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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: lclark
cipher variations:
mdmbsl nenctm ofodun pgpevo qhqfwp
rirgxq sjshyr tktizs ulujat vmvkbu
wnwlcv xoxmdw ypynex zqzofy arapgz
bsbqha ctcrib dudsjc evetkd fwfule
gxgvmf hyhwng izixoh jajypi kbkzqj

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: lclark
Cipher: oxozip

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: lclark
Cipher: ABABA AAABA ABABA AAAAA BAAAA ABAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: lclark
cipher variations:
mdmbslihibafelebizapabqtwtwbynsxsbghkfkbwvgjgbep
cncbmjyrybuduvubcxqzqbkrnenctmjijcbgfmfcjabqbcru
xuxczotytchilglcxwhkhcfqdodcnkzszcvevwvcdyrarcls
ofodunkjkdchgngdkbcrcdsvyvydapuzudijmhmdyxilidgr
epedolatadwfwxwdezsbsdmtpgpevolkledihohelcdsdetw
zwzebqvavejkninezyjmjehsfqfepmbubexgxyxefatctenu
qhqfwpmlmfejipifmdetefuxaxafcrwbwfklojofazknkfit
grgfqncvcfyhyzyfgbudufovrirgxqnmngfkjqjgnefufgvy
bybgdsxcxglmpkpgbalolgjuhshgrodwdgzizazghcvevgpw
sjshyronohglkrkhofgvghwzczchetydyhmnqlqhcbmpmhkv
itihspexehajabahidwfwhqxtktizspopihmlslipghwhixa
dadifuzezinormridcnqnilwjujitqfyfibkbcbijexgxiry
ulujatqpqjinmtmjqhixijybebejgvafajopsnsjedorojmx
kvkjurgzgjclcdcjkfyhyjszvmvkburqrkjonunkrijyjkzc
fcfkhwbgbkpqtotkfepspknylwlkvshahkdmdedklgzizkta
wnwlcvsrslkpovolsjkzkladgdglixchclqrupulgfqtqloz
mxmlwtibilenefelmhajalubxoxmdwtstmlqpwpmtklalmbe
hehmjydidmrsvqvmhgrurmpanynmxujcjmfofgfmnibkbmvc
ypynexutunmrqxqnulmbmncfifinkzejenstwrwnihsvsnqb
ozonyvkdkngpghgnojclcnwdzqzofyvuvonsryrovmncnodg
jgjolafkfotuxsxojitwtorcpapozwlelohqhihopkdmdoxe
arapgzwvwpotszspwnodopehkhkpmbglgpuvytypkjuxupsd
qbqpaxmfmpirijipqlenepyfbsbqhaxwxqputatqxopepqfi
lilqnchmhqvwzuzqlkvyvqtercrqbyngnqjsjkjqrmfofqzg
ctcribyxyrqvuburypqfqrgjmjmrodinirwxavarmlwzwruf
sdsrczohorktklkrsngpgrahdudsjczyzsrwvcvszqrgrshk
nknspejojsxybwbsnmxaxsvgtetsdapipslulmlstohqhsbi
evetkdazatsxwdwtarshstilolotqfkpktyzcxctonybytwh
ufutebqjqtmvmnmtupiritcjfwfulebabutyxexubstitujm
pmpurglqluzadydupozczuxivgvufcrkrunwnonuvqjsjudk
gxgvmfcbcvuzyfyvctujuvknqnqvshmrmvabezevqpadavyj
whwvgdslsvoxopovwrktkvelhyhwngdcdwvazgzwduvkvwlo
rorwtinsnwbcfafwrqbebwzkxixwhetmtwpypqpwxslulwfm
izixohedexwbahaxevwlwxmpspsxujotoxcdgbgxsrcfcxal
yjyxifunuxqzqrqxytmvmxgnjajypifefyxcbibyfwxmxynq
tqtyvkpupydehchytsdgdybmzkzyjgvovyrarsryzunwnyho
kbkzqjgfgzydcjczgxynyzoruruzwlqvqzefidizutehezcn
alazkhwpwzsbstszavoxoziplclarkhghazedkdahyzozaps
vsvaxmrwrafgjejavufifadobmbalixqxatctutabwpypajq

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: lclark
Cipher: ypynex

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: lclark
Cipher: 133113112452

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: lclark
method variations:
qhqfwpvnvlbuasaqgzfxfvme

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l c l a r k 
1 3 1 1 2 5 
3 1 3 1 4 2 
They are then read out in rows:
131125313142
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: lclark
Cipher: lawcci

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: lclark
method variations:
nacfyb acfybn cfybna
fybnac ybnacf bnacfy

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: lclark

all 720 cipher variations:
lclark lclakr lclrak lclrka lclkra lclkar lcalrk lcalkr lcarlk lcarkl lcakrl
lcaklr lcralk lcrakl lcrlak lcrlka lcrkla lcrkal lckarl lckalr lckral lckrla
lcklra lcklar llcark llcakr llcrak llcrka llckra llckar llacrk llackr llarck
llarkc llakrc llakcr llrack llrakc llrcak llrcka llrkca llrkac llkarc llkacr
llkrac llkrca llkcra llkcar lalcrk lalckr lalrck lalrkc lalkrc lalkcr laclrk
laclkr lacrlk lacrkl lackrl lacklr larclk larckl larlck larlkc larklc larkcl
lakcrl lakclr lakrcl lakrlc laklrc laklcr lrlack lrlakc lrlcak lrlcka lrlkca
lrlkac lralck lralkc lraclk lrackl lrakcl lraklc lrcalk lrcakl lrclak lrclka
lrckla lrckal lrkacl lrkalc lrkcal lrkcla lrklca lrklac lklarc lklacr lklrac
lklrca lklcra lklcar lkalrc lkalcr lkarlc lkarcl lkacrl lkaclr lkralc lkracl
lkrlac lkrlca lkrcla lkrcal lkcarl lkcalr lkcral lkcrla lkclra lkclar cllark
cllakr cllrak cllrka cllkra cllkar clalrk clalkr clarlk clarkl clakrl claklr
clralk clrakl clrlak clrlka clrkla clrkal clkarl clkalr clkral clkrla clklra
clklar cllark cllakr cllrak cllrka cllkra cllkar clalrk clalkr clarlk clarkl
clakrl claklr clralk clrakl clrlak clrlka clrkla clrkal clkarl clkalr clkral
clkrla clklra clklar callrk callkr calrlk calrkl calkrl calklr callrk callkr
calrlk calrkl calkrl calklr carllk carlkl carllk carlkl carkll carkll caklrl
cakllr cakrll cakrll caklrl cakllr crlalk crlakl crllak crllka crlkla crlkal
crallk cralkl crallk cralkl crakll crakll crlalk crlakl crllak crllka crlkla
crlkal crkall crkall crklal crklla crklla crklal cklarl cklalr cklral cklrla
ckllra ckllar ckalrl ckallr ckarll ckarll ckalrl ckallr ckrall ckrall ckrlal
ckrlla ckrlla ckrlal cklarl cklalr cklral cklrla ckllra ckllar lclark lclakr
lclrak lclrka lclkra lclkar lcalrk lcalkr lcarlk lcarkl lcakrl lcaklr lcralk
lcrakl lcrlak lcrlka lcrkla lcrkal lckarl lckalr lckral lckrla lcklra lcklar
llcark llcakr llcrak llcrka llckra llckar llacrk llackr llarck llarkc llakrc
llakcr llrack llrakc llrcak llrcka llrkca llrkac llkarc llkacr llkrac llkrca
llkcra llkcar lalcrk lalckr lalrck lalrkc lalkrc lalkcr laclrk laclkr lacrlk
lacrkl lackrl lacklr larclk larckl larlck larlkc larklc larkcl lakcrl lakclr
lakrcl lakrlc laklrc laklcr lrlack lrlakc lrlcak lrlcka lrlkca lrlkac lralck
lralkc lraclk lrackl lrakcl lraklc lrcalk lrcakl lrclak lrclka lrckla lrckal
lrkacl lrkalc lrkcal lrkcla lrklca lrklac lklarc lklacr lklrac lklrca lklcra
lklcar lkalrc lkalcr lkarlc lkarcl lkacrl lkaclr lkralc lkracl lkrlac lkrlca
lkrcla lkrcal lkcarl lkcalr lkcral lkcrla lkclra lkclar acllrk acllkr aclrlk
aclrkl aclkrl aclklr acllrk acllkr aclrlk aclrkl aclkrl aclklr acrllk acrlkl
acrllk acrlkl acrkll acrkll acklrl ackllr ackrll ackrll acklrl ackllr alclrk
alclkr alcrlk alcrkl alckrl alcklr allcrk allckr allrck allrkc allkrc allkcr
alrlck alrlkc alrclk alrckl alrkcl alrklc alklrc alklcr alkrlc alkrcl alkcrl
alkclr allcrk allckr allrck allrkc allkrc allkcr alclrk alclkr alcrlk alcrkl
alckrl alcklr alrclk alrckl alrlck alrlkc alrklc alrkcl alkcrl alkclr alkrcl
alkrlc alklrc alklcr arllck arllkc arlclk arlckl arlkcl arlklc arllck arllkc
arlclk arlckl arlkcl arlklc arcllk arclkl arcllk arclkl arckll arckll arklcl
arkllc arkcll arkcll arklcl arkllc akllrc akllcr aklrlc aklrcl aklcrl aklclr
akllrc akllcr aklrlc aklrcl aklcrl aklclr akrllc akrlcl akrllc akrlcl akrcll
akrcll akclrl akcllr akcrll akcrll akclrl akcllr rclalk rclakl rcllak rcllka
rclkla rclkal rcallk rcalkl rcallk rcalkl rcakll rcakll rclalk rclakl rcllak
rcllka rclkla rclkal rckall rckall rcklal rcklla rcklla rcklal rlcalk rlcakl
rlclak rlclka rlckla rlckal rlaclk rlackl rlalck rlalkc rlaklc rlakcl rllack
rllakc rllcak rllcka rllkca rllkac rlkalc rlkacl rlklac rlklca rlkcla rlkcal
ralclk ralckl rallck rallkc ralklc ralkcl racllk raclkl racllk raclkl rackll
rackll ralclk ralckl rallck rallkc ralklc ralkcl rakcll rakcll raklcl rakllc
rakllc raklcl rllack rllakc rllcak rllcka rllkca rllkac rlalck rlalkc rlaclk
rlackl rlakcl rlaklc rlcalk rlcakl rlclak rlclka rlckla rlckal rlkacl rlkalc
rlkcal rlkcla rlklca rlklac rklalc rklacl rkllac rkllca rklcla rklcal rkallc
rkalcl rkallc rkalcl rkacll rkacll rklalc rklacl rkllac rkllca rklcla rklcal
rkcall rkcall rkclal rkclla rkclla rkclal kclarl kclalr kclral kclrla kcllra
kcllar kcalrl kcallr kcarll kcarll kcalrl kcallr kcrall kcrall kcrlal kcrlla
kcrlla kcrlal kclarl kclalr kclral kclrla kcllra kcllar klcarl klcalr klcral
klcrla klclra klclar klacrl klaclr klarcl klarlc klalrc klalcr klracl klralc
klrcal klrcla klrlca klrlac kllarc kllacr kllrac kllrca kllcra kllcar kalcrl
kalclr kalrcl kalrlc kallrc kallcr kaclrl kacllr kacrll kacrll kaclrl kacllr
karcll karcll karlcl karllc karllc karlcl kalcrl kalclr kalrcl kalrlc kallrc
kallcr krlacl krlalc krlcal krlcla krllca krllac kralcl krallc kracll kracll
kralcl krallc krcall krcall krclal krclla krclla krclal krlacl krlalc krlcal
krlcla krllca krllac kllarc kllacr kllrac kllrca kllcra kllcar klalrc klalcr
klarlc klarcl klacrl klaclr klralc klracl klrlac klrlca klrcla klrcal klcarl
klcalr klcral klcrla klclra klclar

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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