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sarawakite

morillo

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defunctique

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kross

wankliness

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nebulosities


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: koebel
cipher variations:
lpfcfm mqgdgn nrheho osifip ptjgjq
qukhkr rvlils swmjmt txnknu uyolov
vzpmpw waqnqx xbrory ycspsz zdtqta
aeurub bfvsvc cgwtwd dhxuxe eiyvyf
fjzwzg gkaxah hlbybi imczcj jndadk

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: koebel
Cipher: plvyvo

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: koebel
Cipher: ABAAB ABBAB AABAA AAAAB AABAA ABABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: koebel
cipher variations:
lpfcfmfrneniztvgvetvdidanxlklwhztmtsvdjqjkpfrsrg
jhzuzcdjhwhyxlpypurnxaxqmqgdgngsofojauwhwfuwejeb
oymlmxiaunutwekrklqgstshkiavadekixizymqzqvsoybyr
nrhehohtpgpkbvxixgvxfkfcpznmnyjbvovuxflslmrhtuti
ljbwbefljyjaznrarwtpzczsosifipiuqhqlcwyjyhwyglgd
qaonozkcwpwvygmtmnsiuvujmkcxcfgmkzkbaosbsxuqadat
ptjgjqjvrirmdxzkzixzhmherbpopaldxqxwzhnunotjvwvk
nldydghnlalcbptctyvrbebuqukhkrkwsjsneyalajyainif
scqpqbmeyryxaiovopukwxwlomezehiombmdcquduzwscfcv
rvlilslxtktofzbmbkzbjojgtdrqrcnfzszybjpwpqvlxyxm
pnfafijpncnedrvevaxtdgdwswmjmtmyulupgacnclackpkh
uesrsdogatazckqxqrwmyzynqogbgjkqodofeswfwbyuehex
txnknunzvmvqhbdodmbdlqlivftstephbubadlryrsxnzazo
rphchklrpepgftxgxczvfifyuyolovoawnwricepencemrmj
wgutufqicvcbemszstyoabapsqidilmsqfqhguyhydawgjgz
vzpmpwpbxoxsjdfqfodfnsnkxhvuvgrjdwdcfntatuzpbcbq
trjejmntrgrihvzizebxhkhawaqnqxqcypytkegrgpegotol
yiwvwhskexedgoubuvaqcdcruskfknoushsjiwajafcyilib
xbroryrdzqzulfhshqfhpupmzjxwxitlfyfehpvcvwbrdeds
vtlglopvtitkjxbkbgdzjmjcycspszsearavmgitirgiqvqn
akyxyjumgzgfiqwdwxcsefetwumhmpqwujulkyclcheaknkd
zdtqtatfbsbwnhjujshjrwroblzyzkvnhahgjrxexydtfgfu
xvninqrxvkvmlzdmdifbloleaeurubugctcxoikvktiksxsp
cmazalwoibihksyfyzeughgvywojorsywlwnmaenejgcmpmf
bfvsvcvhdudypjlwlujltytqdnbabmxpjcjiltzgzafvhihw
zxpkpstzxmxonbfofkhdnqngcgwtwdwievezqkmxmvkmuzur
eocbcnyqkdkjmuahabgwijixayqlqtuaynypocgpglieoroh
dhxuxexjfwfarlnynwlnvavsfpdcdozrlelknvbibchxjkjy
bzrmruvbzozqpdhqhmjfpspieiyvyfykgxgbsmozoxmowbwt
gqedepasmfmlowcjcdiyklkzcasnsvwcaparqeirinkgqtqj
fjzwzgzlhyhctnpapynpxcxuhrfefqbtngnmpxdkdejzlmla
dbtotwxdbqbsrfjsjolhrurkgkaxahamiziduoqbqzoqydyv
isgfgrcuohonqyelefkamnmbecupuxyecrctsgktkpmisvsl
hlbybibnjajevprcraprzezwjthghsdvpiporzfmfglbnonc
fdvqvyzfdsduthlulqnjtwtmimczcjcokbkfwqsdsbqsafax
kuihitewqjqpsagnghmcopodgewrwzagetevuimvmrokuxun
jndadkdplclgxrtetcrtbgbylvjijufxrkrqtbhohindpqpe
hfxsxabhfufwvjnwnsplvyvokoebeleqmdmhysufudsuchcz
mwkjkvgyslsrucipijoeqrqfigytybcigvgxwkoxotqmwzwp

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: koebel
Cipher: xbrory

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: koebel
Cipher: 524351215113

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: koebel
method variations:
ptkgkquypmpvzduruaeizwzf

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k o e b e l 
5 4 5 2 5 1 
2 3 1 1 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
545251231113
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: koebel
Cipher: ukemal

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: koebel
method variations:
rxfvax xfvaxr fvaxrx
vaxrxf axrxfv xrxfva

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: koebel

all 720 cipher variations:
koebel koeble koeebl koeelb koeleb koelbe kobeel kobele kobeel kobele koblee
koblee koebel koeble koeebl koeelb koeleb koelbe kolbee kolbee kolebe koleeb
koleeb kolebe keobel keoble keoebl keoelb keoleb keolbe keboel kebole kebeol
kebelo kebleo kebloe keebol keeblo keeobl keeolb keelob keelbo kelbeo kelboe
kelebo keleob keloeb kelobe kbeoel kbeole kbeeol kbeelo kbeleo kbeloe kboeel
kboele kboeel kboele kbolee kbolee kbeoel kbeole kbeeol kbeelo kbeleo kbeloe
kbloee kbloee kbleoe kbleeo kbleeo kbleoe keebol keeblo keeobl keeolb keelob
keelbo kebeol kebelo keboel kebole kebloe kebleo keobel keoble keoebl keoelb
keoleb keolbe kelboe kelbeo kelobe keloeb keleob kelebo klebeo kleboe kleebo
kleeob kleoeb kleobe klbeeo klbeoe klbeeo klbeoe klboee klboee klebeo kleboe
kleebo kleeob kleoeb kleobe klobee klobee kloebe kloeeb kloeeb kloebe okebel
okeble okeebl okeelb okeleb okelbe okbeel okbele okbeel okbele okblee okblee
okebel okeble okeebl okeelb okeleb okelbe oklbee oklbee oklebe okleeb okleeb
oklebe oekbel oekble oekebl oekelb oekleb oeklbe oebkel oebkle oebekl oebelk
oeblek oeblke oeebkl oeeblk oeekbl oeeklb oeelkb oeelbk oelbek oelbke oelebk
oelekb oelkeb oelkbe obekel obekle obeekl obeelk obelek obelke obkeel obkele
obkeel obkele obklee obklee obekel obekle obeekl obeelk obelek obelke oblkee
oblkee obleke obleek obleek obleke oeebkl oeeblk oeekbl oeeklb oeelkb oeelbk
oebekl oebelk oebkel oebkle oeblke oeblek oekbel oekble oekebl oekelb oekleb
oeklbe oelbke oelbek oelkbe oelkeb oelekb oelebk olebek olebke oleebk oleekb
olekeb olekbe olbeek olbeke olbeek olbeke olbkee olbkee olebek olebke oleebk
oleekb olekeb olekbe olkbee olkbee olkebe olkeeb olkeeb olkebe eokbel eokble
eokebl eokelb eokleb eoklbe eobkel eobkle eobekl eobelk eoblek eoblke eoebkl
eoeblk eoekbl eoeklb eoelkb eoelbk eolbek eolbke eolebk eolekb eolkeb eolkbe
ekobel ekoble ekoebl ekoelb ekoleb ekolbe ekboel ekbole ekbeol ekbelo ekbleo
ekbloe ekebol ekeblo ekeobl ekeolb ekelob ekelbo eklbeo eklboe eklebo ekleob
ekloeb eklobe ebkoel ebkole ebkeol ebkelo ebkleo ebkloe ebokel ebokle eboekl
eboelk ebolek ebolke ebeokl ebeolk ebekol ebeklo ebelko ebelok ebloek ebloke
ebleok ebleko eblkeo eblkoe eekbol eekblo eekobl eekolb eeklob eeklbo eebkol
eebklo eebokl eebolk eeblok eeblko eeobkl eeoblk eeokbl eeoklb eeolkb eeolbk
eelbok eelbko eelobk eelokb eelkob eelkbo elkbeo elkboe elkebo elkeob elkoeb
elkobe elbkeo elbkoe elbeko elbeok elboek elboke elebko elebok elekbo elekob
eleokb eleobk elobek elobke eloebk eloekb elokeb elokbe boekel boekle boeekl
boeelk boelek boelke bokeel bokele bokeel bokele boklee boklee boekel boekle
boeekl boeelk boelek boelke bolkee bolkee boleke boleek boleek boleke beokel
beokle beoekl beoelk beolek beolke bekoel bekole bekeol bekelo bekleo bekloe
beekol beeklo beeokl beeolk beelok beelko belkeo belkoe beleko beleok beloek
beloke bkeoel bkeole bkeeol bkeelo bkeleo bkeloe bkoeel bkoele bkoeel bkoele
bkolee bkolee bkeoel bkeole bkeeol bkeelo bkeleo bkeloe bkloee bkloee bkleoe
bkleeo bkleeo bkleoe beekol beeklo beeokl beeolk beelok beelko bekeol bekelo
bekoel bekole bekloe bekleo beokel beokle beoekl beoelk beolek beolke belkoe
belkeo beloke beloek beleok beleko blekeo blekoe bleeko bleeok bleoek bleoke
blkeeo blkeoe blkeeo blkeoe blkoee blkoee blekeo blekoe bleeko bleeok bleoek
bleoke blokee blokee bloeke bloeek bloeek bloeke eoebkl eoeblk eoekbl eoeklb
eoelkb eoelbk eobekl eobelk eobkel eobkle eoblke eoblek eokbel eokble eokebl
eokelb eokleb eoklbe eolbke eolbek eolkbe eolkeb eolekb eolebk eeobkl eeoblk
eeokbl eeoklb eeolkb eeolbk eebokl eebolk eebkol eebklo eeblko eeblok eekbol
eekblo eekobl eekolb eeklob eeklbo eelbko eelbok eelkbo eelkob eelokb eelobk
ebeokl ebeolk ebekol ebeklo ebelko ebelok eboekl eboelk ebokel ebokle ebolke
ebolek ebkoel ebkole ebkeol ebkelo ebkleo ebkloe ebloke ebloek eblkoe eblkeo
ebleko ebleok ekebol ekeblo ekeobl ekeolb ekelob ekelbo ekbeol ekbelo ekboel
ekbole ekbloe ekbleo ekobel ekoble ekoebl ekoelb ekoleb ekolbe eklboe eklbeo
eklobe ekloeb ekleob eklebo elebko elebok elekbo elekob eleokb eleobk elbeko
elbeok elbkeo elbkoe elboke elboek elkbeo elkboe elkebo elkeob elkoeb elkobe
elobke elobek elokbe elokeb eloekb eloebk loebek loebke loeebk loeekb loekeb
loekbe lobeek lobeke lobeek lobeke lobkee lobkee loebek loebke loeebk loeekb
loekeb loekbe lokbee lokbee lokebe lokeeb lokeeb lokebe leobek leobke leoebk
leoekb leokeb leokbe leboek leboke lebeok lebeko lebkeo lebkoe leebok leebko
leeobk leeokb leekob leekbo lekbeo lekboe lekebo lekeob lekoeb lekobe lbeoek
lbeoke lbeeok lbeeko lbekeo lbekoe lboeek lboeke lboeek lboeke lbokee lbokee
lbeoek lbeoke lbeeok lbeeko lbekeo lbekoe lbkoee lbkoee lbkeoe lbkeeo lbkeeo
lbkeoe leebok leebko leeobk leeokb leekob leekbo lebeok lebeko leboek leboke
lebkoe lebkeo leobek leobke leoebk leoekb leokeb leokbe lekboe lekbeo lekobe
lekoeb lekeob lekebo lkebeo lkeboe lkeebo lkeeob lkeoeb lkeobe lkbeeo lkbeoe
lkbeeo lkbeoe lkboee lkboee lkebeo lkeboe lkeebo lkeeob lkeoeb lkeobe lkobee
lkobee lkoebe lkoeeb lkoeeb lkoebe

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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