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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: llueva
cipher variations:
mmvfwb nnwgxc ooxhyd ppyize qqzjaf
rrakbg ssblch ttcmdi uudnej vveofk
wwfpgl xxgqhm yyhrin zzisjo aajtkp
bbkulq cclvmr ddmwns eenxot ffoypu
ggpzqv hhqarw iirbsx jjscty kktduz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: llueva
Cipher: oofvez

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: llueva
Cipher: ABABA ABABA BAABB AABAA BBBAB AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: llueva
cipher variations:
mmvfwbiijnmbeexvcbaaldsbwwzlibssntybkkpjebggdrub
ccrzkbyyfhabuutpqbqqhxgbnnwgxcjjkoncffywdcbbmetc
xxamjcttouzcllqkfchhesvcddsalczzgibcvvuqrcrriyhc
ooxhydkklpodggzxedccnfudyybnkduupvadmmrlgdiiftwd
eetbmdaahjcdwwvrsdssjzidppyizellmqpehhayfeddogve
zzcolevvqwbennsmhejjguxeffucnebbikdexxwstettkaje
qqzjafmmnrqfiibzgfeephwfaadpmfwwrxcfootnifkkhvyf
ggvdofccjlefyyxtufuulbkfrrakbgnnosrgjjcahgffqixg
bbeqngxxsydgppuojglliwzghhwepgddkmfgzzyuvgvvmclg
ssblchooptshkkdbihggrjyhccfrohyytzehqqvpkhmmjxah
iixfqheelnghaazvwhwwndmhttcmdippqutillecjihhskzi
ddgspizzuafirrwqlinnkybijjygriffmohibbawxixxoeni
uudnejqqrvujmmfdkjiitlajeehtqjaavbgjssxrmjoolzcj
kkzhsjggnpijccbxyjyypfojvveofkrrswvknngelkjjumbk
ffiurkbbwchkttysnkppmadkllaitkhhoqjkddcyzkzzqgpk
wwfpglsstxwloohfmlkkvnclggjvslccxdiluuztolqqnbel
mmbjuliiprkleedzalaarhqlxxgqhmttuyxmppignmllwodm
hhkwtmddyejmvvaupmrrocfmnnckvmjjqslmffeabmbbsirm
yyhrinuuvzynqqjhonmmxpeniilxuneezfknwwbvqnsspdgn
oodlwnkkrtmnggfbcncctjsnzzisjovvwazorrkiponnyqfo
jjmyvoffagloxxcwrottqehoppemxollsunohhgcdoddukto
aajtkpwwxbapssljqpoozrgpkknzwpggbhmpyydxspuurfip
qqfnypmmtvopiihdepeevlupbbkulqxxycbqttmkrqppashq
lloaxqhhcinqzzeytqvvsgjqrrgozqnnuwpqjjiefqffwmvq
cclvmryyzdcruunlsrqqbtirmmpbyriidjoraafzurwwthkr
sshparoovxqrkkjfgrggxnwrddmwnszzaedsvvomtsrrcujs
nnqczsjjekpsbbgavsxxuilsttiqbsppwyrsllkghshhyoxs
eenxotaabfetwwpnutssdvktoordatkkflqtcchbwtyyvjmt
uujrctqqxzstmmlhitiizpytffoypubbcgfuxxqovuttewlu
ppsebullgmruddicxuzzwknuvvksdurryatunnmijujjaqzu
ggpzqvccdhgvyyrpwvuufxmvqqtfcvmmhnsveejdyvaaxlov
wwltevsszbuvoonjkvkkbravhhqarwddeihwzzsqxwvvgynw
rrugdwnniotwffkezwbbympwxxmufwttacvwppoklwllcsbw
iirbsxeefjixaatryxwwhzoxssvhexoojpuxgglfaxccznqx
yynvgxuubdwxqqplmxmmdtcxjjsctyffgkjybbuszyxxiapy
ttwifyppkqvyhhmgbyddaoryzzowhyvvcexyrrqmnynneudy
kktduzgghlkzccvtazyyjbqzuuxjgzqqlrwziinhczeebpsz
aapxizwwdfyzssrnozoofvezlluevahhimladdwubazzkcra
vvykharrmsxajjoidaffcqtabbqyjaxxegzattsopappgwfa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: llueva
Cipher: yyhrin

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: llueva
Cipher: 131354511511

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: llueva
method variations:
qqzkafvvepflaakulqffpzqv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l l u e v a 
1 1 5 5 1 1 
3 3 4 1 5 1 
They are then read out in rows:
115511334151
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: llueva
Cipher: azande

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: llueva
method variations:
cxyaea xyaeac yaeacx
aeacxy eacxya acxyae

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: llueva

all 720 cipher variations:
llueva llueav lluvea lluvae lluave lluaev lleuva lleuav llevua llevau lleavu
lleauv llveua llveau llvuea llvuae llvaue llvaeu llaevu llaeuv llaveu llavue
llauve llauev luleva luleav lulvea lulvae lulave lulaev luelva luelav luevla
lueval lueavl luealv luvela luveal luvlea luvlae luvale luvael luaevl luaelv
luavel luavle lualve lualev leulva leulav leuvla leuval leuavl leualv leluva
leluav lelvua lelvau lelavu lelauv levlua levlau levula levual levaul levalu
lealvu lealuv leavlu leavul leauvl leaulv lvuela lvueal lvulea lvulae lvuale
lvuael lveula lveual lvelua lvelau lvealu lveaul lvleua lvleau lvluea lvluae
lvlaue lvlaeu lvaelu lvaeul lvaleu lvalue lvaule lvauel lauevl lauelv lauvel
lauvle laulve laulev laeuvl laeulv laevul laevlu laelvu laeluv laveul lavelu
lavuel lavule lavlue lavleu lalevu laleuv lalveu lalvue laluve laluev llueva
llueav lluvea lluvae lluave lluaev lleuva lleuav llevua llevau lleavu lleauv
llveua llveau llvuea llvuae llvaue llvaeu llaevu llaeuv llaveu llavue llauve
llauev luleva luleav lulvea lulvae lulave lulaev luelva luelav luevla lueval
lueavl luealv luvela luveal luvlea luvlae luvale luvael luaevl luaelv luavel
luavle lualve lualev leulva leulav leuvla leuval leuavl leualv leluva leluav
lelvua lelvau lelavu lelauv levlua levlau levula levual levaul levalu lealvu
lealuv leavlu leavul leauvl leaulv lvuela lvueal lvulea lvulae lvuale lvuael
lveula lveual lvelua lvelau lvealu lveaul lvleua lvleau lvluea lvluae lvlaue
lvlaeu lvaelu lvaeul lvaleu lvalue lvaule lvauel lauevl lauelv lauvel lauvle
laulve laulev laeuvl laeulv laevul laevlu laelvu laeluv laveul lavelu lavuel
lavule lavlue lavleu lalevu laleuv lalveu lalvue laluve laluev ulleva ulleav
ullvea ullvae ullave ullaev ulelva ulelav ulevla uleval uleavl ulealv ulvela
ulveal ulvlea ulvlae ulvale ulvael ulaevl ulaelv ulavel ulavle ulalve ulalev
ulleva ulleav ullvea ullvae ullave ullaev ulelva ulelav ulevla uleval uleavl
ulealv ulvela ulveal ulvlea ulvlae ulvale ulvael ulaevl ulaelv ulavel ulavle
ulalve ulalev uellva uellav uelvla uelval uelavl uelalv uellva uellav uelvla
uelval uelavl uelalv uevlla uevlal uevlla uevlal uevall uevall uealvl ueallv
ueavll ueavll uealvl ueallv uvlela uvleal uvllea uvllae uvlale uvlael uvella
uvelal uvella uvelal uveall uveall uvlela uvleal uvllea uvllae uvlale uvlael
uvaell uvaell uvalel uvalle uvalle uvalel ualevl ualelv ualvel ualvle uallve
uallev uaelvl uaellv uaevll uaevll uaelvl uaellv uavell uavell uavlel uavlle
uavlle uavlel ualevl ualelv ualvel ualvle uallve uallev elulva elulav eluvla
eluval eluavl elualv elluva elluav ellvua ellvau ellavu ellauv elvlua elvlau
elvula elvual elvaul elvalu elalvu elaluv elavlu elavul elauvl elaulv eullva
eullav eulvla eulval eulavl eulalv eullva eullav eulvla eulval eulavl eulalv
euvlla euvlal euvlla euvlal euvall euvall eualvl euallv euavll euavll eualvl
euallv elulva elulav eluvla eluval eluavl elualv elluva elluav ellvua ellvau
ellavu ellauv elvlua elvlau elvula elvual elvaul elvalu elalvu elaluv elavlu
elavul elauvl elaulv evulla evulal evulla evulal evuall evuall evlula evlual
evllua evllau evlalu evlaul evllua evllau evlula evlual evlaul evlalu evallu
evalul evallu evalul evaull evaull eaulvl eaullv eauvll eauvll eaulvl eaullv
ealuvl ealulv ealvul ealvlu eallvu ealluv eavlul eavllu eavull eavull eavlul
eavllu eallvu ealluv ealvlu ealvul ealuvl ealulv vluela vlueal vlulea vlulae
vluale vluael vleula vleual vlelua vlelau vlealu vleaul vlleua vlleau vlluea
vlluae vllaue vllaeu vlaelu vlaeul vlaleu vlalue vlaule vlauel vulela vuleal
vullea vullae vulale vulael vuella vuelal vuella vuelal vueall vueall vulela
vuleal vullea vullae vulale vulael vuaell vuaell vualel vualle vualle vualel
veulla veulal veulla veulal veuall veuall velula velual vellua vellau velalu
velaul vellua vellau velula velual velaul velalu veallu vealul veallu vealul
veaull veaull vluela vlueal vlulea vlulae vluale vluael vleula vleual vlelua
vlelau vlealu vleaul vlleua vlleau vlluea vlluae vllaue vllaeu vlaelu vlaeul
vlaleu vlalue vlaule vlauel vauell vauell vaulel vaulle vaulle vaulel vaeull
vaeull vaelul vaellu vaellu vaelul valeul valelu valuel valule vallue valleu
valelu valeul valleu vallue valule valuel aluevl aluelv aluvel aluvle alulve
alulev aleuvl aleulv alevul alevlu alelvu aleluv alveul alvelu alvuel alvule
alvlue alvleu allevu alleuv allveu allvue alluve alluev aulevl aulelv aulvel
aulvle aullve aullev auelvl auellv auevll auevll auelvl auellv auvell auvell
auvlel auvlle auvlle auvlel aulevl aulelv aulvel aulvle aullve aullev aeulvl
aeullv aeuvll aeuvll aeulvl aeullv aeluvl aelulv aelvul aelvlu aellvu aelluv
aevlul aevllu aevull aevull aevlul aevllu aellvu aelluv aelvlu aelvul aeluvl
aelulv avuell avuell avulel avulle avulle avulel aveull aveull avelul avellu
avellu avelul avleul avlelu avluel avlule avllue avlleu avlelu avleul avlleu
avllue avlule avluel aluevl aluelv aluvel aluvle alulve alulev aleuvl aleulv
alevul alevlu alelvu aleluv alveul alvelu alvuel alvule alvlue alvleu allevu
alleuv allveu allvue alluve alluev

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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