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fidgetiness

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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: lances
cipher variations:
mbodft ncpegu odqfhv pergiw qfshjx
rgtiky shujlz tivkma ujwlnb vkxmoc
wlynpd xmzoqe ynaprf zobqsg apcrth
bqdsui cretvj dsfuwk etgvxl fuhwym
gvixzn hwjyao ixkzbp jylacq kzmbdr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: lances
Cipher: ozmxvh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: lances
Cipher: ABABA AAAAA ABBAA AAABA AABAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: lances
cipher variations:
mbodftibohndebolvnabopdxwbotlhsboxtrkbofjlgbojrv
cbonzfyborhpubovpzqbozxjncpegujcpioefcpmwobcpqey
xcpumitcpyuslcpgkmhcpkswdcpoagzcpsiqvcpwqarcpayk
odqfhvkdqjpfgdqnxpcdqrfzydqvnjudqzvtmdqhlnidqltx
edqpbhadqtjrwdqxrbsdqbzlpergiwlerkqgheroyqdersga
zerwokverawunerimojermuyferqciberuksxerysctercam
qfshjxmfslrhifspzrefsthbafsxplwfsbxvofsjnpkfsnvz
gfsrdjcfsvltyfsztdufsdbnrgtikyngtmsijgtqasfgtuic
bgtyqmxgtcywpgtkoqlgtowahgtsekdgtwmuzgtauevgteco
shujlzohuntjkhurbtghuvjdchuzrnyhudzxqhulprmhupxb
ihutflehuxnvahubvfwhufdptivkmapivouklivscuhivwke
divasoziveayrivmqsnivqycjivugmfivyowbivcwgxivgeq
ujwlnbqjwpvlmjwtdvijwxlfejwbtpajwfbzsjwnrtojwrzd
kjwvhngjwzpxcjwdxhyjwhfrvkxmocrkxqwmnkxuewjkxymg
fkxcuqbkxgcatkxosupkxsaelkxwiohkxaqydkxeyizkxigs
wlynpdslyrxnolyvfxklyznhglydvrclyhdbulyptvqlytbf
mlyxjpilybrzelyfzjalyjhtxmzoqetmzsyopmzwgylmzaoi
hmzewsdmziecvmzquwrmzucgnmzykqjmzcsafmzgakbmzkiu
ynaprfunatzpqnaxhzmnabpjinafxtenajfdwnarvxsnavdh
onazlrknadtbgnahblcnaljvzobqsgvobuaqrobyianobcqk
jobgyufobkgexobswytobweipobamslobeuchobicmdobmkw
apcrthwpcvbrspczjbopcdrlkpchzvgpclhfypctxzupcxfj
qpcbntmpcfvdipcjdnepcnlxbqdsuixqdwcstqdakcpqdesm
lqdiawhqdmigzqduyavqdygkrqdcounqdgwejqdkeofqdomy
cretvjyrexdturebldqreftnmrejbxirenjharevzbwrezhl
sredpvorehxfkrelfpgrepnzdsfuwkzsfyeuvsfcmersfguo
nsfkcyjsfokibsfwacxsfaimtsfeqwpsfiyglsfmgqhsfqoa
etgvxlatgzfvwtgdnfstghvpotgldzktgpljctgxbdytgbjn
utgfrxqtgjzhmtgnhritgrpbfuhwymbuhagwxuheogtuhiwq
puhmealuhqmkduhycezuhckovuhgsyruhkainuhoisjuhsqc
gvixzncvibhxyvifphuvijxrqvinfbmvirnlevizdfavidlp
wvihtzsvilbjovipjtkvitrdhwjyaodwjciyzwjgqivwjkys
rwjogcnwjsomfwjaegbwjemqxwjiuatwjmckpwjqkulwjuse
ixkzbpexkdjzaxkhrjwxklztsxkphdoxktpngxkbfhcxkfnr
yxkjvbuxkndlqxkrlvmxkvtfjylacqfylekabyliskxylmau
tylqiepyluqohylcgidylgoszylkwcvyloemrylsmwnylwug
kzmbdrgzmflbczmjtlyzmnbvuzmrjfqzmvrpizmdhjezmhpt
azmlxdwzmpfnszmtnxozmxvhlanceshangmcdankumzanocw
vanskgranwsqjaneikfaniqubanmyexanqgotanuoypanywi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: lances
Cipher: ynaprf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: lances
Cipher: 131133315134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: lances
method variations:
qfshkxvlxnpcaqcsuhfvhxzn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
l a n c e s 
1 1 3 3 5 3 
3 1 3 1 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
113353313114
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: lances
Cipher: anpccq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: lances
method variations:
clnvld lnvldc nvldcl
vldcln ldclnv dclnvl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: lances

all 720 cipher variations:
lances lancse lanecs lanesc lansec lansce lacnes lacnse lacens lacesn lacsen
lacsne laecns laecsn laencs laensc laesnc laescn lascen lascne lasecn lasenc
lasnec lasnce lnaces lnacse lnaecs lnaesc lnasec lnasce lncaes lncase lnceas
lncesa lncsea lncsae lnecas lnecsa lneacs lneasc lnesac lnesca lnscea lnscae
lnseca lnseac lnsaec lnsace lcnaes lcnase lcneas lcnesa lcnsea lcnsae lcanes
lcanse lcaens lcaesn lcasen lcasne lceans lceasn lcenas lcensa lcesna lcesan
lcsaen lcsane lcsean lcsena lcsnea lcsnae lencas lencsa lenacs lenasc lensac
lensca lecnas lecnsa lecans lecasn lecsan lecsna leacns leacsn leancs leansc
leasnc leascn lescan lescna lesacn lesanc lesnac lesnca lsncea lsncae lsneca
lsneac lsnaec lsnace lscnea lscnae lscena lscean lscaen lscane lsecna lsecan
lsenca lsenac lseanc lseacn lsacen lsacne lsaecn lsaenc lsanec lsance alnces
alncse alnecs alnesc alnsec alnsce alcnes alcnse alcens alcesn alcsen alcsne
alecns alecsn alencs alensc alesnc alescn alscen alscne alsecn alsenc alsnec
alsnce anlces anlcse anlecs anlesc anlsec anlsce ancles anclse ancels ancesl
ancsel ancsle anecls anecsl anelcs anelsc aneslc anescl anscel anscle ansecl
anselc anslec anslce acnles acnlse acnels acnesl acnsel acnsle aclnes aclnse
aclens aclesn aclsen aclsne acelns acelsn acenls acensl acesnl acesln acslen
acslne acseln acsenl acsnel acsnle aencls aencsl aenlcs aenlsc aenslc aenscl
aecnls aecnsl aeclns aeclsn aecsln aecsnl aelcns aelcsn aelncs aelnsc aelsnc
aelscn aescln aescnl aeslcn aeslnc aesnlc aesncl asncel asncle asnecl asnelc
asnlec asnlce ascnel ascnle ascenl asceln asclen asclne asecnl asecln asencl
asenlc aselnc aselcn aslcen aslcne aslecn aslenc aslnec aslnce nalces nalcse
nalecs nalesc nalsec nalsce nacles naclse nacels nacesl nacsel nacsle naecls
naecsl naelcs naelsc naeslc naescl nascel nascle nasecl naselc naslec naslce
nlaces nlacse nlaecs nlaesc nlasec nlasce nlcaes nlcase nlceas nlcesa nlcsea
nlcsae nlecas nlecsa nleacs nleasc nlesac nlesca nlscea nlscae nlseca nlseac
nlsaec nlsace nclaes nclase ncleas nclesa nclsea nclsae ncales ncalse ncaels
ncaesl ncasel ncasle nceals nceasl ncelas ncelsa ncesla ncesal ncsael ncsale
ncseal ncsela ncslea ncslae nelcas nelcsa nelacs nelasc nelsac nelsca neclas
neclsa necals necasl necsal necsla neacls neacsl nealcs nealsc neaslc neascl
nescal nescla nesacl nesalc neslac neslca nslcea nslcae nsleca nsleac nslaec
nslace nsclea nsclae nscela nsceal nscael nscale nsecla nsecal nselca nselac
nsealc nseacl nsacel nsacle nsaecl nsaelc nsalec nsalce canles canlse canels
canesl cansel cansle calnes calnse calens calesn calsen calsne caelns caelsn
caenls caensl caesnl caesln caslen caslne caseln casenl casnel casnle cnales
cnalse cnaels cnaesl cnasel cnasle cnlaes cnlase cnleas cnlesa cnlsea cnlsae
cnelas cnelsa cneals cneasl cnesal cnesla cnslea cnslae cnsela cnseal cnsael
cnsale clnaes clnase clneas clnesa clnsea clnsae clanes clanse claens claesn
clasen clasne cleans cleasn clenas clensa clesna clesan clsaen clsane clsean
clsena clsnea clsnae cenlas cenlsa cenals cenasl censal censla celnas celnsa
celans celasn celsan celsna cealns cealsn ceanls ceansl ceasnl ceasln ceslan
ceslna cesaln cesanl cesnal cesnla csnlea csnlae csnela csneal csnael csnale
cslnea cslnae cslena cslean cslaen cslane cselna cselan csenla csenal cseanl
csealn csalen csalne csaeln csaenl csanel csanle eancls eancsl eanlcs eanlsc
eanslc eanscl eacnls eacnsl eaclns eaclsn eacsln eacsnl ealcns ealcsn ealncs
ealnsc ealsnc ealscn eascln eascnl easlcn easlnc easnlc easncl enacls enacsl
enalcs enalsc enaslc enascl encals encasl enclas enclsa encsla encsal enlcas
enlcsa enlacs enlasc enlsac enlsca enscla enscal enslca enslac ensalc ensacl
ecnals ecnasl ecnlas ecnlsa ecnsla ecnsal ecanls ecansl ecalns ecalsn ecasln
ecasnl eclans eclasn eclnas eclnsa eclsna eclsan ecsaln ecsanl ecslan ecslna
ecsnla ecsnal elncas elncsa elnacs elnasc elnsac elnsca elcnas elcnsa elcans
elcasn elcsan elcsna elacns elacsn elancs elansc elasnc elascn elscan elscna
elsacn elsanc elsnac elsnca esncla esncal esnlca esnlac esnalc esnacl escnla
escnal esclna esclan escaln escanl eslcna eslcan eslnca eslnac eslanc eslacn
esacln esacnl esalcn esalnc esanlc esancl sancel sancle sanecl sanelc sanlec
sanlce sacnel sacnle sacenl saceln saclen saclne saecnl saecln saencl saenlc
saelnc saelcn salcen salcne salecn salenc salnec salnce snacel snacle snaecl
snaelc snalec snalce sncael sncale snceal sncela snclea snclae snecal snecla
sneacl snealc snelac snelca snlcea snlcae snleca snleac snlaec snlace scnael
scnale scneal scnela scnlea scnlae scanel scanle scaenl scaeln scalen scalne
sceanl scealn scenal scenla scelna scelan sclaen sclane sclean sclena sclnea
sclnae sencal sencla senacl senalc senlac senlca secnal secnla secanl secaln
seclan seclna seacnl seacln seancl seanlc sealnc sealcn selcan selcna selacn
selanc selnac selnca slncea slncae slneca slneac slnaec slnace slcnea slcnae
slcena slcean slcaen slcane slecna slecan slenca slenac sleanc sleacn slacen
slacne slaecn slaenc slanec slance

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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