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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: looter
cipher variations:
mppufs nqqvgt orrwhu pssxiv qttyjw
ruuzkx svvaly twwbmz uxxcna vyydob
wzzepc xaafqd ybbgre zcchsf additg
beejuh cffkvi dgglwj ehhmxk fiinyl
gjjozm hkkpan illqbo jmmrcp knnsdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: looter
Cipher: ollgvi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: looter
Cipher: ABABA ABBAB ABBAB BAABA AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: looter
cipher variations:
mppufsirrgnaettsviavvedqwxxqlyszzctgkddajwgffmre
chhyzmyjjkhuullwpcqnnixknqqvgtjsshobfuutwjbwwfer
xyyrmztaaduhleebkxhggnsfdiizanzkklivvmmxqdroojyl
orrwhukttipcgvvuxkcxxgfsyzzsnaubbevimffclyihhotg
ejjaboallmjwwnnyresppkzmpssxivluujqdhwwvyldyyhgt
zaatobvccfwjnggdmzjiipuhfkkbcpbmmnkxxoozsftqqlan
qttyjwmvvkreixxwzmezzihuabbupcwddgxkohhenakjjqvi
gllcdqcnnolyyppatgurrmboruuzkxnwwlsfjyyxanfaajiv
bccvqdxeehylpiifoblkkrwjhmmderdoopmzzqqbuhvssncp
svvalyoxxmtgkzzybogbbkjwcddwreyffizmqjjgpcmllsxk
innefseppqnaarrcviwttodqtwwbmzpyynuhlaazcphcclkx
deexsfzggjanrkkhqdnmmtyljoofgtfqqrobbssdwjxuuper
uxxcnaqzzovimbbadqiddmlyeffytgahhkbosllireonnuzm
kppghugrrspccttexkyvvqfsvyydobraapwjnccberjeenmz
fggzuhbiilcptmmjsfpoovanlqqhivhsstqdduufylzwwrgt
wzzepcsbbqxkoddcfskffonaghhavicjjmdqunnktgqppwbo
mrrijwittureevvgzmaxxshuxaafqdtccrylpeedgtlggpob
hiibwjdkknervooluhrqqxcpnssjkxjuuvsffwwhanbyytiv
ybbgreuddszmqffehumhhqpcijjcxkellofswppmvisrrydq
ottklykvvwtggxxiboczzujwzcchsfveetanrggfivniirqd
jkkdylfmmpgtxqqnwjtsszerpuulmzlwwxuhhyyjcpdaavkx
additgwffuboshhgjwojjsrekllezmgnnqhuyrroxkuttafs
qvvmnamxxyviizzkdqebbwlybeejuhxggvcptiihkxpkktsf
lmmfanhoorivzsspylvuubgtrwwnobnyyzwjjaalerfccxmz
cffkviyhhwdqujjilyqllutgmnngboippsjwattqzmwvvchu
sxxopcozzaxkkbbmfsgddynadgglwjziixervkkjmzrmmvuh
noohcpjqqtkxbuuranxwwdivtyypqdpaabyllccngtheezob
ehhmxkajjyfswllknasnnwvioppidqkrrulycvvsboyxxejw
uzzqreqbbczmmddohuiffapcfiinylbkkzgtxmmlobtooxwj
pqqjerlssvmzdwwtcpzyyfkxvaarsfrccdanneepivjggbqd
gjjozmcllahuynnmpcuppyxkqrrkfsmttwnaexxudqazzgly
wbbstgsddebooffqjwkhhcrehkkpandmmbivzoonqdvqqzyl
rsslgtnuuxobfyyverbaahmzxcctuhteefcppggrkxliidsf
illqboenncjwapporewrrazmsttmhuovvypcgzzwfscbbina
ydduviuffgdqqhhslymjjetgjmmrcpfoodkxbqqpsfxssban
tuunivpwwzqdhaaxgtdccjobzeevwjvggherriitmznkkfuh
knnsdqgppelycrrqtgyttcbouvvojwqxxareibbyhueddkpc
affwxkwhhifssjjunaollgvilooterhqqfmzdssruhzuudcp
vwwpkxryybsfjcczivfeelqdbggxylxiijgttkkvobpmmhwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: looter
Cipher: ybbgre

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: looter
Cipher: 134343445124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: looter
method variations:
qttykwvyydpbaddiugfiiozm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l o o t e r 
1 4 4 4 5 2 
3 3 3 4 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
144452333414
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: looter
Cipher: qtknsq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: looter
method variations:
sssyfd ssyfds syfdss
yfdsss fdsssy dsssyf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: looter

all 720 cipher variations:
looter lootre looetr looert looret loorte lotoer lotore loteor lotero lotreo
lotroe loetor loetro loeotr loeort loerot loerto lorteo lortoe loreto loreot
loroet lorote looter lootre looetr looert looret loorte lotoer lotore loteor
lotero lotreo lotroe loetor loetro loeotr loeort loerot loerto lorteo lortoe
loreto loreot loroet lorote ltooer ltoore ltoeor ltoero ltoreo ltoroe ltooer
ltoore ltoeor ltoero ltoreo ltoroe lteoor lteoro lteoor lteoro lteroo lteroo
ltroeo ltrooe ltreoo ltreoo ltroeo ltrooe leotor leotro leootr leoort leorot
leorto letoor letoro letoor letoro letroo letroo leotor leotro leootr leoort
leorot leorto lertoo lertoo leroto leroot leroot leroto lroteo lrotoe lroeto
lroeot lrooet lroote lrtoeo lrtooe lrteoo lrteoo lrtoeo lrtooe lretoo lretoo
lreoto lreoot lreoot lreoto lroteo lrotoe lroeto lroeot lrooet lroote oloter
olotre oloetr oloert oloret olorte oltoer oltore olteor oltero oltreo oltroe
oletor oletro oleotr oleort olerot olerto olrteo olrtoe olreto olreot olroet
olrote oolter ooltre ooletr oolert oolret oolrte ootler ootlre ootelr ooterl
ootrel ootrle ooetlr ooetrl ooeltr ooelrt ooerlt ooertl oortel oortle ooretl
oorelt oorlet oorlte otoler otolre otoelr otoerl otorel otorle otloer otlore
otleor otlero otlreo otlroe otelor otelro oteolr oteorl oterol oterlo otrleo
otrloe otrelo otreol otroel otrole oeotlr oeotrl oeoltr oeolrt oeorlt oeortl
oetolr oetorl oetlor oetlro oetrlo oetrol oeltor oeltro oelotr oelort oelrot
oelrto oertlo oertol oerlto oerlot oerolt oerotl orotel orotle oroetl oroelt
orolet orolte ortoel ortole orteol ortelo ortleo ortloe oretol oretlo oreotl
oreolt orelot orelto orlteo orltoe orleto orleot orloet orlote oolter ooltre
ooletr oolert oolret oolrte ootler ootlre ootelr ooterl ootrel ootrle ooetlr
ooetrl ooeltr ooelrt ooerlt ooertl oortel oortle ooretl oorelt oorlet oorlte
oloter olotre oloetr oloert oloret olorte oltoer oltore olteor oltero oltreo
oltroe oletor oletro oleotr oleort olerot olerto olrteo olrtoe olreto olreot
olroet olrote otloer otlore otleor otlero otlreo otlroe otoler otolre otoelr
otoerl otorel otorle oteolr oteorl otelor otelro oterlo oterol otroel otrole
otreol otrelo otrleo otrloe oeltor oeltro oelotr oelort oelrot oelrto oetlor
oetlro oetolr oetorl oetrol oetrlo oeotlr oeotrl oeoltr oeolrt oeorlt oeortl
oertol oertlo oerotl oerolt oerlot oerlto orlteo orltoe orleto orleot orloet
orlote ortleo ortloe ortelo orteol ortoel ortole oretlo oretol orelto orelot
oreolt oreotl orotel orotle oroetl oroelt orolet orolte tooler toolre tooelr
tooerl toorel toorle toloer tolore toleor tolero tolreo tolroe toelor toelro
toeolr toeorl toerol toerlo torleo torloe torelo toreol toroel torole tooler
toolre tooelr tooerl toorel toorle toloer tolore toleor tolero tolreo tolroe
toelor toelro toeolr toeorl toerol toerlo torleo torloe torelo toreol toroel
torole tlooer tloore tloeor tloero tloreo tloroe tlooer tloore tloeor tloero
tloreo tloroe tleoor tleoro tleoor tleoro tleroo tleroo tlroeo tlrooe tlreoo
tlreoo tlroeo tlrooe teolor teolro teoolr teoorl teorol teorlo teloor teloro
teloor teloro telroo telroo teolor teolro teoolr teoorl teorol teorlo terloo
terloo terolo terool terool terolo troleo troloe troelo troeol trooel troole
trloeo trlooe trleoo trleoo trloeo trlooe treloo treloo treolo treool treool
treolo troleo troloe troelo troeol trooel troole eootlr eootrl eooltr eoolrt
eoorlt eoortl eotolr eotorl eotlor eotlro eotrlo eotrol eoltor eoltro eolotr
eolort eolrot eolrto eortlo eortol eorlto eorlot eorolt eorotl eootlr eootrl
eooltr eoolrt eoorlt eoortl eotolr eotorl eotlor eotlro eotrlo eotrol eoltor
eoltro eolotr eolort eolrot eolrto eortlo eortol eorlto eorlot eorolt eorotl
etoolr etoorl etolor etolro etorlo etorol etoolr etoorl etolor etolro etorlo
etorol etloor etloro etloor etloro etlroo etlroo etrolo etrool etrloo etrloo
etrolo etrool elotor elotro elootr eloort elorot elorto eltoor eltoro eltoor
eltoro eltroo eltroo elotor elotro elootr eloort elorot elorto elrtoo elrtoo
elroto elroot elroot elroto erotlo erotol erolto erolot eroolt erootl ertolo
ertool ertloo ertloo ertolo ertool erltoo erltoo erloto erloot erloot erloto
erotlo erotol erolto erolot eroolt erootl rootel rootle rooetl rooelt roolet
roolte rotoel rotole roteol rotelo rotleo rotloe roetol roetlo roeotl roeolt
roelot roelto rolteo roltoe roleto roleot roloet rolote rootel rootle rooetl
rooelt roolet roolte rotoel rotole roteol rotelo rotleo rotloe roetol roetlo
roeotl roeolt roelot roelto rolteo roltoe roleto roleot roloet rolote rtooel
rtoole rtoeol rtoelo rtoleo rtoloe rtooel rtoole rtoeol rtoelo rtoleo rtoloe
rteool rteolo rteool rteolo rteloo rteloo rtloeo rtlooe rtleoo rtleoo rtloeo
rtlooe reotol reotlo reootl reoolt reolot reolto retool retolo retool retolo
retloo retloo reotol reotlo reootl reoolt reolot reolto reltoo reltoo reloto
reloot reloot reloto rloteo rlotoe rloeto rloeot rlooet rloote rltoeo rltooe
rlteoo rlteoo rltoeo rltooe rletoo rletoo rleoto rleoot rleoot rleoto rloteo
rlotoe rloeto rloeot rlooet rloote

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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