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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: liggio
cipher variations:
mjhhjp nkiikq oljjlr pmkkms qnllnt
rommou spnnpv tqooqw urpprx vsqqsy
wtrrtz xussua yvttvb zwuuwc axvvxd
bywwye czxxzf dayyag ebzzbh fcaaci
gdbbdj heccek ifddfl jgeegm khffhn

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: liggio
Cipher: orttrl

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: liggio
Cipher: ABABA ABAAA AABBA AABBA ABAAA ABBAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: liggio
cipher variations:
mjhhjpizttzrepffptafrrfvwvddvxslpplzkrnnrdghzzhf
cxllxhynxxnjudjjdlqtvvtnnkiikqjauuasfqggqubgssgw
xweewytmqqmalsoosehiaaigdymmyizoyyokvekkemruwwuo
oljjlrkbvvbtgrhhrvchtthxyxffxzunrrnbmtpptfijbbjh
eznnzjapzzplwfllfnsvxxvppmkkmslcwwcuhsiiswdiuuiy
zyggyavossocnuqqugjkcckifaooakbqaaqmxgmmgotwyywq
qnllntmdxxdvitjjtxejvvjzazhhzbwpttpdovrrvhklddlj
gbppblcrbbrnyhnnhpuxzzxrrommouneyyewjukkuyfkwwka
baiiacxquuqepwsswilmeemkhcqqcmdsccsoziooiqvyaays
spnnpvofzzfxkvllvzglxxlbcbjjbdyrvvrfqxttxjmnffnl
idrrdnetddtpajppjrwzbbzttqooqwpgaagylwmmwahmyymc
dckkcezswwsgryuuyknoggomjesseofueeuqbkqqksxaccau
urpprxqhbbhzmxnnxbinzzndedlldfatxxthszvvzlophhpn
kfttfpgvffvrclrrltybddbvvsqqsyriccianyooycjoaaoe
femmegbuyyuitawwampqiiqolguugqhwggwsdmssmuzceecw
wtrrtzsjddjbozppzdkpbbpfgfnnfhcvzzvjubxxbnqrjjrp
mhvvhrixhhxtenttnvadffdxxussuatkeekcpaqqaelqccqg
hgoogidwaawkvcyycorskksqniwwisjyiiyufouuowbeggey
yvttvbulffldqbrrbfmrddrhihpphjexbbxlwdzzdpstlltr
ojxxjtkzjjzvgpvvpxcfhhfzzwuuwcvmggmercsscgnseesi
jiqqikfyccymxeaaeqtummuspkyykulakkawhqwwqydgiiga
axvvxdwnhhnfsdttdhotfftjkjrrjlgzddznyfbbfruvnnvt
qlzzlvmbllbxirxxrzehjjhbbywwyexoiiogteuueipugguk
lksskmhaeeaozgccgsvwoowurmaamwncmmcyjsyysafikkic
czxxzfypjjphufvvfjqvhhvlmlttlnibffbpahddhtwxppxv
snbbnxodnndzktzztbgjlljddayyagzqkkqivgwwgkrwiiwm
nmuumojcggcqbieeiuxyqqywtoccoypeooealuaauchkmmke
ebzzbharllrjwhxxhlsxjjxnonvvnpkdhhdrcjffjvyzrrzx
upddpzqfppfbmvbbvdilnnlffcaacibsmmskxiyyimtykkyo
powwoqleiiesdkggkwzassayvqeeqargqqgcnwccwejmoomg
gdbbdjctnntlyjzzjnuzllzpqpxxprmfjjftelhhlxabttbz
wrffrbshrrhdoxddxfknppnhheccekduooumzkaakovammaq
rqyyqsngkkgufmiimybcuucaxsggsctissiepyeeygloqqoi
ifddflevppvnalbblpwbnnbrsrzzrtohllhvgnjjnzcdvvdb
ythhtdujttjfqzffzhmprrpjjgeegmfwqqwobmccmqxcoocs
tsaasupimmiwhokkoadewweczuiiuevkuukgraggainqssqk
khffhngxrrxpcnddnrydppdtutbbtvqjnnjxipllpbefxxfd
avjjvfwlvvlhsbhhbjorttrlliggiohyssyqdoeeoszeqqeu
vuccuwrkookyjqmmqcfgyygebwkkwgxmwwmitciickpsuusm

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: liggio
Cipher: yvttvb

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: liggio
Cipher: 134222224243

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: liggio
method variations:
qommotvtrrtyaywwydfdbbdi

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l i g g i o 
1 4 2 2 4 4 
3 2 2 2 2 3 
They are then read out in rows:
142244322223
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: liggio
Cipher: qgthgm

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: liggio
method variations:
sggrrc ggrrcs grrcsg
rrcsgg rcsggr csggrr

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: liggio

all 720 cipher variations:
liggio liggoi ligigo ligiog ligoig ligogi liggio liggoi ligigo ligiog ligoig
ligogi liiggo liigog liiggo liigog liiogg liiogg liogig lioggi lioigg lioigg
liogig lioggi lgigio lgigoi lgiigo lgiiog lgioig lgiogi lggiio lggioi lggiio
lggioi lggoii lggoii lgigio lgigoi lgiigo lgiiog lgioig lgiogi lgogii lgogii
lgoigi lgoiig lgoiig lgoigi lggiio lggioi lggiio lggioi lggoii lggoii lgigio
lgigoi lgiigo lgiiog lgioig lgiogi lgiigo lgiiog lgigio lgigoi lgiogi lgioig
lgoiig lgoigi lgoiig lgoigi lgogii lgogii liggio liggoi ligigo ligiog ligoig
ligogi liggio liggoi ligigo ligiog ligoig ligogi liiggo liigog liiggo liigog
liiogg liiogg liogig lioggi lioigg lioigg liogig lioggi loggii loggii logigi
logiig logiig logigi loggii loggii logigi logiig logiig logigi loiggi loigig
loiggi loigig loiigg loiigg loigig loiggi loiigg loiigg loigig loiggi ilggio
ilggoi ilgigo ilgiog ilgoig ilgogi ilggio ilggoi ilgigo ilgiog ilgoig ilgogi
iliggo iligog iliggo iligog iliogg iliogg ilogig iloggi iloigg iloigg ilogig
iloggi iglgio iglgoi igligo igliog igloig iglogi igglio iggloi iggilo iggiol
iggoil iggoli igiglo igigol igilgo igilog igiolg igiogl igogil igogli igoigl
igoilg igolig igolgi igglio iggloi iggilo iggiol iggoil iggoli iglgio iglgoi
igligo igliog igloig iglogi igilgo igilog igiglo igigol igiogl igiolg igolig
igolgi igoilg igoigl igogil igogli iigglo iiggol iiglgo iiglog iigolg iigogl
iigglo iiggol iiglgo iiglog iigolg iigogl iilggo iilgog iilggo iilgog iilogg
iilogg iioglg iioggl iiolgg iiolgg iioglg iioggl ioggil ioggli iogigl iogilg
ioglig ioglgi ioggil ioggli iogigl iogilg ioglig ioglgi ioiggl ioiglg ioiggl
ioiglg ioilgg ioilgg iolgig iolggi ioligg ioligg iolgig iolggi gilgio gilgoi
giligo giliog giloig gilogi giglio gigloi gigilo gigiol gigoil gigoli giiglo
giigol giilgo giilog giiolg giiogl giogil giogli gioigl gioilg giolig giolgi
gligio gligoi gliigo gliiog glioig gliogi glgiio glgioi glgiio glgioi glgoii
glgoii gligio gligoi gliigo gliiog glioig gliogi glogii glogii gloigi gloiig
gloiig gloigi ggliio gglioi ggliio gglioi ggloii ggloii ggilio ggiloi ggiilo
ggiiol ggioil ggioli ggiilo ggiiol ggilio ggiloi ggioli ggioil ggoiil ggoili
ggoiil ggoili ggolii ggolii gilgio gilgoi giligo giliog giloig gilogi giglio
gigloi gigilo gigiol gigoil gigoli giiglo giigol giilgo giilog giiolg giiogl
giogil giogli gioigl gioilg giolig giolgi golgii golgii goligi goliig goliig
goligi goglii goglii gogili gogiil gogiil gogili goigli goigil goilgi goilig
goiilg goiigl goigil goigli goiigl goiilg goilig goilgi giglio gigloi gigilo
gigiol gigoil gigoli gilgio gilgoi giligo giliog giloig gilogi giilgo giilog
giiglo giigol giiogl giiolg giolig giolgi gioilg gioigl giogil giogli ggilio
ggiloi ggiilo ggiiol ggioil ggioli ggliio gglioi ggliio gglioi ggloii ggloii
ggilio ggiloi ggiilo ggiiol ggioil ggioli ggolii ggolii ggoili ggoiil ggoiil
ggoili glgiio glgioi glgiio glgioi glgoii glgoii gligio gligoi gliigo gliiog
glioig gliogi gliigo gliiog gligio gligoi gliogi glioig gloiig gloigi gloiig
gloigi glogii glogii giglio gigloi gigilo gigiol gigoil gigoli gilgio gilgoi
giligo giliog giloig gilogi giilgo giilog giiglo giigol giiogl giiolg giolig
giolgi gioilg gioigl giogil giogli goglii goglii gogili gogiil gogiil gogili
golgii golgii goligi goliig goliig goligi goilgi goilig goigli goigil goiigl
goiilg goilig goilgi goiilg goiigl goigil goigli iigglo iiggol iiglgo iiglog
iigolg iigogl iigglo iiggol iiglgo iiglog iigolg iigogl iilggo iilgog iilggo
iilgog iilogg iilogg iioglg iioggl iiolgg iiolgg iioglg iioggl igiglo igigol
igilgo igilog igiolg igiogl iggilo iggiol igglio iggloi iggoli iggoil iglgio
iglgoi igligo igliog igloig iglogi igogli igogil igolgi igolig igoilg igoigl
iggilo iggiol igglio iggloi iggoli iggoil igiglo igigol igilgo igilog igiolg
igiogl igligo igliog iglgio iglgoi iglogi igloig igoilg igoigl igolig igolgi
igogli igogil ilggio ilggoi ilgigo ilgiog ilgoig ilgogi ilggio ilggoi ilgigo
ilgiog ilgoig ilgogi iliggo iligog iliggo iligog iliogg iliogg ilogig iloggi
iloigg iloigg ilogig iloggi ioggli ioggil ioglgi ioglig iogilg iogigl ioggli
ioggil ioglgi ioglig iogilg iogigl iolggi iolgig iolggi iolgig ioligg ioligg
ioiglg ioiggl ioilgg ioilgg ioiglg ioiggl oiggil oiggli oigigl oigilg oiglig
oiglgi oiggil oiggli oigigl oigilg oiglig oiglgi oiiggl oiiglg oiiggl oiiglg
oiilgg oiilgg oilgig oilggi oiligg oiligg oilgig oilggi ogigil ogigli ogiigl
ogiilg ogilig ogilgi oggiil oggili oggiil oggili ogglii ogglii ogigil ogigli
ogiigl ogiilg ogilig ogilgi oglgii oglgii ogligi ogliig ogliig ogligi oggiil
oggili oggiil oggili ogglii ogglii ogigil ogigli ogiigl ogiilg ogilig ogilgi
ogiigl ogiilg ogigil ogigli ogilgi ogilig ogliig ogligi ogliig ogligi oglgii
oglgii oiggil oiggli oigigl oigilg oiglig oiglgi oiggil oiggli oigigl oigilg
oiglig oiglgi oiiggl oiiglg oiiggl oiiglg oiilgg oiilgg oilgig oilggi oiligg
oiligg oilgig oilggi olggii olggii olgigi olgiig olgiig olgigi olggii olggii
olgigi olgiig olgiig olgigi oliggi oligig oliggi oligig oliigg oliigg oligig
oliggi oliigg oliigg oligig oliggi

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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