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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: litvak
cipher variations:
mjuwbl nkvxcm olwydn pmxzeo qnyafp
rozbgq spachr tqbdis urcejt vsdfku
wteglv xufhmw yvginx zwhjoy axikpz
byjlqa czkmrb dalnsc ebmotd fcnpue
gdoqvf heprwg ifqsxh jgrtyi khsuzj

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: litvak
Cipher: orgezp

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: litvak
Cipher: ABABA ABAAA BAABA BBBAB AAAAA ABAAB

Read more ...

 

Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: litvak
cipher variations:
mjuwblizgmbfepscbzafesbtwvqibnslcybhkraebvghmubp
cxykbjynkabdudwqbxqtigbrnkvxcmjahncgfqtdcabgftcu
xwrjcotmdzcilsbfcwhinvcqdyzlckzolbcevexrcyrujhcs
olwydnkbiodhgruedbchgudvyxskdpuneadjmtcgdxijowdr
ezamdlapmcdfwfysdzsvkidtpmxzeolcjpeihsvfecdihvew
zytleqvofbeknudheyjkpxesfabnembqndegxgzteatwljeu
qnyafpmdkqfjitwgfdejiwfxazumfrwpgcfloveifzklqyft
gbcofncroefhyhaufbuxmkfvrozbgqnelrgkjuxhgefkjxgy
bavngsxqhdgmpwfjgalmrzguhcdpgodspfgizibvgcvynlgw
spachrofmshlkvyihfglkyhzcbwohtyriehnqxgkhbmnsahv
ideqhpetqghjajcwhdwzomhxtqbdispgntimlwzjighmlzia
dcxpiuzsjfioryhlicnotbiwjefriqfurhikbkdxiexapniy
urcejtqhoujnmxakjhinmajbedyqjvatkgjpszimjdopucjx
kfgsjrgvsijlcleyjfybqojzvsdfkuripvkonyblkijonbkc
fezrkwbulhkqtajnkepqvdkylghtkshwtjkmdmfzkgzcrpka
wteglvsjqwlpozcmljkpocldgfaslxcvmilrubkolfqrwelz
mhiultixuklnengalhadsqlbxufhmwtkrxmqpadnmklqpdme
hgbtmydwnjmsvclpmgrsxfmanijvmujyvlmofohbmibetrmc
yvginxulsynrqbeonlmrqenfihcunzexokntwdmqnhstygnb
ojkwnvkzwmnpgpicnjcfusndzwhjoyvmtzosrcfpomnsrfog
jidvoafyplouxenroituzhocpklxowlaxnoqhqjdokdgvtoe
axikpzwnuaptsdgqpnotsgphkjewpbgzqmpvyfospjuvaipd
qlmypxmbyoprirkeplehwupfbyjlqaxovbqutehrqoputhqi
lkfxqcharnqwzgptqkvwbjqermnzqynczpqsjslfqmfixvqg
czkmrbypwcrvufisrpqvuirjmlgyrdibsorxahqurlwxckrf
snoarzodaqrtktmgrngjywrhdalnsczqxdswvgjtsqrwvjsk
nmhzsejctpsybirvsmxydlsgtopbsapebrsulunhsohkzxsi
ebmotdaryetxwhkutrsxwktloniatfkduqtzcjswtnyzemth
upqctbqfcstvmvoitpilaytjfcnpuebszfuyxilvustyxlum
pojbuglevruadktxuozafnuivqrducrgdtuwnwpjuqjmbzuk
gdoqvfctagvzyjmwvtuzymvnqpkcvhmfwsvbeluyvpabgovj
wrsevdsheuvxoxqkvrkncavlheprwgdubhwazknxwuvaznwo
rqldwingxtwcfmvzwqbchpwkxstfwetifvwypyrlwslodbwm
ifqsxhevcixbaloyxvwbaoxpsrmexjohyuxdgnwaxrcdiqxl
ytugxfujgwxzqzsmxtmpecxnjgrtyifwdjycbmpzywxcbpyq
tsnfykpizvyehoxbysdejrymzuvhygvkhxyaratnyunqfdyo
khsuzjgxekzdcnqazxydcqzrutogzlqjawzfipycztefkszn
avwizhwliyzbsbuozvorgezplitvakhyflaedorbayzedras
vuphamrkbxagjqzdaufgltaobwxjaixmjzactcvpawpshfaq

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: litvak
Cipher: yvginx

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: litvak
Cipher: 134244151152

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: litvak
method variations:
qoyafpvtdfluayilqzfdoqve

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l i t v a k 
1 4 4 1 1 5 
3 2 4 5 1 2 
They are then read out in rows:
144115324512
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: litvak
Cipher: qdvhyf

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: litvak
method variations:
srdevb rdevbs devbsr
evbsrd vbsrde bsrdev

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: litvak

all 720 cipher variations:
litvak litvka litavk litakv litkav litkva livtak livtka livatk livakt livkat
livkta liavtk liavkt liatvk liatkv liaktv liakvt likvat likvta likavt likatv
liktav liktva ltivak ltivka ltiavk ltiakv ltikav ltikva ltviak ltvika ltvaik
ltvaki ltvkai ltvkia ltavik ltavki ltaivk ltaikv ltakiv ltakvi ltkvai ltkvia
ltkavi ltkaiv ltkiav ltkiva lvtiak lvtika lvtaik lvtaki lvtkai lvtkia lvitak
lvitka lviatk lviakt lvikat lvikta lvaitk lvaikt lvatik lvatki lvakti lvakit
lvkiat lvkita lvkait lvkati lvktai lvktia latvik latvki lativk latikv latkiv
latkvi lavtik lavtki lavitk lavikt lavkit lavkti laivtk laivkt laitvk laitkv
laiktv laikvt lakvit lakvti lakivt lakitv laktiv laktvi lktvai lktvia lktavi
lktaiv lktiav lktiva lkvtai lkvtia lkvati lkvait lkviat lkvita lkavti lkavit
lkatvi lkativ lkaitv lkaivt lkivat lkivta lkiavt lkiatv lkitav lkitva iltvak
iltvka iltavk iltakv iltkav iltkva ilvtak ilvtka ilvatk ilvakt ilvkat ilvkta
ilavtk ilavkt ilatvk ilatkv ilaktv ilakvt ilkvat ilkvta ilkavt ilkatv ilktav
ilktva itlvak itlvka itlavk itlakv itlkav itlkva itvlak itvlka itvalk itvakl
itvkal itvkla itavlk itavkl italvk italkv itaklv itakvl itkval itkvla itkavl
itkalv itklav itklva ivtlak ivtlka ivtalk ivtakl ivtkal ivtkla ivltak ivltka
ivlatk ivlakt ivlkat ivlkta ivaltk ivalkt ivatlk ivatkl ivaktl ivaklt ivklat
ivklta ivkalt ivkatl ivktal ivktla iatvlk iatvkl iatlvk iatlkv iatklv iatkvl
iavtlk iavtkl iavltk iavlkt iavklt iavktl ialvtk ialvkt ialtvk ialtkv ialktv
ialkvt iakvlt iakvtl iaklvt iakltv iaktlv iaktvl iktval iktvla iktavl iktalv
iktlav iktlva ikvtal ikvtla ikvatl ikvalt ikvlat ikvlta ikavtl ikavlt ikatvl
ikatlv ikaltv ikalvt iklvat iklvta iklavt iklatv ikltav ikltva tilvak tilvka
tilavk tilakv tilkav tilkva tivlak tivlka tivalk tivakl tivkal tivkla tiavlk
tiavkl tialvk tialkv tiaklv tiakvl tikval tikvla tikavl tikalv tiklav tiklva
tlivak tlivka tliavk tliakv tlikav tlikva tlviak tlvika tlvaik tlvaki tlvkai
tlvkia tlavik tlavki tlaivk tlaikv tlakiv tlakvi tlkvai tlkvia tlkavi tlkaiv
tlkiav tlkiva tvliak tvlika tvlaik tvlaki tvlkai tvlkia tvilak tvilka tvialk
tviakl tvikal tvikla tvailk tvaikl tvalik tvalki tvakli tvakil tvkial tvkila
tvkail tvkali tvklai tvklia talvik talvki talivk talikv talkiv talkvi tavlik
tavlki tavilk tavikl tavkil tavkli taivlk taivkl tailvk tailkv taiklv taikvl
takvil takvli takivl takilv takliv taklvi tklvai tklvia tklavi tklaiv tkliav
tkliva tkvlai tkvlia tkvali tkvail tkvial tkvila tkavli tkavil tkalvi tkaliv
tkailv tkaivl tkival tkivla tkiavl tkialv tkilav tkilva vitlak vitlka vitalk
vitakl vitkal vitkla viltak viltka vilatk vilakt vilkat vilkta vialtk vialkt
viatlk viatkl viaktl viaklt viklat viklta vikalt vikatl viktal viktla vtilak
vtilka vtialk vtiakl vtikal vtikla vtliak vtlika vtlaik vtlaki vtlkai vtlkia
vtalik vtalki vtailk vtaikl vtakil vtakli vtklai vtklia vtkali vtkail vtkial
vtkila vltiak vltika vltaik vltaki vltkai vltkia vlitak vlitka vliatk vliakt
vlikat vlikta vlaitk vlaikt vlatik vlatki vlakti vlakit vlkiat vlkita vlkait
vlkati vlktai vlktia vatlik vatlki vatilk vatikl vatkil vatkli valtik valtki
valitk valikt valkit valkti vailtk vailkt vaitlk vaitkl vaiktl vaiklt vaklit
vaklti vakilt vakitl vaktil vaktli vktlai vktlia vktali vktail vktial vktila
vkltai vkltia vklati vklait vkliat vklita vkalti vkalit vkatli vkatil vkaitl
vkailt vkilat vkilta vkialt vkiatl vkital vkitla aitvlk aitvkl aitlvk aitlkv
aitklv aitkvl aivtlk aivtkl aivltk aivlkt aivklt aivktl ailvtk ailvkt ailtvk
ailtkv ailktv ailkvt aikvlt aikvtl aiklvt aikltv aiktlv aiktvl ativlk ativkl
atilvk atilkv atiklv atikvl atvilk atvikl atvlik atvlki atvkli atvkil atlvik
atlvki atlivk atlikv atlkiv atlkvi atkvli atkvil atklvi atkliv atkilv atkivl
avtilk avtikl avtlik avtlki avtkli avtkil avitlk avitkl aviltk avilkt aviklt
aviktl avlitk avlikt avltik avltki avlkti avlkit avkilt avkitl avklit avklti
avktli avktil altvik altvki altivk altikv altkiv altkvi alvtik alvtki alvitk
alvikt alvkit alvkti alivtk alivkt alitvk alitkv aliktv alikvt alkvit alkvti
alkivt alkitv alktiv alktvi aktvli aktvil aktlvi aktliv aktilv aktivl akvtli
akvtil akvlti akvlit akvilt akvitl aklvti aklvit akltvi akltiv aklitv aklivt
akivlt akivtl akilvt akiltv akitlv akitvl kitval kitvla kitavl kitalv kitlav
kitlva kivtal kivtla kivatl kivalt kivlat kivlta kiavtl kiavlt kiatvl kiatlv
kialtv kialvt kilvat kilvta kilavt kilatv kiltav kiltva ktival ktivla ktiavl
ktialv ktilav ktilva ktvial ktvila ktvail ktvali ktvlai ktvlia ktavil ktavli
ktaivl ktailv ktaliv ktalvi ktlvai ktlvia ktlavi ktlaiv ktliav ktliva kvtial
kvtila kvtail kvtali kvtlai kvtlia kvital kvitla kviatl kvialt kvilat kvilta
kvaitl kvailt kvatil kvatli kvalti kvalit kvliat kvlita kvlait kvlati kvltai
kvltia katvil katvli kativl katilv katliv katlvi kavtil kavtli kavitl kavilt
kavlit kavlti kaivtl kaivlt kaitvl kaitlv kailtv kailvt kalvit kalvti kalivt
kalitv kaltiv kaltvi kltvai kltvia kltavi kltaiv kltiav kltiva klvtai klvtia
klvati klvait klviat klvita klavti klavit klatvi klativ klaitv klaivt klivat
klivta kliavt kliatv klitav klitva

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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