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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: largom
cipher variations:
mbshpn nctiqo odujrp pevksq qfwltr
rgxmus shynvt tizowu ujapxv vkbqyw
wlcrzx xmdsay ynetbz zofuca apgvdb
bqhwec crixfd dsjyge etkzhf fulaig
gvmbjh hwncki ixodlj jypemk kzqfnl

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: largom
Cipher: ozitln

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: largom

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: largom
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: largom
Cipher: ynetbz

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: largom
Cipher: 131124224323

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: largom
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l a r g o m 
1 1 2 2 4 2 
3 1 4 2 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: largom
Cipher: agicin

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Method #3

Plaintext: largom
method variations:
cfirhc firhcc irhccf
rhccfi hccfir ccfirh

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: largom

all 720 cipher variations:
largom largmo larogm laromg larmog larmgo lagrom lagrmo lagorm lagomr lagmor
lagmro laogrm laogmr laorgm laormg laomrg laomgr lamgor lamgro lamogr lamorg
lamrog lamrgo lragom lragmo lraogm lraomg lramog lramgo lrgaom lrgamo lrgoam
lrgoma lrgmoa lrgmao lrogam lrogma lroagm lroamg lromag lromga lrmgoa lrmgao
lrmoga lrmoag lrmaog lrmago lgraom lgramo lgroam lgroma lgrmoa lgrmao lgarom
lgarmo lgaorm lgaomr lgamor lgamro lgoarm lgoamr lgoram lgorma lgomra lgomar
lgmaor lgmaro lgmoar lgmora lgmroa lgmrao lorgam lorgma loragm loramg lormag
lormga logram logrma logarm logamr logmar logmra loagrm loagmr loargm loarmg
loamrg loamgr lomgar lomgra lomagr lomarg lomrag lomrga lmrgoa lmrgao lmroga
lmroag lmraog lmrago lmgroa lmgrao lmgora lmgoar lmgaor lmgaro lmogra lmogar
lmorga lmorag lmoarg lmoagr lmagor lmagro lmaogr lmaorg lmarog lmargo alrgom
alrgmo alrogm alromg alrmog alrmgo algrom algrmo algorm algomr algmor algmro
alogrm alogmr alorgm alormg alomrg alomgr almgor almgro almogr almorg almrog
almrgo arlgom arlgmo arlogm arlomg arlmog arlmgo arglom arglmo argolm argoml
argmol argmlo aroglm arogml arolgm arolmg aromlg aromgl armgol armglo armogl
armolg armlog armlgo agrlom agrlmo agrolm agroml agrmol agrmlo aglrom aglrmo
aglorm aglomr aglmor aglmro agolrm agolmr agorlm agorml agomrl agomlr agmlor
agmlro agmolr agmorl agmrol agmrlo aorglm aorgml aorlgm aorlmg aormlg aormgl
aogrlm aogrml aoglrm aoglmr aogmlr aogmrl aolgrm aolgmr aolrgm aolrmg aolmrg
aolmgr aomglr aomgrl aomlgr aomlrg aomrlg aomrgl amrgol amrglo amrogl amrolg
amrlog amrlgo amgrol amgrlo amgorl amgolr amglor amglro amogrl amoglr amorgl
amorlg amolrg amolgr amlgor amlgro amlogr amlorg amlrog amlrgo ralgom ralgmo
ralogm ralomg ralmog ralmgo raglom raglmo ragolm ragoml ragmol ragmlo raoglm
raogml raolgm raolmg raomlg raomgl ramgol ramglo ramogl ramolg ramlog ramlgo
rlagom rlagmo rlaogm rlaomg rlamog rlamgo rlgaom rlgamo rlgoam rlgoma rlgmoa
rlgmao rlogam rlogma rloagm rloamg rlomag rlomga rlmgoa rlmgao rlmoga rlmoag
rlmaog rlmago rglaom rglamo rgloam rgloma rglmoa rglmao rgalom rgalmo rgaolm
rgaoml rgamol rgamlo rgoalm rgoaml rgolam rgolma rgomla rgomal rgmaol rgmalo
rgmoal rgmola rgmloa rgmlao rolgam rolgma rolagm rolamg rolmag rolmga roglam
roglma rogalm rogaml rogmal rogmla roaglm roagml roalgm roalmg roamlg roamgl
romgal romgla romagl romalg romlag romlga rmlgoa rmlgao rmloga rmloag rmlaog
rmlago rmgloa rmglao rmgola rmgoal rmgaol rmgalo rmogla rmogal rmolga rmolag
rmoalg rmoagl rmagol rmaglo rmaogl rmaolg rmalog rmalgo garlom garlmo garolm
garoml garmol garmlo galrom galrmo galorm galomr galmor galmro gaolrm gaolmr
gaorlm gaorml gaomrl gaomlr gamlor gamlro gamolr gamorl gamrol gamrlo gralom
gralmo graolm graoml gramol gramlo grlaom grlamo grloam grloma grlmoa grlmao
grolam grolma groalm groaml gromal gromla grmloa grmlao grmola grmoal grmaol
grmalo glraom glramo glroam glroma glrmoa glrmao glarom glarmo glaorm glaomr
glamor glamro gloarm gloamr gloram glorma glomra glomar glmaor glmaro glmoar
glmora glmroa glmrao gorlam gorlma goralm goraml gormal gormla golram golrma
golarm golamr golmar golmra goalrm goalmr goarlm goarml goamrl goamlr gomlar
gomlra gomalr gomarl gomral gomrla gmrloa gmrlao gmrola gmroal gmraol gmralo
gmlroa gmlrao gmlora gmloar gmlaor gmlaro gmolra gmolar gmorla gmoral gmoarl
gmoalr gmalor gmalro gmaolr gmaorl gmarol gmarlo oarglm oargml oarlgm oarlmg
oarmlg oarmgl oagrlm oagrml oaglrm oaglmr oagmlr oagmrl oalgrm oalgmr oalrgm
oalrmg oalmrg oalmgr oamglr oamgrl oamlgr oamlrg oamrlg oamrgl oraglm oragml
oralgm oralmg oramlg oramgl orgalm orgaml orglam orglma orgmla orgmal orlgam
orlgma orlagm orlamg orlmag orlmga ormgla ormgal ormlga ormlag ormalg ormagl
ogralm ograml ogrlam ogrlma ogrmla ogrmal ogarlm ogarml ogalrm ogalmr ogamlr
ogamrl oglarm oglamr oglram oglrma oglmra oglmar ogmalr ogmarl ogmlar ogmlra
ogmrla ogmral olrgam olrgma olragm olramg olrmag olrmga olgram olgrma olgarm
olgamr olgmar olgmra olagrm olagmr olargm olarmg olamrg olamgr olmgar olmgra
olmagr olmarg olmrag olmrga omrgla omrgal omrlga omrlag omralg omragl omgrla
omgral omglra omglar omgalr omgarl omlgra omlgar omlrga omlrag omlarg omlagr
omaglr omagrl omalgr omalrg omarlg omargl margol marglo marogl marolg marlog
marlgo magrol magrlo magorl magolr maglor maglro maogrl maoglr maorgl maorlg
maolrg maolgr malgor malgro malogr malorg malrog malrgo mragol mraglo mraogl
mraolg mralog mralgo mrgaol mrgalo mrgoal mrgola mrgloa mrglao mrogal mrogla
mroagl mroalg mrolag mrolga mrlgoa mrlgao mrloga mrloag mrlaog mrlago mgraol
mgralo mgroal mgrola mgrloa mgrlao mgarol mgarlo mgaorl mgaolr mgalor mgalro
mgoarl mgoalr mgoral mgorla mgolra mgolar mglaor mglaro mgloar mglora mglroa
mglrao morgal morgla moragl moralg morlag morlga mogral mogrla mogarl mogalr
moglar moglra moagrl moaglr moargl moarlg moalrg moalgr molgar molgra molagr
molarg molrag molrga mlrgoa mlrgao mlroga mlroag mlraog mlrago mlgroa mlgrao
mlgora mlgoar mlgaor mlgaro mlogra mlogar mlorga mlorag mloarg mloagr mlagor
mlagro mlaogr mlaorg mlarog mlargo

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History of cryptography
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