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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kudrun
cipher variations:
lvesvo mwftwp nxguxq oyhvyr pziwzs
qajxat rbkybu sclzcv tdmadw uenbex
vfocfy wgpdgz xhqeha yirfib zjsgjc
akthkd bluile cmvjmf dnwkng eoxloh
fpympi gqznqj hraork isbpsl jtcqtm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kudrun
Cipher: pfwifm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kudrun
Cipher: ABAAB BAABB AAABB BAAAA BAABB ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kudrun
cipher variations:
lvesvofjkajozxqixotlwqlonzcyzohnignovpuwpopdaedo
jrgmrodfmufoxtsctorhykhomwftwpgklbkpayrjypumxrmp
oadzapiojhopwqvxqpqebfepkshnspegnvgpyutdupsizlip
nxguxqhlmclqbzskzqvnysnqpbeabqjpkipqxrwyrqrfcgfq
ltiotqfhowhqzvuevqtjamjqoyhvyrimndmrcatlarwoztor
qcfbcrkqljqrysxzsrsgdhgrmujpurgipxirawvfwrukbnkr
pziwzsjnoensdbumbsxpaupsrdgcdslrmkrsztyatstheihs
nvkqvshjqyjsbxwgxsvlcolsqajxatkopfotecvnctyqbvqt
sehdetmsnlstauzbutuifjitowlrwtikrzktcyxhytwmdpmt
rbkybulpqgpufdwoduzrcwrutfiefuntomtubvacvuvjgkju
pxmsxujlsaludzyizuxneqnusclzcvmqrhqvgexpevasdxsv
ugjfgvoupnuvcwbdwvwkhlkvqyntyvkmtbmveazjavyofrov
tdmadwnrsirwhfyqfwbteytwvhkghwpvqovwdxcexwxlimlw
rzouzwlnucnwfbakbwzpgspwuenbexostjsxigzrgxcufzux
wilhixqwrpwxeydfyxymjnmxsapvaxmovdoxgcblcxaqhtqx
vfocfyptuktyjhashydvgavyxjmijyrxsqxyfzegzyznkony
tbqwbynpwepyhdcmdybriurywgpdgzquvluzkibtizewhbwz
yknjkzsytryzgafhazaolpozucrxczoqxfqziednezcsjvsz
xhqeharvwmvaljcujafxicxazloklatzuszahbgibabpmqpa
vdsydaprygrajfeofadtkwtayirfibswxnwbmkdvkbgyjdyb
amplmbuavtabichjcbcqnrqbwetzebqszhsbkgfpgbeulxub
zjsgjctxyoxcnlewlchzkezcbnqmncvbwubcjdikdcdrosrc
xfuafcrtaitclhgqhcfvmyvcakthkduyzpydomfxmdialfad
cornodwcxvcdkejledesptsdygvbgdsubjudmihridgwnzwd
bluilevzaqzepngynejbmgbedpsopexdywdelfkmfeftqute
zhwchetvckvenjisjehxoaxecmvjmfwabrafqohzofkcnhcf
eqtpqfyezxefmglngfgurvufaixdifuwdlwfokjtkfiypbyf
dnwkngxbcsbgrpiapgldoidgfruqrgzfayfgnhmohghvswvg
bjyejgvxemxgplkulgjzqczgeoxlohycdtchsqjbqhmepjeh
gsvrshagbzghoinpihiwtxwhckzfkhwyfnyhqmlvmhkardah
fpympizdeuditrkcrinfqkfihtwstibhcahipjoqjijxuyxi
dlaglixzgozirnmwnilbsebigqznqjaefvejusldsjogrlgj
iuxtujcidbijqkprkjkyvzyjembhmjyahpajsonxojmctfcj
hraorkbfgwfkvtmetkphsmhkjvyuvkdjecjkrlqslklzwazk
fncinkzbiqbktpoypkndugdkisbpslcghxglwunfulqitnil
kwzvwlekfdklsmrtmlmaxbalgodjolacjrcluqpzqloevhel
jtcqtmdhiyhmxvogvmrjuojmlxawxmflgelmtnsunmnbycbm
hpekpmbdksdmvrqarmpfwifmkudruneijzinywphwnskvpkn
mybxyngmhfmnuotvonoczdcniqflqnceltenwsrbsnqgxjgn

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kudrun
Cipher: xhqeha

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kudrun
Cipher: 525441245433

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kudrun
method variations:
pziwzsueobexzktgkcepymph

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k u d r u n 
5 5 4 2 5 3 
2 4 1 4 4 3 
They are then read out in rows:
554253241443
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kudrun
Cipher: ziprqo

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: kudrun
method variations:
wtfyox tfyoxw fyoxwt
yoxwtf oxwtfy xwtfyo

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kudrun

all 720 cipher variations:
kudrun kudrnu kudurn kudunr kudnur kudnru kurdun kurdnu kurudn kurund kurnud
kurndu kuurdn kuurnd kuudrn kuudnr kuundr kuunrd kunrud kunrdu kunurd kunudr
kundur kundru kdurun kdurnu kduurn kduunr kdunur kdunru kdruun kdrunu kdruun
kdrunu kdrnuu kdrnuu kdurun kdurnu kduurn kduunr kdunur kdunru kdnruu kdnruu
kdnuru kdnuur kdnuur kdnuru krduun krdunu krduun krdunu krdnuu krdnuu krudun
krudnu kruudn kruund krunud krundu kruudn kruund krudun krudnu krundu krunud
krnuud krnudu krnuud krnudu krnduu krnduu kudrun kudrnu kudurn kudunr kudnur
kudnru kurdun kurdnu kurudn kurund kurnud kurndu kuurdn kuurnd kuudrn kuudnr
kuundr kuunrd kunrud kunrdu kunurd kunudr kundur kundru kndruu kndruu knduru
knduur knduur knduru knrduu knrduu knrudu knruud knruud knrudu knurdu knurud
knudru knudur knuudr knuurd knurud knurdu knuurd knuudr knudur knudru ukdrun
ukdrnu ukdurn ukdunr ukdnur ukdnru ukrdun ukrdnu ukrudn ukrund ukrnud ukrndu
ukurdn ukurnd ukudrn ukudnr ukundr ukunrd uknrud uknrdu uknurd uknudr ukndur
ukndru udkrun udkrnu udkurn udkunr udknur udknru udrkun udrknu udrukn udrunk
udrnuk udrnku udurkn udurnk udukrn uduknr udunkr udunrk udnruk udnrku udnurk
udnukr udnkur udnkru urdkun urdknu urdukn urdunk urdnuk urdnku urkdun urkdnu
urkudn urkund urknud urkndu urukdn uruknd urudkn urudnk urundk urunkd urnkud
urnkdu urnukd urnudk urnduk urndku uudrkn uudrnk uudkrn uudknr uudnkr uudnrk
uurdkn uurdnk uurkdn uurknd uurnkd uurndk uukrdn uukrnd uukdrn uukdnr uukndr
uuknrd uunrkd uunrdk uunkrd uunkdr uundkr uundrk undruk undrku undurk undukr
undkur undkru unrduk unrdku unrudk unrukd unrkud unrkdu unurdk unurkd unudrk
unudkr unukdr unukrd unkrud unkrdu unkurd unkudr unkdur unkdru dukrun dukrnu
dukurn dukunr duknur duknru durkun durknu durukn durunk durnuk durnku duurkn
duurnk duukrn duuknr duunkr duunrk dunruk dunrku dunurk dunukr dunkur dunkru
dkurun dkurnu dkuurn dkuunr dkunur dkunru dkruun dkrunu dkruun dkrunu dkrnuu
dkrnuu dkurun dkurnu dkuurn dkuunr dkunur dkunru dknruu dknruu dknuru dknuur
dknuur dknuru drkuun drkunu drkuun drkunu drknuu drknuu drukun druknu druukn
druunk drunuk drunku druukn druunk drukun druknu drunku drunuk drnuuk drnuku
drnuuk drnuku drnkuu drnkuu dukrun dukrnu dukurn dukunr duknur duknru durkun
durknu durukn durunk durnuk durnku duurkn duurnk duukrn duuknr duunkr duunrk
dunruk dunrku dunurk dunukr dunkur dunkru dnkruu dnkruu dnkuru dnkuur dnkuur
dnkuru dnrkuu dnrkuu dnruku dnruuk dnruuk dnruku dnurku dnuruk dnukru dnukur
dnuukr dnuurk dnuruk dnurku dnuurk dnuukr dnukur dnukru rudkun rudknu rudukn
rudunk rudnuk rudnku rukdun rukdnu rukudn rukund ruknud rukndu ruukdn ruuknd
ruudkn ruudnk ruundk ruunkd runkud runkdu runukd runudk runduk rundku rdukun
rduknu rduukn rduunk rdunuk rdunku rdkuun rdkunu rdkuun rdkunu rdknuu rdknuu
rdukun rduknu rduukn rduunk rdunuk rdunku rdnkuu rdnkuu rdnuku rdnuuk rdnuuk
rdnuku rkduun rkdunu rkduun rkdunu rkdnuu rkdnuu rkudun rkudnu rkuudn rkuund
rkunud rkundu rkuudn rkuund rkudun rkudnu rkundu rkunud rknuud rknudu rknuud
rknudu rknduu rknduu rudkun rudknu rudukn rudunk rudnuk rudnku rukdun rukdnu
rukudn rukund ruknud rukndu ruukdn ruuknd ruudkn ruudnk ruundk ruunkd runkud
runkdu runukd runudk runduk rundku rndkuu rndkuu rnduku rnduuk rnduuk rnduku
rnkduu rnkduu rnkudu rnkuud rnkuud rnkudu rnukdu rnukud rnudku rnuduk rnuudk
rnuukd rnukud rnukdu rnuukd rnuudk rnuduk rnudku uudrkn uudrnk uudkrn uudknr
uudnkr uudnrk uurdkn uurdnk uurkdn uurknd uurnkd uurndk uukrdn uukrnd uukdrn
uukdnr uukndr uuknrd uunrkd uunrdk uunkrd uunkdr uundkr uundrk udurkn udurnk
udukrn uduknr udunkr udunrk udrukn udrunk udrkun udrknu udrnku udrnuk udkrun
udkrnu udkurn udkunr udknur udknru udnrku udnruk udnkru udnkur udnukr udnurk
urdukn urdunk urdkun urdknu urdnku urdnuk urudkn urudnk urukdn uruknd urunkd
urundk urkudn urkund urkdun urkdnu urkndu urknud urnukd urnudk urnkud urnkdu
urndku urnduk ukdrun ukdrnu ukdurn ukdunr ukdnur ukdnru ukrdun ukrdnu ukrudn
ukrund ukrnud ukrndu ukurdn ukurnd ukudrn ukudnr ukundr ukunrd uknrud uknrdu
uknurd uknudr ukndur ukndru undrku undruk undkru undkur undukr undurk unrdku
unrduk unrkdu unrkud unrukd unrudk unkrdu unkrud unkdru unkdur unkudr unkurd
unurkd unurdk unukrd unukdr unudkr unudrk nudruk nudrku nudurk nudukr nudkur
nudkru nurduk nurdku nurudk nurukd nurkud nurkdu nuurdk nuurkd nuudrk nuudkr
nuukdr nuukrd nukrud nukrdu nukurd nukudr nukdur nukdru nduruk ndurku nduurk
nduukr ndukur ndukru ndruuk ndruku ndruuk ndruku ndrkuu ndrkuu nduruk ndurku
nduurk nduukr ndukur ndukru ndkruu ndkruu ndkuru ndkuur ndkuur ndkuru nrduuk
nrduku nrduuk nrduku nrdkuu nrdkuu nruduk nrudku nruudk nruukd nrukud nrukdu
nruudk nruukd nruduk nrudku nrukdu nrukud nrkuud nrkudu nrkuud nrkudu nrkduu
nrkduu nudruk nudrku nudurk nudukr nudkur nudkru nurduk nurdku nurudk nurukd
nurkud nurkdu nuurdk nuurkd nuudrk nuudkr nuukdr nuukrd nukrud nukrdu nukurd
nukudr nukdur nukdru nkdruu nkdruu nkduru nkduur nkduur nkduru nkrduu nkrduu
nkrudu nkruud nkruud nkrudu nkurdu nkurud nkudru nkudur nkuudr nkuurd nkurud
nkurdu nkuurd nkuudr nkudur nkudru

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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