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flashflood


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: lapwai
cipher variations:
mbqxbj ncryck odszdl petaem qfubfn
rgvcgo shwdhp tixeiq ujyfjr vkzgks
wlahlt xmbimu yncjnv zodkow apelpx
bqfmqy crgnrz dshosa etiptb fujquc
gvkrvd hwlswe ixmtxf jynuyg kzovzh

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: lapwai
Cipher: ozkdzr

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: lapwai
Cipher: ABABA AAAAA ABBBA BABAA AAAAA ABAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: lapwai
cipher variations:
mbqxbjibupbzebyhbpabczbfwbgrbvsbkjblkbstbrgbwlbh
cbadbxybevbnubinbdqbmfbtncryckjcvqcafczicqbcdacg
xchscwtclkcmlctucshcxmcidcbecyzcfwcovcjocercngcu
odszdlkdwrdbgdajdrcdebdhyditdxudmldnmduvdtidyndj
edcfdzadgxdpwdkpdfsdohdvpetaemlexsechebkesdefcei
zejueyvenmeonevweujezoekfedgeabehyeqxelqegtepiew
qfubfnmfytfdifclftefgdfjafkvfzwfonfpofwxfvkfapfl
gfehfbcfizfryfmrfhufqjfxrgvcgongzugejgdmgufghegk
bglwgaxgpogqpgxygwlgbqgmhgfigcdgjagszgnsgivgrkgy
shwdhpohavhfkhenhvghifhlchmxhbyhqphrqhyzhxmhcrhn
ihgjhdehkbhtahothjwhslhztixeiqpibwiglifoiwhijgim
dinyiczirqisrizaiynidsiojihkiefilciubipuikxitmia
ujyfjrqjcxjhmjgpjxijkhjnejozjdajsrjtsjabjzojetjp
kjiljfgjmdjvcjqvjlyjunjbvkzgksrkdykinkhqkyjkliko
fkpakebktskutkbckapkfukqlkjmkghknekwdkrwkmzkvokc
wlahltslezljolirlzklmjlpglqblfclutlvulcdlbqlgvlr
mlknlhiloflxelsxlnalwpldxmbimutmfamkpmjsmalmnkmq
hmrcmgdmvumwvmdemcrmhwmsnmlomijmpgmyfmtymobmxqme
yncjnvungbnlqnktnbmnolnrinsdnhenwvnxwnefndsnixnt
onmpnjknqhnzgnuznpcnyrnfzodkowvohcomroluocnopmos
joteoifoxwoyxofgoetojyouponqoklorioahovaoqdozsog
apelpxwpidpnspmvpdopqnptkpufpjgpyxpzypghpfupkzpv
qporplmpsjpbipwbprepatphbqfmqyxqjeqotqnwqepqroqu
lqvgqkhqzyqazqhiqgvqlaqwrqpsqmnqtkqcjqxcqsfqbuqi
crgnrzyrkfrpuroxrfqrsprvmrwhrlirazrbarijrhwrmbrx
srqtrnorulrdkrydrtgrcvrjdshosazslgsqvspysgrstqsw
nsxismjsbascbsjksixsncsytsrusopsvmselszesuhsdwsk
etiptbatmhtrwtqzthsturtxotyjtnktcbtdctkltjytodtz
utsvtpqtwntfmtaftvitextlfujqucbuniusxurauituvsuy
puzkuoludcuedulmukzupeuavutwuqruxougnubguwjufyum
gvkrvdcvojvtyvsbvjuvwtvzqvalvpmvedvfevmnvlavqfvb
wvuxvrsvypvhovchvxkvgzvnhwlswedwpkwuzwtcwkvwxuwa
rwbmwqnwfewgfwnowmbwrgwcxwvywstwzqwipwdiwylwhawo
ixmtxfexqlxvaxudxlwxyvxbsxcnxroxgfxhgxopxncxshxd
yxwzxtuxarxjqxejxzmxibxpjynuygfyrmywbyveymxyzwyc
tydoyspyhgyihypqyodytiyezyxayuvybsykryfkyanyjcyq
kzovzhgzsnzxczwfznyzaxzduzepztqzihzjizqrzpezujzf
azybzvwzctzlszglzbozkdzrlapwaihatoaydaxgaozabyae
vafqaurajiakjarsaqfavkagbazcawxaduamtahmacpaleas

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: lapwai
Cipher: yncjnv

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: lapwai
Cipher: 131153251142

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: lapwai
method variations:
qfubfovlzgltaqemqyfvkrvd

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l a p w a i 
1 1 5 2 1 4 
3 1 3 5 1 2 
They are then read out in rows:
115214313512
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: lapwai
Cipher: akqcxf

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: lapwai
method variations:
cvheqb vheqbc heqbcv
eqbcvh qbcvhe bcvheq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: lapwai

all 720 cipher variations:
lapwai lapwia lapawi lapaiw lapiaw lapiwa lawpai lawpia lawapi lawaip lawiap
lawipa laawpi laawip laapwi laapiw laaipw laaiwp laiwap laiwpa laiawp laiapw
laipaw laipwa lpawai lpawia lpaawi lpaaiw lpaiaw lpaiwa lpwaai lpwaia lpwaai
lpwaia lpwiaa lpwiaa lpawai lpawia lpaawi lpaaiw lpaiaw lpaiwa lpiwaa lpiwaa
lpiawa lpiaaw lpiaaw lpiawa lwpaai lwpaia lwpaai lwpaia lwpiaa lwpiaa lwapai
lwapia lwaapi lwaaip lwaiap lwaipa lwaapi lwaaip lwapai lwapia lwaipa lwaiap
lwiaap lwiapa lwiaap lwiapa lwipaa lwipaa lapwai lapwia lapawi lapaiw lapiaw
lapiwa lawpai lawpia lawapi lawaip lawiap lawipa laawpi laawip laapwi laapiw
laaipw laaiwp laiwap laiwpa laiawp laiapw laipaw laipwa lipwaa lipwaa lipawa
lipaaw lipaaw lipawa liwpaa liwpaa liwapa liwaap liwaap liwapa liawpa liawap
liapwa liapaw liaapw liaawp liawap liawpa liaawp liaapw liapaw liapwa alpwai
alpwia alpawi alpaiw alpiaw alpiwa alwpai alwpia alwapi alwaip alwiap alwipa
alawpi alawip alapwi alapiw alaipw alaiwp aliwap aliwpa aliawp aliapw alipaw
alipwa aplwai aplwia aplawi aplaiw apliaw apliwa apwlai apwlia apwali apwail
apwial apwila apawli apawil apalwi apaliw apailw apaiwl apiwal apiwla apiawl
apialw apilaw apilwa awplai awplia awpali awpail awpial awpila awlpai awlpia
awlapi awlaip awliap awlipa awalpi awalip awapli awapil awaipl awailp awilap
awilpa awialp awiapl awipal awipla aapwli aapwil aaplwi aapliw aapilw aapiwl
aawpli aawpil aawlpi aawlip aawilp aawipl aalwpi aalwip aalpwi aalpiw aalipw
aaliwp aaiwlp aaiwpl aailwp aailpw aaiplw aaipwl aipwal aipwla aipawl aipalw
aiplaw aiplwa aiwpal aiwpla aiwapl aiwalp aiwlap aiwlpa aiawpl aiawlp aiapwl
aiaplw aialpw aialwp ailwap ailwpa ailawp ailapw ailpaw ailpwa palwai palwia
palawi palaiw paliaw paliwa pawlai pawlia pawali pawail pawial pawila paawli
paawil paalwi paaliw paailw paaiwl paiwal paiwla paiawl paialw pailaw pailwa
plawai plawia plaawi plaaiw plaiaw plaiwa plwaai plwaia plwaai plwaia plwiaa
plwiaa plawai plawia plaawi plaaiw plaiaw plaiwa pliwaa pliwaa pliawa pliaaw
pliaaw pliawa pwlaai pwlaia pwlaai pwlaia pwliaa pwliaa pwalai pwalia pwaali
pwaail pwaial pwaila pwaali pwaail pwalai pwalia pwaila pwaial pwiaal pwiala
pwiaal pwiala pwilaa pwilaa palwai palwia palawi palaiw paliaw paliwa pawlai
pawlia pawali pawail pawial pawila paawli paawil paalwi paaliw paailw paaiwl
paiwal paiwla paiawl paialw pailaw pailwa pilwaa pilwaa pilawa pilaaw pilaaw
pilawa piwlaa piwlaa piwala piwaal piwaal piwala piawla piawal pialwa pialaw
piaalw piaawl piawal piawla piaawl piaalw pialaw pialwa waplai waplia wapali
wapail wapial wapila walpai walpia walapi walaip waliap walipa waalpi waalip
waapli waapil waaipl waailp wailap wailpa waialp waiapl waipal waipla wpalai
wpalia wpaali wpaail wpaial wpaila wplaai wplaia wplaai wplaia wpliaa wpliaa
wpalai wpalia wpaali wpaail wpaial wpaila wpilaa wpilaa wpiala wpiaal wpiaal
wpiala wlpaai wlpaia wlpaai wlpaia wlpiaa wlpiaa wlapai wlapia wlaapi wlaaip
wlaiap wlaipa wlaapi wlaaip wlapai wlapia wlaipa wlaiap wliaap wliapa wliaap
wliapa wlipaa wlipaa waplai waplia wapali wapail wapial wapila walpai walpia
walapi walaip waliap walipa waalpi waalip waapli waapil waaipl waailp wailap
wailpa waialp waiapl waipal waipla wiplaa wiplaa wipala wipaal wipaal wipala
wilpaa wilpaa wilapa wilaap wilaap wilapa wialpa wialap wiapla wiapal wiaapl
wiaalp wialap wialpa wiaalp wiaapl wiapal wiapla aapwli aapwil aaplwi aapliw
aapilw aapiwl aawpli aawpil aawlpi aawlip aawilp aawipl aalwpi aalwip aalpwi
aalpiw aalipw aaliwp aaiwlp aaiwpl aailwp aailpw aaiplw aaipwl apawli apawil
apalwi apaliw apailw apaiwl apwali apwail apwlai apwlia apwila apwial aplwai
aplwia aplawi aplaiw apliaw apliwa apiwla apiwal apilwa apilaw apialw apiawl
awpali awpail awplai awplia awpila awpial awapli awapil awalpi awalip awailp
awaipl awlapi awlaip awlpai awlpia awlipa awliap awialp awiapl awilap awilpa
awipla awipal alpwai alpwia alpawi alpaiw alpiaw alpiwa alwpai alwpia alwapi
alwaip alwiap alwipa alawpi alawip alapwi alapiw alaipw alaiwp aliwap aliwpa
aliawp aliapw alipaw alipwa aipwla aipwal aiplwa aiplaw aipalw aipawl aiwpla
aiwpal aiwlpa aiwlap aiwalp aiwapl ailwpa ailwap ailpwa ailpaw ailapw ailawp
aiawlp aiawpl aialwp aialpw aiaplw aiapwl iapwal iapwla iapawl iapalw iaplaw
iaplwa iawpal iawpla iawapl iawalp iawlap iawlpa iaawpl iaawlp iaapwl iaaplw
iaalpw iaalwp ialwap ialwpa ialawp ialapw ialpaw ialpwa ipawal ipawla ipaawl
ipaalw ipalaw ipalwa ipwaal ipwala ipwaal ipwala ipwlaa ipwlaa ipawal ipawla
ipaawl ipaalw ipalaw ipalwa iplwaa iplwaa iplawa iplaaw iplaaw iplawa iwpaal
iwpala iwpaal iwpala iwplaa iwplaa iwapal iwapla iwaapl iwaalp iwalap iwalpa
iwaapl iwaalp iwapal iwapla iwalpa iwalap iwlaap iwlapa iwlaap iwlapa iwlpaa
iwlpaa iapwal iapwla iapawl iapalw iaplaw iaplwa iawpal iawpla iawapl iawalp
iawlap iawlpa iaawpl iaawlp iaapwl iaaplw iaalpw iaalwp ialwap ialwpa ialawp
ialapw ialpaw ialpwa ilpwaa ilpwaa ilpawa ilpaaw ilpaaw ilpawa ilwpaa ilwpaa
ilwapa ilwaap ilwaap ilwapa ilawpa ilawap ilapwa ilapaw ilaapw ilaawp ilawap
ilawpa ilaawp ilaapw ilapaw ilapwa

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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