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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: ledden
cipher variations:
mfeefo ngffgp ohgghq pihhir qjiijs
rkjjkt slkklu tmllmv unmmnw vonnox
wpoopy xqppqz yrqqra zsrrsb atsstc
buttud cvuuve dwvvwf exwwxg fyxxyh
gzyyzi hazzaj ibaabk jcbbcl kdccdm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: ledden
Cipher: ovwwvm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: ledden
Cipher: ABABA AABAA AAABB AAABB AABAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: ledden
cipher variations:
mfeefoinkknoevqqvoadwwdowlcclostiitokjuujograaro
czggzoyhmmhoupsspoqxyyxongffgpjollopfwrrwpbexxep
xmddmptujjuplkvvkphsbbspdahhapzinnipvqttqpryzzyp
ohgghqkpmmpqgxssxqcfyyfqyneenquvkkvqmlwwlqitcctq
ebiibqajoojqwruurqszaazqpihhirlqnnqrhyttyrdgzzgr
zofforvwllwrnmxxmrjuddurfcjjcrbkppkrxsvvsrtabbar
qjiijsmroorsizuuzsehaahsapggpswxmmxsonyynskveevs
gdkkdsclqqlsytwwtsubccbsrkjjktnsppstjavvatfibbit
bqhhqtxynnytpozzotlwffwthelletdmrrmtzuxxutvcddct
slkkluotqqtukbwwbugjccjucriiruyzoozuqpaapumxggxu
ifmmfuenssnuavyyvuwdeedutmllmvpurruvlcxxcvhkddkv
dsjjsvzappavrqbbqvnyhhyvjgnngvfottovbwzzwvxeffev
unmmnwqvssvwmdyydwileelwetkktwabqqbwsrccrwoziizw
khoohwgpuupwcxaaxwyfggfwvonnoxrwttwxnezzexjmffmx
fulluxbcrrcxtsddsxpajjaxlippixhqvvqxdybbyxzghhgx
wpoopysxuuxyofaafyknggnygvmmvycdssdyuteetyqbkkby
mjqqjyirwwryezcczyahiihyxqppqztyvvyzpgbbgzlohhoz
hwnnwzdettezvuffuzrcllcznkrrkzjsxxszfaddazbijjiz
yrqqrauzwwzaqhcchampiipaixooxaefuufawvggvasdmmda
olsslaktyytagbeebacjkkjazsrrsbvaxxabriddibnqjjqb
jyppybfgvvgbxwhhwbtennebpmttmbluzzubhcffcbdkllkb
atsstcwbyybcsjeejcorkkrckzqqzcghwwhcyxiixcufoofc
qnuuncmvaavcidggdcelmmlcbuttudxczzcdtkffkdpsllsd
larradhixxidzyjjydvgppgdrovvodnwbbwdjehhedfmnnmd
cvuuveydaadeulggleqtmmtembssbeijyyjeazkkzewhqqhe
spwwpeoxccxekfiifegnoonedwvvwfzebbefvmhhmfrunnuf
ncttcfjkzzkfballafxirriftqxxqfpyddyflgjjgfhoppof
exwwxgafccfgwniingsvoovgoduudgklaalgcbmmbgyjssjg
uryyrgqzeezgmhkkhgipqqpgfyxxyhbgddghxojjohtwppwh
pevvehlmbbmhdcnnchzkttkhvszzshraffahnillihjqrrqh
gzyyzicheehiypkkpiuxqqxiqfwwfimnccniedoodialuuli
wtaatisbggbiojmmjikrssrihazzajdiffijzqllqjvyrryj
rgxxgjnoddojfeppejbmvvmjxubbujtchhcjpknnkjlsttsj
ibaabkejggjkarmmrkwzsszkshyyhkopeepkgfqqfkcnwwnk
yvccvkudiidkqloolkmtuutkjcbbclfkhhklbsnnslxattal
tizzilpqffqlhgrrgldoxxolzwddwlvejjelrmppmlnuvvul
kdccdmgliilmctootmybuubmujaajmqrggrmihsshmepyypm
axeexmwfkkfmsnqqnmovwwvmleddenhmjjmnduppunzcvvcn
vkbbknrshhsnjittinfqzzqnbyffynxgllgntorronpwxxwn

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: ledden
Cipher: yrqqra

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: ledden
Cipher: 135141415133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: ledden
method variations:
qkiiksvpoopxauttucfzyyzh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l e d d e n 
1 5 4 4 5 3 
3 1 1 1 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
154453311113
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: ledden
Cipher: vtpcal

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Method #3

Plaintext: ledden
method variations:
xqqvlc qqvlcx qvlcxq
vlcxqq lcxqqv cxqqvl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: ledden

all 720 cipher variations:
ledden leddne lededn ledend ledned lednde ledden leddne lededn ledend ledned
lednde leeddn leednd leeddn leednd leendd leendd lended lendde lenedd lenedd
lended lendde ldeden ldedne ldeedn ldeend ldened ldende lddeen lddene lddeen
lddene lddnee lddnee ldeden ldedne ldeedn ldeend ldened ldende ldndee ldndee
ldnede ldneed ldneed ldnede lddeen lddene lddeen lddene lddnee lddnee ldeden
ldedne ldeedn ldeend ldened ldende ldeedn ldeend ldeden ldedne ldende ldened
ldneed ldnede ldneed ldnede ldndee ldndee ledden leddne lededn ledend ledned
lednde ledden leddne lededn ledend ledned lednde leeddn leednd leeddn leednd
leendd leendd lended lendde lenedd lenedd lended lendde lnddee lnddee lndede
lndeed lndeed lndede lnddee lnddee lndede lndeed lndeed lndede lnedde lneded
lnedde lneded lneedd lneedd lneded lnedde lneedd lneedd lneded lnedde eldden
elddne eldedn eldend eldned eldnde eldden elddne eldedn eldend eldned eldnde
eleddn elednd eleddn elednd elendd elendd elnded elndde elnedd elnedd elnded
elndde edlden edldne edledn edlend edlned edlnde eddlen eddlne eddeln eddenl
eddnel eddnle ededln edednl edeldn edelnd edenld edendl edndel edndle ednedl
edneld ednled ednlde eddlen eddlne eddeln eddenl eddnel eddnle edlden edldne
edledn edlend edlned edlnde edeldn edelnd ededln edednl edendl edenld ednled
ednlde edneld ednedl edndel edndle eeddln eeddnl eedldn eedlnd eednld eedndl
eeddln eeddnl eedldn eedlnd eednld eedndl eelddn eeldnd eelddn eeldnd eelndd
eelndd eendld eenddl eenldd eenldd eendld eenddl enddel enddle endedl endeld
endled endlde enddel enddle endedl endeld endled endlde eneddl enedld eneddl
enedld eneldd eneldd enlded enldde enledd enledd enlded enldde delden deldne
deledn delend delned delnde dedlen dedlne dedeln dedenl dednel dednle deedln
deednl deeldn deelnd deenld deendl dendel dendle denedl deneld denled denlde
dleden dledne dleedn dleend dlened dlende dldeen dldene dldeen dldene dldnee
dldnee dleden dledne dleedn dleend dlened dlende dlndee dlndee dlnede dlneed
dlneed dlnede ddleen ddlene ddleen ddlene ddlnee ddlnee ddelen ddelne ddeeln
ddeenl ddenel ddenle ddeeln ddeenl ddelen ddelne ddenle ddenel ddneel ddnele
ddneel ddnele ddnlee ddnlee delden deldne deledn delend delned delnde dedlen
dedlne dedeln dedenl dednel dednle deedln deednl deeldn deelnd deenld deendl
dendel dendle denedl deneld denled denlde dnldee dnldee dnlede dnleed dnleed
dnlede dndlee dndlee dndele dndeel dndeel dndele dnedle dnedel dnelde dneled
dneeld dneedl dnedel dnedle dneedl dneeld dneled dnelde dedlen dedlne dedeln
dedenl dednel dednle delden deldne deledn delend delned delnde deeldn deelnd
deedln deednl deendl deenld denled denlde deneld denedl dendel dendle ddelen
ddelne ddeeln ddeenl ddenel ddenle ddleen ddlene ddleen ddlene ddlnee ddlnee
ddelen ddelne ddeeln ddeenl ddenel ddenle ddnlee ddnlee ddnele ddneel ddneel
ddnele dldeen dldene dldeen dldene dldnee dldnee dleden dledne dleedn dleend
dlened dlende dleedn dleend dleden dledne dlende dlened dlneed dlnede dlneed
dlnede dlndee dlndee dedlen dedlne dedeln dedenl dednel dednle delden deldne
deledn delend delned delnde deeldn deelnd deedln deednl deendl deenld denled
denlde deneld denedl dendel dendle dndlee dndlee dndele dndeel dndeel dndele
dnldee dnldee dnlede dnleed dnleed dnlede dnelde dneled dnedle dnedel dneedl
dneeld dneled dnelde dneeld dneedl dnedel dnedle eeddln eeddnl eedldn eedlnd
eednld eedndl eeddln eeddnl eedldn eedlnd eednld eedndl eelddn eeldnd eelddn
eeldnd eelndd eelndd eendld eenddl eenldd eenldd eendld eenddl ededln edednl
edeldn edelnd edenld edendl eddeln eddenl eddlen eddlne eddnle eddnel edlden
edldne edledn edlend edlned edlnde edndle edndel ednlde ednled edneld ednedl
eddeln eddenl eddlen eddlne eddnle eddnel ededln edednl edeldn edelnd edenld
edendl edledn edlend edlden edldne edlnde edlned edneld ednedl ednled ednlde
edndle edndel eldden elddne eldedn eldend eldned eldnde eldden elddne eldedn
eldend eldned eldnde eleddn elednd eleddn elednd elendd elendd elnded elndde
elnedd elnedd elnded elndde enddle enddel endlde endled endeld endedl enddle
enddel endlde endled endeld endedl enldde enlded enldde enlded enledd enledd
enedld eneddl eneldd eneldd enedld eneddl neddel neddle nededl nedeld nedled
nedlde neddel neddle nededl nedeld nedled nedlde needdl needld needdl needld
neeldd neeldd nelded neldde neledd neledd nelded neldde ndedel ndedle ndeedl
ndeeld ndeled ndelde nddeel nddele nddeel nddele nddlee nddlee ndedel ndedle
ndeedl ndeeld ndeled ndelde ndldee ndldee ndlede ndleed ndleed ndlede nddeel
nddele nddeel nddele nddlee nddlee ndedel ndedle ndeedl ndeeld ndeled ndelde
ndeedl ndeeld ndedel ndedle ndelde ndeled ndleed ndlede ndleed ndlede ndldee
ndldee neddel neddle nededl nedeld nedled nedlde neddel neddle nededl nedeld
nedled nedlde needdl needld needdl needld neeldd neeldd nelded neldde neledd
neledd nelded neldde nlddee nlddee nldede nldeed nldeed nldede nlddee nlddee
nldede nldeed nldeed nldede nledde nleded nledde nleded nleedd nleedd nleded
nledde nleedd nleedd nleded nledde

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History of cryptography
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