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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: langor
cipher variations:
mbohps ncpiqt odqjru perksv qfsltw
rgtmux shunvy tivowz ujwpxa vkxqyb
wlyrzc xmzsad ynatbe zobucf apcvdg
bqdweh crexfi dsfygj etgzhk fuhail
gvibjm hwjckn ixkdlo jylemp kzmfnq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: langor
Cipher: ozmtli

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: langor

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: langor
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: langor
Cipher: ynatbe

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: langor
Cipher: 131133224324

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: langor
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l a n g o r 
1 1 3 2 4 2 
3 1 3 2 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: langor
Cipher: ahichs

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Method #3

Plaintext: langor
method variations:
clhrhd lhrhdc hrhdcl
rhdclh hdclhr dclhrh

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: langor

all 720 cipher variations:
langor langro lanogr lanorg lanrog lanrgo lagnor lagnro lagonr lagorn lagron
lagrno laognr laogrn laongr laonrg laorng laorgn largon largno larogn larong
larnog larngo lnagor lnagro lnaogr lnaorg lnarog lnargo lngaor lngaro lngoar
lngora lngroa lngrao lnogar lnogra lnoagr lnoarg lnorag lnorga lnrgoa lnrgao
lnroga lnroag lnraog lnrago lgnaor lgnaro lgnoar lgnora lgnroa lgnrao lganor
lganro lgaonr lgaorn lgaron lgarno lgoanr lgoarn lgonar lgonra lgorna lgoran
lgraon lgrano lgroan lgrona lgrnoa lgrnao longar longra lonagr lonarg lonrag
lonrga lognar lognra loganr logarn logran logrna loagnr loagrn loangr loanrg
loarng loargn lorgan lorgna loragn lorang lornag lornga lrngoa lrngao lrnoga
lrnoag lrnaog lrnago lrgnoa lrgnao lrgona lrgoan lrgaon lrgano lrogna lrogan
lronga lronag lroang lroagn lragon lragno lraogn lraong lranog lrango alngor
alngro alnogr alnorg alnrog alnrgo algnor algnro algonr algorn algron algrno
alognr alogrn alongr alonrg alorng alorgn alrgon alrgno alrogn alrong alrnog
alrngo anlgor anlgro anlogr anlorg anlrog anlrgo anglor anglro angolr angorl
angrol angrlo anoglr anogrl anolgr anolrg anorlg anorgl anrgol anrglo anrogl
anrolg anrlog anrlgo agnlor agnlro agnolr agnorl agnrol agnrlo aglnor aglnro
aglonr aglorn aglron aglrno agolnr agolrn agonlr agonrl agornl agorln agrlon
agrlno agroln agronl agrnol agrnlo aonglr aongrl aonlgr aonlrg aonrlg aonrgl
aognlr aognrl aoglnr aoglrn aogrln aogrnl aolgnr aolgrn aolngr aolnrg aolrng
aolrgn aorgln aorgnl aorlgn aorlng aornlg aorngl arngol arnglo arnogl arnolg
arnlog arnlgo argnol argnlo argonl argoln arglon arglno arognl arogln arongl
aronlg arolng arolgn arlgon arlgno arlogn arlong arlnog arlngo nalgor nalgro
nalogr nalorg nalrog nalrgo naglor naglro nagolr nagorl nagrol nagrlo naoglr
naogrl naolgr naolrg naorlg naorgl nargol narglo narogl narolg narlog narlgo
nlagor nlagro nlaogr nlaorg nlarog nlargo nlgaor nlgaro nlgoar nlgora nlgroa
nlgrao nlogar nlogra nloagr nloarg nlorag nlorga nlrgoa nlrgao nlroga nlroag
nlraog nlrago nglaor nglaro ngloar nglora nglroa nglrao ngalor ngalro ngaolr
ngaorl ngarol ngarlo ngoalr ngoarl ngolar ngolra ngorla ngoral ngraol ngralo
ngroal ngrola ngrloa ngrlao nolgar nolgra nolagr nolarg nolrag nolrga noglar
noglra nogalr nogarl nogral nogrla noaglr noagrl noalgr noalrg noarlg noargl
norgal norgla noragl noralg norlag norlga nrlgoa nrlgao nrloga nrloag nrlaog
nrlago nrgloa nrglao nrgola nrgoal nrgaol nrgalo nrogla nrogal nrolga nrolag
nroalg nroagl nragol nraglo nraogl nraolg nralog nralgo ganlor ganlro ganolr
ganorl ganrol ganrlo galnor galnro galonr galorn galron galrno gaolnr gaolrn
gaonlr gaonrl gaornl gaorln garlon garlno garoln garonl garnol garnlo gnalor
gnalro gnaolr gnaorl gnarol gnarlo gnlaor gnlaro gnloar gnlora gnlroa gnlrao
gnolar gnolra gnoalr gnoarl gnoral gnorla gnrloa gnrlao gnrola gnroal gnraol
gnralo glnaor glnaro glnoar glnora glnroa glnrao glanor glanro glaonr glaorn
glaron glarno gloanr gloarn glonar glonra glorna gloran glraon glrano glroan
glrona glrnoa glrnao gonlar gonlra gonalr gonarl gonral gonrla golnar golnra
golanr golarn golran golrna goalnr goalrn goanlr goanrl goarnl goarln gorlan
gorlna goraln goranl gornal gornla grnloa grnlao grnola grnoal grnaol grnalo
grlnoa grlnao grlona grloan grlaon grlano grolna grolan gronla gronal groanl
groaln gralon gralno graoln graonl granol granlo oanglr oangrl oanlgr oanlrg
oanrlg oanrgl oagnlr oagnrl oaglnr oaglrn oagrln oagrnl oalgnr oalgrn oalngr
oalnrg oalrng oalrgn oargln oargnl oarlgn oarlng oarnlg oarngl onaglr onagrl
onalgr onalrg onarlg onargl ongalr ongarl onglar onglra ongrla ongral onlgar
onlgra onlagr onlarg onlrag onlrga onrgla onrgal onrlga onrlag onralg onragl
ognalr ognarl ognlar ognlra ognrla ognral oganlr oganrl ogalnr ogalrn ogarln
ogarnl oglanr oglarn oglnar oglnra oglrna oglran ograln ogranl ogrlan ogrlna
ogrnla ogrnal olngar olngra olnagr olnarg olnrag olnrga olgnar olgnra olganr
olgarn olgran olgrna olagnr olagrn olangr olanrg olarng olargn olrgan olrgna
olragn olrang olrnag olrnga orngla orngal ornlga ornlag ornalg ornagl orgnla
orgnal orglna orglan orgaln organl orlgna orlgan orlnga orlnag orlang orlagn
oragln oragnl oralgn oralng oranlg orangl rangol ranglo ranogl ranolg ranlog
ranlgo ragnol ragnlo ragonl ragoln raglon raglno raognl raogln raongl raonlg
raolng raolgn ralgon ralgno ralogn ralong ralnog ralngo rnagol rnaglo rnaogl
rnaolg rnalog rnalgo rngaol rngalo rngoal rngola rngloa rnglao rnogal rnogla
rnoagl rnoalg rnolag rnolga rnlgoa rnlgao rnloga rnloag rnlaog rnlago rgnaol
rgnalo rgnoal rgnola rgnloa rgnlao rganol rganlo rgaonl rgaoln rgalon rgalno
rgoanl rgoaln rgonal rgonla rgolna rgolan rglaon rglano rgloan rglona rglnoa
rglnao rongal rongla ronagl ronalg ronlag ronlga rognal rognla roganl rogaln
roglan roglna roagnl roagln roangl roanlg roalng roalgn rolgan rolgna rolagn
rolang rolnag rolnga rlngoa rlngao rlnoga rlnoag rlnaog rlnago rlgnoa rlgnao
rlgona rlgoan rlgaon rlgano rlogna rlogan rlonga rlonag rloang rloagn rlagon
rlagno rlaogn rlaong rlanog rlango

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History of cryptography
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