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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kucher
cipher variations:
lvdifs mwejgt nxfkhu oygliv pzhmjw
qainkx rbjoly sckpmz tdlqna uemrob
vfnspc wgotqd xhpure yiqvsf zjrwtg
aksxuh bltyvi cmuzwj dnvaxk eowbyl
fpxczm gqydan hrzebo isafcp jtbgdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kucher
Cipher: pfxsvi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kucher

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kucher
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kucher
Cipher: xhpure

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kucher
Cipher: 525431325124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kucher
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k u c h e r 
5 5 3 3 5 2 
2 4 1 2 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kucher
Cipher: znkrfq

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Method #3

Plaintext: kucher
method variations:
wolwfy olwfyw lwfywo
wfywol fywolw ywolwf

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kucher

all 720 cipher variations:
kucher kuchre kucehr kucerh kucreh kucrhe kuhcer kuhcre kuhecr kuherc kuhrec
kuhrce kuehcr kuehrc kuechr kuecrh kuerch kuerhc kurhec kurhce kurehc kurech
kurceh kurche kcuher kcuhre kcuehr kcuerh kcureh kcurhe kchuer kchure kcheur
kcheru kchreu kchrue kcehur kcehru kceuhr kceurh kceruh kcerhu kcrheu kcrhue
kcrehu kcreuh kcrueh kcruhe khcuer khcure khceur khceru khcreu khcrue khucer
khucre khuecr khuerc khurec khurce kheucr kheurc khecur khecru khercu kheruc
khruec khruce khreuc khrecu khrceu khrcue kechur kechru kecuhr kecurh kecruh
kecrhu kehcur kehcru kehucr kehurc kehruc kehrcu keuhcr keuhrc keuchr keucrh
keurch keurhc kerhuc kerhcu keruhc keruch kercuh kerchu krcheu krchue krcehu
krceuh krcueh krcuhe krhceu krhcue krhecu krheuc krhuec krhuce krehcu krehuc
krechu krecuh kreuch kreuhc kruhec kruhce kruehc kruech kruceh kruche ukcher
ukchre ukcehr ukcerh ukcreh ukcrhe ukhcer ukhcre ukhecr ukherc ukhrec ukhrce
ukehcr ukehrc ukechr ukecrh ukerch ukerhc ukrhec ukrhce ukrehc ukrech ukrceh
ukrche uckher uckhre uckehr uckerh uckreh uckrhe uchker uchkre uchekr ucherk
uchrek uchrke ucehkr ucehrk ucekhr ucekrh ucerkh ucerhk ucrhek ucrhke ucrehk
ucrekh ucrkeh ucrkhe uhcker uhckre uhcekr uhcerk uhcrek uhcrke uhkcer uhkcre
uhkecr uhkerc uhkrec uhkrce uhekcr uhekrc uheckr uhecrk uherck uherkc uhrkec
uhrkce uhrekc uhreck uhrcek uhrcke uechkr uechrk ueckhr ueckrh uecrkh uecrhk
uehckr uehcrk uehkcr uehkrc uehrkc uehrck uekhcr uekhrc uekchr uekcrh uekrch
uekrhc uerhkc uerhck uerkhc uerkch uerckh uerchk urchek urchke urcehk urcekh
urckeh urckhe urhcek urhcke urheck urhekc urhkec urhkce urehck urehkc urechk
ureckh urekch urekhc urkhec urkhce urkehc urkech urkceh urkche cukher cukhre
cukehr cukerh cukreh cukrhe cuhker cuhkre cuhekr cuherk cuhrek cuhrke cuehkr
cuehrk cuekhr cuekrh cuerkh cuerhk curhek curhke curehk curekh curkeh curkhe
ckuher ckuhre ckuehr ckuerh ckureh ckurhe ckhuer ckhure ckheur ckheru ckhreu
ckhrue ckehur ckehru ckeuhr ckeurh ckeruh ckerhu ckrheu ckrhue ckrehu ckreuh
ckrueh ckruhe chkuer chkure chkeur chkeru chkreu chkrue chuker chukre chuekr
chuerk churek churke cheukr cheurk chekur chekru cherku cheruk chruek chruke
chreuk chreku chrkeu chrkue cekhur cekhru cekuhr cekurh cekruh cekrhu cehkur
cehkru cehukr cehurk cehruk cehrku ceuhkr ceuhrk ceukhr ceukrh ceurkh ceurhk
cerhuk cerhku ceruhk cerukh cerkuh cerkhu crkheu crkhue crkehu crkeuh crkueh
crkuhe crhkeu crhkue crheku crheuk crhuek crhuke crehku crehuk crekhu crekuh
creukh creuhk cruhek cruhke cruehk cruekh crukeh crukhe hucker huckre hucekr
hucerk hucrek hucrke hukcer hukcre hukecr hukerc hukrec hukrce huekcr huekrc
hueckr huecrk huerck huerkc hurkec hurkce hurekc hureck hurcek hurcke hcuker
hcukre hcuekr hcuerk hcurek hcurke hckuer hckure hckeur hckeru hckreu hckrue
hcekur hcekru hceukr hceurk hceruk hcerku hcrkeu hcrkue hcreku hcreuk hcruek
hcruke hkcuer hkcure hkceur hkceru hkcreu hkcrue hkucer hkucre hkuecr hkuerc
hkurec hkurce hkeucr hkeurc hkecur hkecru hkercu hkeruc hkruec hkruce hkreuc
hkrecu hkrceu hkrcue heckur heckru hecukr hecurk hecruk hecrku hekcur hekcru
hekucr hekurc hekruc hekrcu heukcr heukrc heuckr heucrk heurck heurkc herkuc
herkcu herukc heruck hercuk hercku hrckeu hrckue hrceku hrceuk hrcuek hrcuke
hrkceu hrkcue hrkecu hrkeuc hrkuec hrkuce hrekcu hrekuc hrecku hrecuk hreuck
hreukc hrukec hrukce hruekc hrueck hrucek hrucke euchkr euchrk euckhr euckrh
eucrkh eucrhk euhckr euhcrk euhkcr euhkrc euhrkc euhrck eukhcr eukhrc eukchr
eukcrh eukrch eukrhc eurhkc eurhck eurkhc eurkch eurckh eurchk ecuhkr ecuhrk
ecukhr ecukrh ecurkh ecurhk echukr echurk echkur echkru echrku echruk eckhur
eckhru eckuhr eckurh eckruh eckrhu ecrhku ecrhuk ecrkhu ecrkuh ecrukh ecruhk
ehcukr ehcurk ehckur ehckru ehcrku ehcruk ehuckr ehucrk ehukcr ehukrc ehurkc
ehurck ehkucr ehkurc ehkcur ehkcru ehkrcu ehkruc ehrukc ehruck ehrkuc ehrkcu
ehrcku ehrcuk ekchur ekchru ekcuhr ekcurh ekcruh ekcrhu ekhcur ekhcru ekhucr
ekhurc ekhruc ekhrcu ekuhcr ekuhrc ekuchr ekucrh ekurch ekurhc ekrhuc ekrhcu
ekruhc ekruch ekrcuh ekrchu erchku erchuk erckhu erckuh ercukh ercuhk erhcku
erhcuk erhkcu erhkuc erhukc erhuck erkhcu erkhuc erkchu erkcuh erkuch erkuhc
eruhkc eruhck erukhc erukch eruckh eruchk ruchek ruchke rucehk rucekh ruckeh
ruckhe ruhcek ruhcke ruheck ruhekc ruhkec ruhkce ruehck ruehkc ruechk rueckh
ruekch ruekhc rukhec rukhce rukehc rukech rukceh rukche rcuhek rcuhke rcuehk
rcuekh rcukeh rcukhe rchuek rchuke rcheuk rcheku rchkeu rchkue rcehuk rcehku
rceuhk rceukh rcekuh rcekhu rckheu rckhue rckehu rckeuh rckueh rckuhe rhcuek
rhcuke rhceuk rhceku rhckeu rhckue rhucek rhucke rhueck rhuekc rhukec rhukce
rheuck rheukc rhecuk rhecku rhekcu rhekuc rhkuec rhkuce rhkeuc rhkecu rhkceu
rhkcue rechuk rechku recuhk recukh reckuh reckhu rehcuk rehcku rehuck rehukc
rehkuc rehkcu reuhck reuhkc reuchk reuckh reukch reukhc rekhuc rekhcu rekuhc
rekuch rekcuh rekchu rkcheu rkchue rkcehu rkceuh rkcueh rkcuhe rkhceu rkhcue
rkhecu rkheuc rkhuec rkhuce rkehcu rkehuc rkechu rkecuh rkeuch rkeuhc rkuhec
rkuhce rkuehc rkuech rkuceh rkuche

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History of cryptography
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