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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: koiari
cipher variations:
lpjbsj mqkctk nrldul osmevm ptnfwn
quogxo rvphyp swqizq txrjar uyskbs
vztlct waumdu xbvnev ycwofw zdxpgx
aeyqhy bfzriz cgasja dhbtkb eiculc
fjdvmd gkewne hlfxof imgypg jnhzqh

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: koiari
Cipher: plrzir

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: koiari
Cipher: ABAAB ABBAB ABAAA AAAAA BAAAA ABAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: koiari
cipher variations:
lpjbsjfrzbazztpbiptvfbqfnxvbyvhzlbglvdrbwrpfhbeh
jhxbmxdjnbunxldbcdrntbktmqkctkgsacbaauqcjquwgcrg
oywczwiamchmwescxsqgicfikiycnyekocvoymecdesouclu
nrldulhtbdcbbvrdkrvxhdshpzxdaxjbndinxftdytrhjdgj
ljzdozflpdwpznfdeftpvdmvosmevmiucedccwselswyieti
qayebykcoejoyguezusikehkmkaepagmqexqaogefguqwenw
ptnfwnjvdfeddxtfmtxzjfujrbzfczldpfkpzhvfavtjlfil
nlbfqbhnrfyrbphfghvrxfoxquogxokwegfeeyugnuyakgvk
scagdameqglqaiwgbwukmgjmomcgrciosgzscqighiwsygpy
rvphyplxfhgffzvhovzblhwltdbhebnfrhmrbjxhcxvlnhkn
pndhsdjpthatdrjhijxtzhqzswqizqmygihggawipwacmixm
uecifcogsinsckyidywmoiloqoeitekquibueskijkyuaira
txrjarnzhjihhbxjqxbdnjynvfdjgdphtjotdlzjezxnpjmp
rpfjuflrvjcvftljklzvbjsbuyskbsoaikjiicykryceokzo
wgekheqiukpuemakfayoqknqsqgkvgmswkdwgumklmawcktc
vztlctpbjlkjjdzlszdfplapxhflifrjvlqvfnblgbzprlor
trhlwhntxlexhvnlmnbxdludwaumduqckmlkkeamtaegqmbq
yigmjgskwmrwgocmhcaqsmpsusimxiouymfyiwomnocyemve
xbvnevrdlnmllfbnubfhrncrzjhnkhtlxnsxhpdnidbrtnqt
vtjnyjpvzngzjxpnopdzfnwfycwofwsemonmmgcovcgisods
akioliumyotyiqeojecsuoruwukozkqwaohakyqopqeagoxg
zdxpgxtfnponnhdpwdhjtpetbljpmjvnzpuzjrfpkfdtvpsv
xvlpalrxbpiblzrpqrfbhpyhaeyqhyugoqpooieqxeikuqfu
cmkqnkwoaqvaksgqlgeuwqtwywmqbmsycqjcmasqrsgciqzi
bfzrizvhprqppjfryfjlvrgvdnlrolxpbrwblthrmhfvxrux
zxnrcntzdrkdnbtrsthdjrajcgasjawiqsrqqkgszgkmwshw
eomspmyqcsxcmuisnigwysvyayosdouaesleocustuieksbk
dhbtkbxjrtsrrlhtahlnxtixfpntqnzrdtydnvjtojhxztwz
bzptepvbftmfpdvtuvjfltcleiculcyksutssmiubimoyujy
gqouroaseuzeowkupkiyauxacaqufqwcgungqewuvwkgmudm
fjdvmdzltvuttnjvcjnpzvkzhrpvspbtfvafpxlvqljzbvyb
dbrvgrxdhvohrfxvwxlhnvengkewneamuwvuuokwdkoqawla
isqwtqcugwbgqymwrmkacwzcecswhsyeiwpisgywxymiowfo
hlfxofbnvxwvvplxelprbxmbjtrxurdvhxchrznxsnlbdxad
fdtxitzfjxqjthzxyznjpxgpimgypgcowyxwwqmyfmqscync
kusyvsewiydisaoytomceybegeuyjuagkyrkuiayzaokqyhq
jnhzqhdpxzyxxrnzgnrtdzodlvtzwtfxjzejtbpzupndfzcf
hfvzkvbhlzslvjbzabplrzirkoiarieqyazyysoahosueape
mwuaxugykafkucqavqoegadgigwalwcimatmwkcabcqmsajs

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: koiari
Cipher: xbvnev

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: koiari
Cipher: 524342112442

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: koiari
method variations:
ptofwouytlbtzdyqgyeidvmd

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k o i a r i 
5 4 4 1 2 4 
2 3 2 1 4 2 
They are then read out in rows:
544124232142
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: koiari
Cipher: udrmbi

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: koiari
method variations:
rsbftw sbftwr bftwrs
ftwrsb twrsbf wrsbft

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: koiari

all 720 cipher variations:
koiari koiair koirai koiria koiira koiiar koairi koaiir koarii koarii koairi
koaiir koraii koraii koriai koriia koriia koriai koiari koiair koirai koiria
koiira koiiar kioari kioair kiorai kioria kioira kioiar kiaori kiaoir kiaroi
kiario kiairo kiaior kiraoi kiraio kiroai kiroia kirioa kiriao kiiaro kiiaor
kiirao kiiroa kiiora kiioar kaiori kaioir kairoi kairio kaiiro kaiior kaoiri
kaoiir kaorii kaorii kaoiri kaoiir karoii karoii karioi kariio kariio karioi
kaiori kaioir kairoi kairio kaiiro kaiior kriaoi kriaio krioai krioia kriioa
kriiao kraioi kraiio kraoii kraoii kraioi kraiio kroaii kroaii kroiai kroiia
kroiia kroiai kriaoi kriaio krioai krioia kriioa kriiao kiiaro kiiaor kiirao
kiiroa kiiora kiioar kiairo kiaior kiario kiaroi kiaori kiaoir kiraio kiraoi
kiriao kirioa kiroia kiroai kioari kioair kiorai kioria kioira kioiar okiari
okiair okirai okiria okiira okiiar okairi okaiir okarii okarii okairi okaiir
okraii okraii okriai okriia okriia okriai okiari okiair okirai okiria okiira
okiiar oikari oikair oikrai oikria oikira oikiar oiakri oiakir oiarki oiarik
oiairk oiaikr oiraki oiraik oirkai oirkia oirika oiriak oiiark oiiakr oiirak
oiirka oiikra oiikar oaikri oaikir oairki oairik oaiirk oaiikr oakiri oakiir
oakrii oakrii oakiri oakiir oarkii oarkii oariki oariik oariik oariki oaikri
oaikir oairki oairik oaiirk oaiikr oriaki oriaik orikai orikia oriika oriiak
oraiki oraiik orakii orakii oraiki oraiik orkaii orkaii orkiai orkiia orkiia
orkiai oriaki oriaik orikai orikia oriika oriiak oiiark oiiakr oiirak oiirka
oiikra oiikar oiairk oiaikr oiarik oiarki oiakri oiakir oiraik oiraki oiriak
oirika oirkia oirkai oikari oikair oikrai oikria oikira oikiar iokari iokair
iokrai iokria iokira iokiar ioakri ioakir ioarki ioarik ioairk ioaikr ioraki
ioraik iorkai iorkia iorika ioriak ioiark ioiakr ioirak ioirka ioikra ioikar
ikoari ikoair ikorai ikoria ikoira ikoiar ikaori ikaoir ikaroi ikario ikairo
ikaior ikraoi ikraio ikroai ikroia ikrioa ikriao ikiaro ikiaor ikirao ikiroa
ikiora ikioar iakori iakoir iakroi iakrio iakiro iakior iaokri iaokir iaorki
iaorik iaoirk iaoikr iaroki iaroik iarkoi iarkio iariko iariok iaiork iaiokr
iairok iairko iaikro iaikor irkaoi irkaio irkoai irkoia irkioa irkiao irakoi
irakio iraoki iraoik iraiok iraiko iroaki iroaik irokai irokia iroika iroiak
iriaok iriako irioak irioka irikoa irikao iikaro iikaor iikrao iikroa iikora
iikoar iiakro iiakor iiarko iiarok iiaork iiaokr iirako iiraok iirkao iirkoa
iiroka iiroak iioark iioakr iiorak iiorka iiokra iiokar aoikri aoikir aoirki
aoirik aoiirk aoiikr aokiri aokiir aokrii aokrii aokiri aokiir aorkii aorkii
aoriki aoriik aoriik aoriki aoikri aoikir aoirki aoirik aoiirk aoiikr aiokri
aiokir aiorki aiorik aioirk aioikr aikori aikoir aikroi aikrio aikiro aikior
airkoi airkio airoki airoik airiok airiko aiikro aiikor aiirko aiirok aiiork
aiiokr akiori akioir akiroi akirio akiiro akiior akoiri akoiir akorii akorii
akoiri akoiir akroii akroii akrioi akriio akriio akrioi akiori akioir akiroi
akirio akiiro akiior arikoi arikio arioki arioik ariiok ariiko arkioi arkiio
arkoii arkoii arkioi arkiio arokii arokii aroiki aroiik aroiik aroiki arikoi
arikio arioki arioik ariiok ariiko aiikro aiikor aiirko aiirok aiiork aiiokr
aikiro aikior aikrio aikroi aikori aikoir airkio airkoi airiko airiok airoik
airoki aiokri aiokir aiorki aiorik aioirk aioikr roiaki roiaik roikai roikia
roiika roiiak roaiki roaiik roakii roakii roaiki roaiik rokaii rokaii rokiai
rokiia rokiia rokiai roiaki roiaik roikai roikia roiika roiiak rioaki rioaik
riokai riokia rioika rioiak riaoki riaoik riakoi riakio riaiko riaiok rikaoi
rikaio rikoai rikoia rikioa rikiao riiako riiaok riikao riikoa riioka riioak
raioki raioik raikoi raikio raiiko raiiok raoiki raoiik raokii raokii raoiki
raoiik rakoii rakoii rakioi rakiio rakiio rakioi raioki raioik raikoi raikio
raiiko raiiok rkiaoi rkiaio rkioai rkioia rkiioa rkiiao rkaioi rkaiio rkaoii
rkaoii rkaioi rkaiio rkoaii rkoaii rkoiai rkoiia rkoiia rkoiai rkiaoi rkiaio
rkioai rkioia rkiioa rkiiao riiako riiaok riikao riikoa riioka riioak riaiko
riaiok riakio riakoi riaoki riaoik rikaio rikaoi rikiao rikioa rikoia rikoai
rioaki rioaik riokai riokia rioika rioiak ioiark ioiakr ioirak ioirka ioikra
ioikar ioairk ioaikr ioarik ioarki ioakri ioakir ioraik ioraki ioriak iorika
iorkia iorkai iokari iokair iokrai iokria iokira iokiar iioark iioakr iiorak
iiorka iiokra iiokar iiaork iiaokr iiarok iiarko iiakro iiakor iiraok iirako
iiroak iiroka iirkoa iirkao iikaro iikaor iikrao iikroa iikora iikoar iaiork
iaiokr iairok iairko iaikro iaikor iaoirk iaoikr iaorik iaorki iaokri iaokir
iaroik iaroki iariok iariko iarkio iarkoi iakori iakoir iakroi iakrio iakiro
iakior iriaok iriako irioak irioka irikoa irikao iraiok iraiko iraoik iraoki
irakoi irakio iroaik iroaki iroiak iroika irokia irokai irkaoi irkaio irkoai
irkoia irkioa irkiao ikiaro ikiaor ikirao ikiroa ikiora ikioar ikairo ikaior
ikario ikaroi ikaori ikaoir ikraio ikraoi ikriao ikrioa ikroia ikroai ikoari
ikoair ikorai ikoria ikoira ikoiar

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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