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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: leeann
cipher variations:
mffboo nggcpp ohhdqq piierr qjjfss
rkkgtt sllhuu tmmivv unnjww vookxx
wpplyy xqqmzz yrrnaa zssobb attpcc
buuqdd cvvree dwwsff exxtgg fyyuhh
gzzvii haawjj ibbxkk jccyll kddzmm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: leeann
Cipher: ovvzmm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: leeann
Cipher: ABABA AABAA AABAA AAAAA ABBAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: leeann
cipher variations:
mffbooinnbooevvbooaddboowllboosttbookjjboogrrboo
czzbooyhhboouppbooqxxboonggcppjoocppfwwcppbeecpp
xmmcpptuucpplkkcpphsscppdaacppziicppvqqcppryycpp
ohhdqqkppdqqgxxdqqcffdqqynndqquvvdqqmlldqqittdqq
ebbdqqajjdqqwrrdqqszzdqqpiierrlqqerrhyyerrdggerr
zooerrvwwerrnmmerrjuuerrfccerrbkkerrxsserrtaaerr
qjjfssmrrfssizzfssehhfssappfsswxxfssonnfsskvvfss
gddfsscllfssyttfssubbfssrkkgttnssgttjaagttfiigtt
bqqgttxyygttpoogttlwwgttheegttdmmgttzuugttvccgtt
sllhuuotthuukbbhuugjjhuucrrhuuyzzhuuqpphuumxxhuu
iffhuuennhuuavvhuuwddhuutmmivvpuuivvlccivvhkkivv
dssivvzaaivvrqqivvnyyivvjggivvfooivvbwwivvxeeivv
unnjwwqvvjwwmddjwwilljwwettjwwabbjwwsrrjwwozzjww
khhjwwgppjwwcxxjwwyffjwwvookxxrwwkxxneekxxjmmkxx
fuukxxbcckxxtsskxxpaakxxliikxxhqqkxxdyykxxzggkxx
wpplyysxxlyyofflyyknnlyygvvlyycddlyyuttlyyqbblyy
mjjlyyirrlyyezzlyyahhlyyxqqmzztyymzzpggmzzloomzz
hwwmzzdeemzzvuumzzrccmzznkkmzzjssmzzfaamzzbiimzz
yrrnaauzznaaqhhnaamppnaaixxnaaeffnaawvvnaasddnaa
ollnaakttnaagbbnaacjjnaazssobbvaaobbriiobbnqqobb
jyyobbfggobbxwwobbteeobbpmmobbluuobbhccobbdkkobb
attpccwbbpccsjjpccorrpcckzzpccghhpccyxxpccuffpcc
qnnpccmvvpcciddpccellpccbuuqddxccqddtkkqddpssqdd
laaqddhiiqddzyyqddvggqddrooqddnwwqddjeeqddfmmqdd
cvvreeyddreeullreeqttreembbreeijjreeazzreewhhree
sppreeoxxreekffreegnnreedwwsffzeesffvmmsffruusff
nccsffjkksffbaasffxiisfftqqsffpyysfflggsffhoosff
exxtggafftggwnntggsvvtggoddtggklltggcbbtggyjjtgg
urrtggqzztggmhhtggipptggfyyuhhbgguhhxoouhhtwwuhh
peeuhhlmmuhhdccuhhzkkuhhvssuhhraauhhniiuhhjqquhh
gzzviichhviiyppviiuxxviiqffviimnnviieddviiallvii
wttviisbbviiojjviikrrviihaawjjdiiwjjzqqwjjvyywjj
rggwjjnoowjjfeewjjbmmwjjxuuwjjtccwjjpkkwjjlsswjj
ibbxkkejjxkkarrxkkwzzxkkshhxkkoppxkkgffxkkcnnxkk
yvvxkkuddxkkqllxkkmttxkkjccyllfkkyllbssyllxaayll
tiiyllpqqyllhggylldooyllzwwyllveeyllrmmyllnuuyll
kddzmmgllzmmcttzmmybbzmmujjzmmqrrzmmihhzmmeppzmm
axxzmmwffzmmsnnzmmovvzmmleeannhmmannduuannzccann
vkkannrssannjiiannfqqannbyyannxgganntooannpwwann

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: leeann
Cipher: yrrnaa

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: leeann
Cipher: 135151113333

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: leeann
method variations:
qkkfssvpplxxauuqccfzzvhh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l e e a n n 
1 5 5 1 3 3 
3 1 1 1 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
155133311133
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: leeann
Cipher: vencan

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: leeann
method variations:
xvalnc valncx alncxv
lncxva ncxval cxvaln

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: leeann

all 720 cipher variations:
leeann leeann leenan leenna leenna leenan leaenn leaenn leanen leanne leanne
leanen lenaen lenane lenean lenena lennea lennae lenane lenaen lennae lennea
lenena lenean leeann leeann leenan leenna leenna leenan leaenn leaenn leanen
leanne leanne leanen lenaen lenane lenean lenena lennea lennae lenane lenaen
lennae lennea lenena lenean laeenn laeenn laenen laenne laenne laenen laeenn
laeenn laenen laenne laenne laenen laneen lanene laneen lanene lannee lannee
lanene laneen lannee lannee lanene laneen lneaen lneane lneean lneena lnenea
lnenae lnaeen lnaene lnaeen lnaene lnanee lnanee lneaen lneane lneean lneena
lnenea lnenae lnnaee lnnaee lnneae lnneea lnneea lnneae lneane lneaen lnenae
lnenea lneena lneean lnaene lnaeen lnanee lnanee lnaene lnaeen lnnaee lnnaee
lnneae lnneea lnneea lnneae lneane lneaen lnenae lnenea lneena lneean eleann
eleann elenan elenna elenna elenan elaenn elaenn elanen elanne elanne elanen
elnaen elnane elnean elnena elnnea elnnae elnane elnaen elnnae elnnea elnena
elnean eelann eelann eelnan eelnna eelnna eelnan eealnn eealnn eeanln eeannl
eeannl eeanln eenaln eenanl eenlan eenlna eennla eennal eenanl eenaln eennal
eennla eenlna eenlan eaelnn eaelnn eaenln eaennl eaennl eaenln ealenn ealenn
ealnen ealnne ealnne ealnen eanlen eanlne eaneln eanenl eannel eannle eanlne
eanlen eannle eannel eanenl eaneln enealn eneanl enelan enelna enenla enenal
enaeln enaenl enalen enalne enanle enanel enlaen enlane enlean enlena enlnea
enlnae ennale ennael ennlae ennlea ennela enneal eneanl enealn enenal enenla
enelna enelan enaenl enaeln enanel enanle enalne enalen ennael ennale enneal
ennela ennlea ennlae enlane enlaen enlnae enlnea enlena enlean eelann eelann
eelnan eelnna eelnna eelnan eealnn eealnn eeanln eeannl eeannl eeanln eenaln
eenanl eenlan eenlna eennla eennal eenanl eenaln eennal eennla eenlna eenlan
eleann eleann elenan elenna elenna elenan elaenn elaenn elanen elanne elanne
elanen elnaen elnane elnean elnena elnnea elnnae elnane elnaen elnnae elnnea
elnena elnean ealenn ealenn ealnen ealnne ealnne ealnen eaelnn eaelnn eaenln
eaennl eaennl eaenln eaneln eanenl eanlen eanlne eannle eannel eanenl eaneln
eannel eannle eanlne eanlen enlaen enlane enlean enlena enlnea enlnae enalen
enalne enaeln enaenl enanel enanle enealn eneanl enelan enelna enenla enenal
ennael ennale enneal ennela ennlea ennlae enlane enlaen enlnae enlnea enlena
enlean enalne enalen enanle enanel enaenl enaeln ennale ennael ennlae ennlea
ennela enneal eneanl enealn enenal enenla enelna enelan aeelnn aeelnn aeenln
aeennl aeennl aeenln aelenn aelenn aelnen aelnne aelnne aelnen aenlen aenlne
aeneln aenenl aennel aennle aenlne aenlen aennle aennel aenenl aeneln aeelnn
aeelnn aeenln aeennl aeennl aeenln aelenn aelenn aelnen aelnne aelnne aelnen
aenlen aenlne aeneln aenenl aennel aennle aenlne aenlen aennle aennel aenenl
aeneln aleenn aleenn alenen alenne alenne alenen aleenn aleenn alenen alenne
alenne alenen alneen alnene alneen alnene alnnee alnnee alnene alneen alnnee
alnnee alnene alneen anelen anelne aneeln aneenl anenel anenle anleen anlene
anleen anlene anlnee anlnee anelen anelne aneeln aneenl anenel anenle annlee
annlee annele anneel anneel annele anelne anelen anenle anenel aneenl aneeln
anlene anleen anlnee anlnee anlene anleen annlee annlee annele anneel anneel
annele anelne anelen anenle anenel aneenl aneeln neealn neeanl neelan neelna
neenla neenal neaeln neaenl nealen nealne neanle neanel nelaen nelane nelean
nelena nelnea nelnae nenale nenael nenlae nenlea nenela neneal neealn neeanl
neelan neelna neenla neenal neaeln neaenl nealen nealne neanle neanel nelaen
nelane nelean nelena nelnea nelnae nenale nenael nenlae nenlea nenela neneal
naeeln naeenl naelen naelne naenle naenel naeeln naeenl naelen naelne naenle
naenel naleen nalene naleen nalene nalnee nalnee nanele naneel nanlee nanlee
nanele naneel nleaen nleane nleean nleena nlenea nlenae nlaeen nlaene nlaeen
nlaene nlanee nlanee nleaen nleane nleean nleena nlenea nlenae nlnaee nlnaee
nlneae nlneea nlneea nlneae nneale nneael nnelae nnelea nneela nneeal nnaele
nnaeel nnalee nnalee nnaele nnaeel nnlaee nnlaee nnleae nnleea nnleea nnleae
nneale nneael nnelae nnelea nneela nneeal neeanl neealn neenal neenla neelna
neelan neaenl neaeln neanel neanle nealne nealen nenael nenale neneal nenela
nenlea nenlae nelane nelaen nelnae nelnea nelena nelean neeanl neealn neenal
neenla neelna neelan neaenl neaeln neanel neanle nealne nealen nenael nenale
neneal nenela nenlea nenlae nelane nelaen nelnae nelnea nelena nelean naeenl
naeeln naenel naenle naelne naelen naeenl naeeln naenel naenle naelne naelen
naneel nanele naneel nanele nanlee nanlee nalene naleen nalnee nalnee nalene
naleen nneael nneale nneeal nneela nnelea nnelae nnaeel nnaele nnaeel nnaele
nnalee nnalee nneael nneale nneeal nneela nnelea nnelae nnlaee nnlaee nnleae
nnleea nnleea nnleae nleane nleaen nlenae nlenea nleena nleean nlaene nlaeen
nlanee nlanee nlaene nlaeen nlnaee nlnaee nlneae nlneea nlneea nlneae nleane
nleaen nlenae nlenea nleena nleean

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History of cryptography
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