunllo aunlol aunoll aunoll
aluoln aluonl alulon alulno alunlo alunol alouln alounl alolun alolnu alonlu
alonul alloun allonu alluon alluno allnuo allnou alnolu alnoul alnlou alnluo
alnulo alnuol alulon alulno aluoln aluonl alunol alunlo alluon alluno alloun
allonu allnou allnuo alolun alolnu alouln alounl alonul alonlu alnlou alnluo
alnolu alnoul alnuol alnulo anullo anulol anullo anulol anuoll anuoll anlulo
anluol anlluo anllou anlolu anloul anlluo anllou anlulo anluol anloul anlolu
anollu anolul anollu anolul anoull anoull noulal noulla nouall nouall noulal
noulla nolual nolula nolaul nolalu nollau nollua noalul noallu noaull noaull
noalul noallu nollau nollua nolalu nolaul nolual nolula nuolal nuolla nuoall
nuoall nuolal nuolla nuloal nulola nulaol nulalo nullao nulloa nualol nuallo
nuaoll nuaoll nualol nuallo nullao nulloa nulalo nulaol nuloal nulola nluoal
nluola nluaol nlualo nlulao nluloa nloual nloula nloaul nloalu nlolau nlolua
nlaoul nlaolu nlauol nlaulo nlaluo nlalou nlloau nlloua nllaou nllauo nlluao
nlluoa naulol naullo nauoll nauoll naulol naullo naluol nalulo naloul nalolu
nallou nalluo naolul naollu naoull naoull naolul naollu nallou nalluo nalolu
naloul naluol nalulo nlulao nluloa nlualo nluaol nluoal nluola nlluao nlluoa
nllauo nllaou nlloau nlloua nlaluo nlalou nlaulo nlauol nlaoul nlaolu nlolau
nlolua nloalu nloaul nloual nloula

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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