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spectrum

clamitansque

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acetophenetide

honeybind

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wildey

joseito

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ratableness

mulius

silkalene

sociabas

anoplanthus

semideserts

torsten

boulware

sphaerella


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: leones
cipher variations:
mfpoft ngqpgu ohrqhv pisriw qjtsjx
rkutky slvulz tmwvma unxwnb voyxoc
wpzypd xqazqe yrbarf zscbsg atdcth
buedui cvfevj dwgfwk exhgxl fyihym
gzjizn hakjao iblkbp jcmlcq kdnmdr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: leones
Cipher: ovlmvh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: leones
Cipher: ABABA AABAA ABBAB ABBAA AABAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: leones
cipher variations:
mfpoftinrondevtovnadvodxwlxolhstzotrkjdojlgrforv
czhozfyhjohpuplopzqxnoxjngqpgujospoefwupwobewpey
xmypmituapuslkepkmhsgpswdaipagzikpiqvqmpqaryopyk
ohrqhvkptqpfgxvqxpcfxqfzynzqnjuvbqvtmlfqlnithqtx
ebjqbhajlqjrwrnqrbszpqzlpisriwlqurqghywryqdgyrga
zoarokvwcrwunmgrmojuiruyfckrcibkmrksxsorsctaqram
qjtsjxmrvsrhizxszrehzshbapbsplwxdsxvonhsnpkvjsvz
gdlsdjclnsltytpstdubrsbnrkutkynswtsijaytasfiatic
bqctqmxyetywpoitoqlwktwahemtekdmotmuzuqtuevcstco
slvulzotxutjkbzubtgjbujdcrdurnyzfuzxqpjuprmxluxb
ifnuflenpunvavruvfwdtudptmwvmapuyvuklcavcuhkcvke
dsevsozagvayrqkvqsnymvycjgovgmfoqvowbwsvwgxeuveq
unxwnbqvzwvlmdbwdvildwlfetfwtpabhwbzsrlwrtoznwzd
khpwhngprwpxcxtwxhyfvwfrvoyxocrwaxwmnecxewjmexmg
fugxuqbcixcatsmxsupaoxaeliqxiohqsxqydyuxyizgwxgs
wpzypdsxbyxnofdyfxknfynhgvhyvrcdjydbutnytvqbpybf
mjryjpirtyrzezvyzjahxyhtxqazqetyczyopgezgylogzoi
hwizwsdekzecvuozuwrcqzcgnkszkqjsuzsafawzakbiyziu
yrbarfuzdazpqhfahzmphapjixjaxteflafdwvpavxsdradh
oltalrktvatbgbxablcjzajvzscbsgvaebaqrigbianqibqk
jykbyufgmbgexwqbwytesbeipmubmsluwbuchcybcmdkabkw
atdcthwbfcbrsjhcjborjcrlkzlczvghnchfyxrcxzuftcfj
qnvcntmvxcvdidzcdnelbclxbueduixcgdcstkidkcpskdsm
lamdawhiodigzysdyavgudgkrowdounwydwejeadeofmcdmy
cvfevjydhedtuljeldqtletnmbnebxijpejhaztezbwhvehl
spxepvoxzexfkfbefpgndenzdwgfwkzeifeuvmkfmerumfuo
ncofcyjkqfkibaufacxiwfimtqyfqwpyafyglgcfgqhoefoa
exhgxlafjgfvwnlgnfsvngvpodpgdzklrgljcbvgbdyjxgjn
urzgrxqzbgzhmhdghripfgpbfyihymbgkhgwxomhogtwohwq
peqhealmshmkdcwhcezkyhkovsahsyrachainiehisjqghqc
gzjiznchlihxypniphuxpixrqfrifbmntinledxidfalzilp
wtbitzsbdibjojfijtkrhirdhakjaodimjiyzqojqivyqjys
rgsjgcnoujomfeyjegbmajmqxucjuatcejckpkgjkulsijse
iblkbpejnkjzarpkrjwzrkztshtkhdopvkpngfzkfhcnbknr
yvdkvbudfkdlqlhklvmtjktfjcmlcqfkolkabsqlskxaslau
tiuliepqwlqohgalgidocloszwelwcveglemrmilmwnuklug
kdnmdrglpmlbctrmtlybtmbvujvmjfqrxmrpihbmhjepdmpt
axfmxdwfhmfnsnjmnxovlmvhleoneshmqnmcdusnumzcuncw
vkwnkgrsynsqjicnikfqenqubygnyexgingotoknoypwmnwi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: leones
Cipher: yrbarf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: leones
Cipher: 135143335134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: leones
method variations:
qktskxvpyxpcaudcuhfzihzn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l e o n e s 
1 5 4 3 5 3 
3 1 3 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
154353313314
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: leones
Cipher: vopcnq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: leones
method variations:
xqnxld qnxldx nxldxq
xldxqn ldxqnx dxqnxl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: leones

all 720 cipher variations:
leones leonse leoens leoesn leosen leosne lenoes lenose leneos leneso lenseo
lensoe leenos leenso leeons leeosn leeson leesno lesneo lesnoe leseno leseon
lesoen lesone loenes loense loeens loeesn loesen loesne lonees lonese lonees
lonese lonsee lonsee loenes loense loeens loeesn loesen loesne losnee losnee
losene loseen loseen losene lnoees lnoese lnoees lnoese lnosee lnosee lneoes
lneose lneeos lneeso lneseo lnesoe lneeos lneeso lneoes lneose lnesoe lneseo
lnseeo lnseoe lnseeo lnseoe lnsoee lnsoee leones leonse leoens leoesn leosen
leosne lenoes lenose leneos leneso lenseo lensoe leenos leenso leeons leeosn
leeson leesno lesneo lesnoe leseno leseon lesoen lesone lsonee lsonee lsoene
lsoeen lsoeen lsoene lsnoee lsnoee lsneoe lsneeo lsneeo lsneoe lsenoe lseneo
lseone lseoen lseeon lseeno lseneo lsenoe lseeno lseeon lseoen lseone elones
elonse eloens eloesn elosen elosne elnoes elnose elneos elneso elnseo elnsoe
elenos elenso eleons eleosn eleson elesno elsneo elsnoe elseno elseon elsoen
elsone eolnes eolnse eolens eolesn eolsen eolsne eonles eonlse eonels eonesl
eonsel eonsle eoenls eoensl eoelns eoelsn eoesln eoesnl eosnel eosnle eosenl
eoseln eoslen eoslne enoles enolse enoels enoesl enosel enosle enloes enlose
enleos enleso enlseo enlsoe enelos enelso eneols eneosl enesol eneslo ensleo
ensloe enselo enseol ensoel ensole eeonls eeonsl eeolns eeolsn eeosln eeosnl
eenols eenosl eenlos eenlso eenslo eensol eelnos eelnso eelons eelosn eelson
eelsno eesnlo eesnol eeslno eeslon eesoln eesonl esonel esonle esoenl esoeln
esolen esolne esnoel esnole esneol esnelo esnleo esnloe esenol esenlo eseonl
eseoln eselon eselno eslneo eslnoe esleno esleon esloen eslone oelnes oelnse
oelens oelesn oelsen oelsne oenles oenlse oenels oenesl oensel oensle oeenls
oeensl oeelns oeelsn oeesln oeesnl oesnel oesnle oesenl oeseln oeslen oeslne
olenes olense oleens oleesn olesen olesne olnees olnese olnees olnese olnsee
olnsee olenes olense oleens oleesn olesen olesne olsnee olsnee olsene olseen
olseen olsene onlees onlese onlees onlese onlsee onlsee oneles onelse oneels
oneesl onesel onesle oneels oneesl oneles onelse onesle onesel onseel onsele
onseel onsele onslee onslee oelnes oelnse oelens oelesn oelsen oelsne oenles
oenlse oenels oenesl oensel oensle oeenls oeensl oeelns oeelsn oeesln oeesnl
oesnel oesnle oesenl oeseln oeslen oeslne oslnee oslnee oslene osleen osleen
oslene osnlee osnlee osnele osneel osneel osnele osenle osenel oselne oselen
oseeln oseenl osenel osenle oseenl oseeln oselen oselne neoles neolse neoels
neoesl neosel neosle neloes nelose neleos neleso nelseo nelsoe neelos neelso
neeols neeosl neesol neeslo nesleo nesloe neselo neseol nesoel nesole noeles
noelse noeels noeesl noesel noesle nolees nolese nolees nolese nolsee nolsee
noeles noelse noeels noeesl noesel noesle noslee noslee nosele noseel noseel
nosele nloees nloese nloees nloese nlosee nlosee nleoes nleose nleeos nleeso
nleseo nlesoe nleeos nleeso nleoes nleose nlesoe nleseo nlseeo nlseoe nlseeo
nlseoe nlsoee nlsoee neoles neolse neoels neoesl neosel neosle neloes nelose
neleos neleso nelseo nelsoe neelos neelso neeols neeosl neesol neeslo nesleo
nesloe neselo neseol nesoel nesole nsolee nsolee nsoele nsoeel nsoeel nsoele
nsloee nsloee nsleoe nsleeo nsleeo nsleoe nseloe nseleo nseole nseoel nseeol
nseelo nseleo nseloe nseelo nseeol nseoel nseole eeonls eeonsl eeolns eeolsn
eeosln eeosnl eenols eenosl eenlos eenlso eenslo eensol eelnos eelnso eelons
eelosn eelson eelsno eesnlo eesnol eeslno eeslon eesoln eesonl eoenls eoensl
eoelns eoelsn eoesln eoesnl eonels eonesl eonles eonlse eonsle eonsel eolnes
eolnse eolens eolesn eolsen eolsne eosnle eosnel eoslne eoslen eoseln eosenl
enoels enoesl enoles enolse enosle enosel eneols eneosl enelos enelso eneslo
enesol enleos enleso enloes enlose enlsoe enlseo enselo enseol ensleo ensloe
ensole ensoel elones elonse eloens eloesn elosen elosne elnoes elnose elneos
elneso elnseo elnsoe elenos elenso eleons eleosn eleson elesno elsneo elsnoe
elseno elseon elsoen elsone esonle esonel esolne esolen esoeln esoenl esnole
esnoel esnloe esnleo esnelo esneol eslnoe eslneo eslone esloen esleon esleno
esenlo esenol eselno eselon eseoln eseonl seonel seonle seoenl seoeln seolen
seolne senoel senole seneol senelo senleo senloe seenol seenlo seeonl seeoln
seelon seelno selneo selnoe seleno seleon seloen selone soenel soenle soeenl
soeeln soelen soelne soneel sonele soneel sonele sonlee sonlee soenel soenle
soeenl soeeln soelen soelne solnee solnee solene soleen soleen solene snoeel
snoele snoeel snoele snolee snolee sneoel sneole sneeol sneelo sneleo sneloe
sneeol sneelo sneoel sneole sneloe sneleo snleeo snleoe snleeo snleoe snloee
snloee seonel seonle seoenl seoeln seolen seolne senoel senole seneol senelo
senleo senloe seenol seenlo seeonl seeoln seelon seelno selneo selnoe seleno
seleon seloen selone slonee slonee sloene sloeen sloeen sloene slnoee slnoee
slneoe slneeo slneeo slneoe slenoe sleneo sleone sleoen sleeon sleeno sleneo
slenoe sleeno sleeon sleoen sleone

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History of cryptography
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