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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: lobber
cipher variations:
mpccfs nqddgt oreehu psffiv qtggjw
ruhhkx sviily twjjmz uxkkna vyllob
wzmmpc xannqd yboore zcppsf adqqtg
berruh cfssvi dgttwj ehuuxk fivvyl
gjwwzm hkxxan ilyybo jmzzcp knaadq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: lobber
Cipher: olyyvi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: lobber
Cipher: ABABA ABBAB AAAAB AAAAB AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: lobber
cipher variations:
mpccfsireenaetggviaviidqwxkklyszmmtgkdqqjwgfssre
chuuzmyjwwhuulyypcqnaaxknqddgtjsffobfuhhwjbwjjer
xyllmztannuhlerrkxhgttsfdivvanzkxxivvmzzqdrobbyl
oreehuktggpcgviixkcxkkfsyzmmnauboovimfsslyihuutg
ejwwboalyyjwwnaarespcczmpsffivluhhqdhwjjyldyllgt
zannobvcppwjngttmzjivvuhfkxxcpbmzzkxxobbsftqddan
qtggjwmviireixkkzmezmmhuaboopcwdqqxkohuunakjwwvi
glyydqcnaalyypcctgureeboruhhkxnwjjsfjyllanfanniv
bcppqdxerrylpivvoblkxxwjhmzzerdobbmzzqdduhvsffcp
sviilyoxkktgkzmmbogboojwcdqqreyfsszmqjwwpcmlyyxk
inaafsepccnaareeviwtggdqtwjjmzpylluhlanncphcppkx
derrsfzgttanrkxxqdnmzzyljobbgtfqddobbsffwjxuhher
uxkknaqzmmvimboodqidqqlyefsstgahuuboslyyreonaazm
kpcchugreepcctggxkyviifsvyllobrannwjncpperjerrmz
fgttuhbivvcptmzzsfpobbanlqddivhsffqdduhhylzwjjgt
wzmmpcsbooxkodqqfskfssnaghuuvicjwwdqunaatgqpccbo
mreejwitggreeviizmaxkkhuxannqdtcppylperrgtlgttob
hivvwjdkxxervobbuhrqddcpnsffkxjuhhsffwjjanbylliv
ybooreudqqzmqfsshumhuupcijwwxkelyyfswpccvisreedq
otgglykviitggxkkboczmmjwzcppsfverranrgttivnivvqd
jkxxylfmzzgtxqddwjtsfferpuhhmzlwjjuhhyllcpdannkx
adqqtgwfssboshuujwojwwreklyyzmgnaahuyreexkutggfs
qviinamxkkviizmmdqeboolyberruhxgttcptivvkxpkxxsf
lmzzanhobbivzsffylvuhhgtrwjjobnyllwjjannerfcppmz
cfssviyhuudqujwwlyqlyytgmnaaboipccjwatggzmwviihu
sxkkpcozmmxkkboofsgdqqnadgttwjzivvervkxxmzrmzzuh
nobbcpjqddkxbuhhanxwjjivtyllqdpannyllcppgtherrob
ehuuxkajwwfswlyynasnaaviopccdqkreelycviiboyxkkjw
uzmmreqboozmmdqqhuifsspcfivvylbkxxgtxmzzobtobbwj
pqdderlsffmzdwjjcpzyllkxvannsfrcppannerrivjgttqd
gjwwzmclyyhuynaapcupccxkqreefsmtggnaexkkdqazmmly
wbootgsdqqboofssjwkhuurehkxxandmzzivzobbqdvqddyl
rsffgtnuhhobfyllerbannmzxcppuhterrcppgttkxlivvsf
ilyyboenaajwapccrewreezmstgghuoviipcgzmmfscboona
ydqqviufssdqqhuulymjwwtgjmzzcpfobbkxbqddsfxsffan
tuhhivpwjjqdhanngtdcppobzerrwjvgtterrivvmznkxxuh
knaadqgpcclycreetgytggbouviijwqxkkreiboohuedqqpc
afssxkwhuufssjwwnaolyyvilobberhqddmzdsffuhzuhhcp
vwjjkxryllsfjcppivferrqdbgttylxivvgttkxxobpmzzwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: lobber
Cipher: yboore

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: lobber
Cipher: 134321215124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: lobber
method variations:
qtggkwvymmpbadrrugfiwwzm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l o b b e r 
1 4 2 2 5 2 
3 3 1 1 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
142252331114
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: lobber
Cipher: qgknaq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: lobber
method variations:
shfvfd hfvfds fvfdsh
vfdshf fdshfv dshfvf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: lobber

all 720 cipher variations:
lobber lobbre lobebr loberb lobreb lobrbe lobber lobbre lobebr loberb lobreb
lobrbe loebbr loebrb loebbr loebrb loerbb loerbb lorbeb lorbbe lorebb lorebb
lorbeb lorbbe lbober lbobre lboebr lboerb lboreb lborbe lbboer lbbore lbbeor
lbbero lbbreo lbbroe lbebor lbebro lbeobr lbeorb lberob lberbo lbrbeo lbrboe
lbrebo lbreob lbroeb lbrobe lbboer lbbore lbbeor lbbero lbbreo lbbroe lbober
lbobre lboebr lboerb lboreb lborbe lbeobr lbeorb lbebor lbebro lberbo lberob
lbroeb lbrobe lbreob lbrebo lbrbeo lbrboe lebbor lebbro lebobr leborb lebrob
lebrbo lebbor lebbro lebobr leborb lebrob lebrbo leobbr leobrb leobbr leobrb
leorbb leorbb lerbob lerbbo lerobb lerobb lerbob lerbbo lrbbeo lrbboe lrbebo
lrbeob lrboeb lrbobe lrbbeo lrbboe lrbebo lrbeob lrboeb lrbobe lrebbo lrebob
lrebbo lrebob lreobb lreobb lrobeb lrobbe lroebb lroebb lrobeb lrobbe olbber
olbbre olbebr olberb olbreb olbrbe olbber olbbre olbebr olberb olbreb olbrbe
olebbr olebrb olebbr olebrb olerbb olerbb olrbeb olrbbe olrebb olrebb olrbeb
olrbbe oblber oblbre oblebr oblerb oblreb oblrbe obbler obblre obbelr obberl
obbrel obbrle obeblr obebrl obelbr obelrb oberlb oberbl obrbel obrble obrebl
obrelb obrleb obrlbe obbler obblre obbelr obberl obbrel obbrle oblber oblbre
oblebr oblerb oblreb oblrbe obelbr obelrb obeblr obebrl oberbl oberlb obrleb
obrlbe obrelb obrebl obrbel obrble oebblr oebbrl oeblbr oeblrb oebrlb oebrbl
oebblr oebbrl oeblbr oeblrb oebrlb oebrbl oelbbr oelbrb oelbbr oelbrb oelrbb
oelrbb oerblb oerbbl oerlbb oerlbb oerblb oerbbl orbbel orbble orbebl orbelb
orbleb orblbe orbbel orbble orbebl orbelb orbleb orblbe orebbl oreblb orebbl
oreblb orelbb orelbb orlbeb orlbbe orlebb orlebb orlbeb orlbbe bolber bolbre
bolebr bolerb bolreb bolrbe bobler boblre bobelr boberl bobrel bobrle boeblr
boebrl boelbr boelrb boerlb boerbl borbel borble borebl borelb borleb borlbe
blober blobre bloebr bloerb bloreb blorbe blboer blbore blbeor blbero blbreo
blbroe blebor blebro bleobr bleorb blerob blerbo blrbeo blrboe blrebo blreob
blroeb blrobe bbloer bblore bbleor bblero bblreo bblroe bboler bbolre bboelr
bboerl bborel bborle bbeolr bbeorl bbelor bbelro bberlo bberol bbroel bbrole
bbreol bbrelo bbrleo bbrloe belbor belbro belobr belorb belrob belrbo beblor
beblro bebolr beborl bebrol bebrlo beoblr beobrl beolbr beolrb beorlb beorbl
berbol berblo berobl berolb berlob berlbo brlbeo brlboe brlebo brleob brloeb
brlobe brbleo brbloe brbelo brbeol brboel brbole breblo brebol brelbo brelob
breolb breobl brobel broble broebl broelb broleb brolbe bobler boblre bobelr
boberl bobrel bobrle bolber bolbre bolebr bolerb bolreb bolrbe boelbr boelrb
boeblr boebrl boerbl boerlb borleb borlbe borelb borebl borbel borble bboler
bbolre bboelr bboerl bborel bborle bbloer bblore bbleor bblero bblreo bblroe
bbelor bbelro bbeolr bbeorl bberol bberlo bbrleo bbrloe bbrelo bbreol bbroel
bbrole blboer blbore blbeor blbero blbreo blbroe blober blobre bloebr bloerb
bloreb blorbe bleobr bleorb blebor blebro blerbo blerob blroeb blrobe blreob
blrebo blrbeo blrboe beblor beblro bebolr beborl bebrol bebrlo belbor belbro
belobr belorb belrob belrbo beolbr beolrb beoblr beobrl beorbl beorlb berlob
berlbo berolb berobl berbol berblo brbleo brbloe brbelo brbeol brboel brbole
brlbeo brlboe brlebo brleob brloeb brlobe brelbo brelob breblo brebol breobl
breolb broleb brolbe broelb broebl brobel broble eobblr eobbrl eoblbr eoblrb
eobrlb eobrbl eobblr eobbrl eoblbr eoblrb eobrlb eobrbl eolbbr eolbrb eolbbr
eolbrb eolrbb eolrbb eorblb eorbbl eorlbb eorlbb eorblb eorbbl eboblr ebobrl
ebolbr ebolrb eborlb eborbl ebbolr ebborl ebblor ebblro ebbrlo ebbrol eblbor
eblbro eblobr eblorb eblrob eblrbo ebrblo ebrbol ebrlbo ebrlob ebrolb ebrobl
ebbolr ebborl ebblor ebblro ebbrlo ebbrol eboblr ebobrl ebolbr ebolrb eborlb
eborbl eblobr eblorb eblbor eblbro eblrbo eblrob ebrolb ebrobl ebrlob ebrlbo
ebrblo ebrbol elbbor elbbro elbobr elborb elbrob elbrbo elbbor elbbro elbobr
elborb elbrob elbrbo elobbr elobrb elobbr elobrb elorbb elorbb elrbob elrbbo
elrobb elrobb elrbob elrbbo erbblo erbbol erblbo erblob erbolb erbobl erbblo
erbbol erblbo erblob erbolb erbobl erlbbo erlbob erlbbo erlbob erlobb erlobb
eroblb erobbl erolbb erolbb eroblb erobbl robbel robble robebl robelb robleb
roblbe robbel robble robebl robelb robleb roblbe roebbl roeblb roebbl roeblb
roelbb roelbb rolbeb rolbbe rolebb rolebb rolbeb rolbbe rbobel rboble rboebl
rboelb rboleb rbolbe rbboel rbbole rbbeol rbbelo rbbleo rbbloe rbebol rbeblo
rbeobl rbeolb rbelob rbelbo rblbeo rblboe rblebo rbleob rbloeb rblobe rbboel
rbbole rbbeol rbbelo rbbleo rbbloe rbobel rboble rboebl rboelb rboleb rbolbe
rbeobl rbeolb rbebol rbeblo rbelbo rbelob rbloeb rblobe rbleob rblebo rblbeo
rblboe rebbol rebblo rebobl rebolb reblob reblbo rebbol rebblo rebobl rebolb
reblob reblbo reobbl reoblb reobbl reoblb reolbb reolbb relbob relbbo relobb
relobb relbob relbbo rlbbeo rlbboe rlbebo rlbeob rlboeb rlbobe rlbbeo rlbboe
rlbebo rlbeob rlboeb rlbobe rlebbo rlebob rlebbo rlebob rleobb rleobb rlobeb
rlobbe rloebb rloebb rlobeb rlobbe

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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