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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kodama
cipher variations:
lpebnb mqfcoc nrgdpd osheqe ptifrf
qujgsg rvkhth swliui txmjvj uynkwk
vzolxl wapmym xbqnzn ycroao zdspbp
aetqcq bfurdr cgvses dhwtft eixugu
fjyvhv gkzwiw hlaxjx imbyky jnczlz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kodama
Cipher: plwznz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kodama

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kodama
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kodama
Cipher: xbqnzn

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kodama
Cipher: 524341112311

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kodama
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k o d a m a 
5 4 4 1 2 1 
2 3 1 1 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kodama
Cipher: udbmac

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Method #3

Plaintext: kodama
method variations:
rsafcv safcvr afcvrs
fcvrsa cvrsaf vrsafc

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kodama

all 720 cipher variations:
kodama kodaam kodmaa kodmaa kodama kodaam koadma koadam koamda koamad koaamd
koaadm komada komaad komdaa komdaa komada komaad koaamd koaadm koamad koamda
koadma koadam kdoama kdoaam kdomaa kdomaa kdoama kdoaam kdaoma kdaoam kdamoa
kdamao kdaamo kdaaom kdmaoa kdmaao kdmoaa kdmoaa kdmaoa kdmaao kdaamo kdaaom
kdamao kdamoa kdaoma kdaoam kadoma kadoam kadmoa kadmao kadamo kadaom kaodma
kaodam kaomda kaomad kaoamd kaoadm kamoda kamoad kamdoa kamdao kamado kamaod
kaaomd kaaodm kaamod kaamdo kaadmo kaadom kmdaoa kmdaao kmdoaa kmdoaa kmdaoa
kmdaao kmadoa kmadao kmaoda kmaoad kmaaod kmaado kmoada kmoaad kmodaa kmodaa
kmoada kmoaad kmaaod kmaado kmaoad kmaoda kmadoa kmadao kadamo kadaom kadmao
kadmoa kadoma kadoam kaadmo kaadom kaamdo kaamod kaaomd kaaodm kamado kamaod
kamdao kamdoa kamoda kamoad kaoamd kaoadm kaomad kaomda kaodma kaodam okdama
okdaam okdmaa okdmaa okdama okdaam okadma okadam okamda okamad okaamd okaadm
okmada okmaad okmdaa okmdaa okmada okmaad okaamd okaadm okamad okamda okadma
okadam odkama odkaam odkmaa odkmaa odkama odkaam odakma odakam odamka odamak
odaamk odaakm odmaka odmaak odmkaa odmkaa odmaka odmaak odaamk odaakm odamak
odamka odakma odakam oadkma oadkam oadmka oadmak oadamk oadakm oakdma oakdam
oakmda oakmad oakamd oakadm oamkda oamkad oamdka oamdak oamadk oamakd oaakmd
oaakdm oaamkd oaamdk oaadmk oaadkm omdaka omdaak omdkaa omdkaa omdaka omdaak
omadka omadak omakda omakad omaakd omaadk omkada omkaad omkdaa omkdaa omkada
omkaad omaakd omaadk omakad omakda omadka omadak oadamk oadakm oadmak oadmka
oadkma oadkam oaadmk oaadkm oaamdk oaamkd oaakmd oaakdm oamadk oamakd oamdak
oamdka oamkda oamkad oakamd oakadm oakmad oakmda oakdma oakdam dokama dokaam
dokmaa dokmaa dokama dokaam doakma doakam doamka doamak doaamk doaakm domaka
domaak domkaa domkaa domaka domaak doaamk doaakm doamak doamka doakma doakam
dkoama dkoaam dkomaa dkomaa dkoama dkoaam dkaoma dkaoam dkamoa dkamao dkaamo
dkaaom dkmaoa dkmaao dkmoaa dkmoaa dkmaoa dkmaao dkaamo dkaaom dkamao dkamoa
dkaoma dkaoam dakoma dakoam dakmoa dakmao dakamo dakaom daokma daokam daomka
daomak daoamk daoakm damoka damoak damkoa damkao damako damaok daaomk daaokm
daamok daamko daakmo daakom dmkaoa dmkaao dmkoaa dmkoaa dmkaoa dmkaao dmakoa
dmakao dmaoka dmaoak dmaaok dmaako dmoaka dmoaak dmokaa dmokaa dmoaka dmoaak
dmaaok dmaako dmaoak dmaoka dmakoa dmakao dakamo dakaom dakmao dakmoa dakoma
dakoam daakmo daakom daamko daamok daaomk daaokm damako damaok damkao damkoa
damoka damoak daoamk daoakm daomak daomka daokma daokam aodkma aodkam aodmka
aodmak aodamk aodakm aokdma aokdam aokmda aokmad aokamd aokadm aomkda aomkad
aomdka aomdak aomadk aomakd aoakmd aoakdm aoamkd aoamdk aoadmk aoadkm adokma
adokam adomka adomak adoamk adoakm adkoma adkoam adkmoa adkmao adkamo adkaom
admkoa admkao admoka admoak admaok admako adakmo adakom adamko adamok adaomk
adaokm akdoma akdoam akdmoa akdmao akdamo akdaom akodma akodam akomda akomad
akoamd akoadm akmoda akmoad akmdoa akmdao akmado akmaod akaomd akaodm akamod
akamdo akadmo akadom amdkoa amdkao amdoka amdoak amdaok amdako amkdoa amkdao
amkoda amkoad amkaod amkado amokda amokad amodka amodak amoadk amoakd amakod
amakdo amaokd amaodk amadok amadko aadkmo aadkom aadmko aadmok aadomk aadokm
aakdmo aakdom aakmdo aakmod aakomd aakodm aamkdo aamkod aamdko aamdok aamodk
aamokd aaokmd aaokdm aaomkd aaomdk aaodmk aaodkm modaka modaak modkaa modkaa
modaka modaak moadka moadak moakda moakad moaakd moaadk mokada mokaad mokdaa
mokdaa mokada mokaad moaakd moaadk moakad moakda moadka moadak mdoaka mdoaak
mdokaa mdokaa mdoaka mdoaak mdaoka mdaoak mdakoa mdakao mdaako mdaaok mdkaoa
mdkaao mdkoaa mdkoaa mdkaoa mdkaao mdaako mdaaok mdakao mdakoa mdaoka mdaoak
madoka madoak madkoa madkao madako madaok maodka maodak maokda maokad maoakd
maoadk makoda makoad makdoa makdao makado makaod maaokd maaodk maakod maakdo
maadko maadok mkdaoa mkdaao mkdoaa mkdoaa mkdaoa mkdaao mkadoa mkadao mkaoda
mkaoad mkaaod mkaado mkoada mkoaad mkodaa mkodaa mkoada mkoaad mkaaod mkaado
mkaoad mkaoda mkadoa mkadao madako madaok madkao madkoa madoka madoak maadko
maadok maakdo maakod maaokd maaodk makado makaod makdao makdoa makoda makoad
maoakd maoadk maokad maokda maodka maodak aodamk aodakm aodmak aodmka aodkma
aodkam aoadmk aoadkm aoamdk aoamkd aoakmd aoakdm aomadk aomakd aomdak aomdka
aomkda aomkad aokamd aokadm aokmad aokmda aokdma aokdam adoamk adoakm adomak
adomka adokma adokam adaomk adaokm adamok adamko adakmo adakom admaok admako
admoak admoka admkoa admkao adkamo adkaom adkmao adkmoa adkoma adkoam aadomk
aadokm aadmok aadmko aadkmo aadkom aaodmk aaodkm aaomdk aaomkd aaokmd aaokdm
aamodk aamokd aamdok aamdko aamkdo aamkod aakomd aakodm aakmod aakmdo aakdmo
aakdom amdaok amdako amdoak amdoka amdkoa amdkao amadok amadko amaodk amaokd
amakod amakdo amoadk amoakd amodak amodka amokda amokad amkaod amkado amkoad
amkoda amkdoa amkdao akdamo akdaom akdmao akdmoa akdoma akdoam akadmo akadom
akamdo akamod akaomd akaodm akmado akmaod akmdao akmdoa akmoda akmoad akoamd
akoadm akomad akomda akodma akodam

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History of cryptography
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