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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kratka
cipher variations:
lsbulb mtcvmc nudwnd ovexoe pwfypf
qxgzqg ryharh szibsi tajctj ubkduk
vclevl wdmfwm xengxn yfohyo zgpizp
ahqjaq birkbr cjslcs dktmdt eluneu
fmvofv gnwpgw hoxqhx ipyriy jqzsjz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kratka
Cipher: pizgpz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kratka
Cipher: ABAAB BAAAA AAAAA BAABA ABAAB AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kratka
cipher variations:
lsbulbfabgfbzibszbtqbetbnybqnbhgbchbvwbavbpebmpb
jmbyjbdubkdbxcbwxbrkbirbmtcvmcgbchgcajctacurcfuc
ozcrocihcdicwxcbwcqfcnqcknczkcevclecydcxycslcjsc
nudwndhcdihdbkdubdvsdgvdpadspdjidejdxydcxdrgdord
lodaldfwdmfdzedyzdtmdktdovexoeidejieclevcewtehwe
qbetqekjefkeyzedyeshepsempebmegxengeafezaeunelue
pwfypfjefkjfdmfwdfxufixfrcfurflkfglfzafezftifqtf
nqfcnfhyfohfbgfabfvofmvfqxgzqgkfglkgengxegyvgjyg
sdgvsgmlghmgabgfagujgrugorgdogizgpigchgbcgwpgnwg
ryharhlghmlhfohyfhzwhkzhtehwthnmhinhbchgbhvkhsvh
pshephjahqjhdihcdhxqhoxhszibsimhinmigpizgiaxilai
ufixuionijoicdihciwlitwiqtifqikbirkiejideiyripyi
tajctjnijonjhqjahjbyjmbjvgjyvjpojkpjdejidjxmjuxj
rujgrjlcjsljfkjefjzsjqzjubkdukojkpokirkbikczknck
whkzwkqpklqkefkjekynkvyksvkhskmdktmkglkfgkatkrak
vclevlpklqpljslcjldalodlxilaxlrqlmrlfglkflzolwzl
twlitlnelunlhmlghlbulsblwdmfwmqlmrqmktmdkmebmpem
yjmbymsrmnsmghmlgmapmxamuxmjumofmvominmhimcvmtcm
xengxnrmnsrnlunelnfcnqfnzknczntsnotnhinmhnbqnybn
vynkvnpgnwpnjonijndwnudnyfohyosnotsomvofmogdorgo
alodaoutopuoijoniocrozcowzolwoqhoxqokpojkoexoveo
zgpizptoputpnwpgnphepshpbmpebpvupqvpjkpojpdspadp
xapmxpripyrplqpklpfypwfpahqjaqupqvuqoxqhoqifqtiq
cnqfcqwvqrwqklqpkqetqbeqybqnyqsjqzsqmrqlmqgzqxgq
birkbrvqrwvrpyriprjgrujrdorgdrxwrsxrlmrqlrfurcfr
zcrozrtkratrnsrmnrharyhrcjslcswrsxwsqzsjqskhsvks
epshesyxstysmnsrmsgvsdgsadspasulsbusotsnosibszis
dktmdtxstyxtratkrtlitwltfqtiftzytuztnotsnthwteht
betqbtvmtcvtputoptjctajteluneuytuzyusbulsumjuxmu
grujguazuvauoputouixufiucfurcuwnudwuqvupqukdubku
fmvofvzuvazvtcvmtvnkvynvhsvkhvbavwbvpqvupvjyvgjv
dgvsdvxovexvrwvqrvlevclvgnwpgwavwbawudwnuwolwzow
itwliwcbwxcwqrwvqwkzwhkwehwtewypwfywsxwrswmfwdmw
hoxqhxbwxcbxvexovxpmxapxjuxmjxdcxydxrsxwrxlaxilx
fixufxzqxgzxtyxstxngxenxipyriycxydcywfypwyqnybqy
kvynkyedyzeystyxsymbyjmygjyvgyaryhayuzytuyohyfoy
jqzsjzdyzedzxgzqxzrozcrzlwzolzfezafztuzytznczknz
hkzwhzbszibzvazuvzpizgpzkratkaezafeayharyaspadsa
mxapmagfabgauvazuaodaloailaxiactajcawbavwaqjahqa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kratka
Cipher: xengxn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kratka
Cipher: 522411445211

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kratka
method variations:
pwfypfubldulzgqizqemvoev

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k r a t k a 
5 2 1 4 5 1 
2 4 1 4 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
521451241421
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kratka
Cipher: kqerqb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: kratka
method variations:
gdqybv dqybvg qybvgd
ybvgdq bvgdqy vgdqyb

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kratka

all 720 cipher variations:
kratka kratak krakta krakat kraakt kraatk krtaka krtaak krtkaa krtkaa krtaka
krtaak krktaa krktaa krkata krkaat krkaat krkata kratka kratak krakta krakat
kraakt kraatk kartka kartak karkta karkat karakt karatk katrka katrak katkra
katkar katakr katark kaktra kaktar kakrta kakrat kakart kakatr kaatkr kaatrk
kaaktr kaakrt kaarkt kaartk ktarka ktarak ktakra ktakar ktaakr ktaark ktraka
ktraak ktrkaa ktrkaa ktraka ktraak ktkraa ktkraa ktkara ktkaar ktkaar ktkara
ktarka ktarak ktakra ktakar ktaakr ktaark kkatra kkatar kkarta kkarat kkaart
kkaatr kktara kktaar kktraa kktraa kktara kktaar kkrtaa kkrtaa kkrata kkraat
kkraat kkrata kkatra kkatar kkarta kkarat kkaart kkaatr kaatkr kaatrk kaaktr
kaakrt kaarkt kaartk katakr katark katkar katkra katrka katrak kaktar kaktra
kakatr kakart kakrat kakrta kartka kartak karkta karkat karakt karatk rkatka
rkatak rkakta rkakat rkaakt rkaatk rktaka rktaak rktkaa rktkaa rktaka rktaak
rkktaa rkktaa rkkata rkkaat rkkaat rkkata rkatka rkatak rkakta rkakat rkaakt
rkaatk raktka raktak rakkta rakkat rakakt rakatk ratkka ratkak ratkka ratkak
ratakk ratakk raktka raktak rakkta rakkat rakakt rakatk raatkk raatkk raaktk
raakkt raakkt raaktk rtakka rtakak rtakka rtakak rtaakk rtaakk rtkaka rtkaak
rtkkaa rtkkaa rtkaka rtkaak rtkkaa rtkkaa rtkaka rtkaak rtkaak rtkaka rtakka
rtakak rtakka rtakak rtaakk rtaakk rkatka rkatak rkakta rkakat rkaakt rkaatk
rktaka rktaak rktkaa rktkaa rktaka rktaak rkktaa rkktaa rkkata rkkaat rkkaat
rkkata rkatka rkatak rkakta rkakat rkaakt rkaatk raatkk raatkk raaktk raakkt
raakkt raaktk ratakk ratakk ratkak ratkka ratkka ratkak raktak raktka rakatk
rakakt rakkat rakkta raktka raktak rakkta rakkat rakakt rakatk arktka arktak
arkkta arkkat arkakt arkatk artkka artkak artkka artkak artakk artakk arktka
arktak arkkta arkkat arkakt arkatk aratkk aratkk araktk arakkt arakkt araktk
akrtka akrtak akrkta akrkat akrakt akratk aktrka aktrak aktkra aktkar aktakr
aktark akktra akktar akkrta akkrat akkart akkatr akatkr akatrk akaktr akakrt
akarkt akartk atkrka atkrak atkkra atkkar atkakr atkark atrkka atrkak atrkka
atrkak atrakk atrakk atkrka atkrak atkkra atkkar atkakr atkark atarkk atarkk
atakrk atakkr atakkr atakrk akktra akktar akkrta akkrat akkart akkatr aktkra
aktkar aktrka aktrak aktark aktakr akrtka akrtak akrkta akrkat akrakt akratk
akatrk akatkr akartk akarkt akakrt akaktr aaktkr aaktrk aakktr aakkrt aakrkt
aakrtk aatkkr aatkrk aatkkr aatkrk aatrkk aatrkk aaktkr aaktrk aakktr aakkrt
aakrkt aakrtk aartkk aartkk aarktk aarkkt aarkkt aarktk trakka trakak trakka
trakak traakk traakk trkaka trkaak trkkaa trkkaa trkaka trkaak trkkaa trkkaa
trkaka trkaak trkaak trkaka trakka trakak trakka trakak traakk traakk tarkka
tarkak tarkka tarkak tarakk tarakk takrka takrak takkra takkar takakr takark
takkra takkar takrka takrak takark takakr taakkr taakrk taakkr taakrk taarkk
taarkk tkarka tkarak tkakra tkakar tkaakr tkaark tkraka tkraak tkrkaa tkrkaa
tkraka tkraak tkkraa tkkraa tkkara tkkaar tkkaar tkkara tkarka tkarak tkakra
tkakar tkaakr tkaark tkakra tkakar tkarka tkarak tkaark tkaakr tkkara tkkaar
tkkraa tkkraa tkkara tkkaar tkrkaa tkrkaa tkraka tkraak tkraak tkraka tkakra
tkakar tkarka tkarak tkaark tkaakr taakkr taakrk taakkr taakrk taarkk taarkk
takakr takark takkar takkra takrka takrak takkar takkra takakr takark takrak
takrka tarkka tarkak tarkka tarkak tarakk tarakk kratka kratak krakta krakat
kraakt kraatk krtaka krtaak krtkaa krtkaa krtaka krtaak krktaa krktaa krkata
krkaat krkaat krkata kratka kratak krakta krakat kraakt kraatk kartka kartak
karkta karkat karakt karatk katrka katrak katkra katkar katakr katark kaktra
kaktar kakrta kakrat kakart kakatr kaatkr kaatrk kaaktr kaakrt kaarkt kaartk
ktarka ktarak ktakra ktakar ktaakr ktaark ktraka ktraak ktrkaa ktrkaa ktraka
ktraak ktkraa ktkraa ktkara ktkaar ktkaar ktkara ktarka ktarak ktakra ktakar
ktaakr ktaark kkatra kkatar kkarta kkarat kkaart kkaatr kktara kktaar kktraa
kktraa kktara kktaar kkrtaa kkrtaa kkrata kkraat kkraat kkrata kkatra kkatar
kkarta kkarat kkaart kkaatr kaatkr kaatrk kaaktr kaakrt kaarkt kaartk katakr
katark katkar katkra katrka katrak kaktar kaktra kakatr kakart kakrat kakrta
kartka kartak karkta karkat karakt karatk aratkk aratkk araktk arakkt arakkt
araktk artakk artakk artkak artkka artkka artkak arktak arktka arkatk arkakt
arkkat arkkta arktka arktak arkkta arkkat arkakt arkatk aartkk aartkk aarktk
aarkkt aarkkt aarktk aatrkk aatrkk aatkrk aatkkr aatkkr aatkrk aaktrk aaktkr
aakrtk aakrkt aakkrt aakktr aaktkr aaktrk aakktr aakkrt aakrkt aakrtk atarkk
atarkk atakrk atakkr atakkr atakrk atrakk atrakk atrkak atrkka atrkka atrkak
atkrak atkrka atkark atkakr atkkar atkkra atkrka atkrak atkkra atkkar atkakr
atkark akatrk akatkr akartk akarkt akakrt akaktr aktark aktakr aktrak aktrka
aktkra aktkar akrtak akrtka akratk akrakt akrkat akrkta akktra akktar akkrta
akkrat akkart akkatr akatkr akatrk akaktr akakrt akarkt akartk aktakr aktark
aktkar aktkra aktrka aktrak akktar akktra akkatr akkart akkrat akkrta akrtka
akrtak akrkta akrkat akrakt akratk

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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