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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: klaatu
cipher variations:
lmbbuv mnccvw noddwx opeexy pqffyz
qrggza rshhab stiibc tujjcd uvkkde
vwllef wxmmfg xynngh yzoohi zappij
abqqjk bcrrkl cdsslm dettmn efuuno
fgvvop ghwwpq hixxqr ijyyrs jkzzst

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: klaatu
Cipher: pozzgf

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: klaatu
Cipher: ABAAB ABABA AAAAA AAAAA BAABA BAABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: klaatu
cipher variations:
lmbbuvfibbgjzebbsxtabbelnwbbqzhsbbcnvkbbappgbbmd
jcbbyrdybbkfxubbwtrqbbihmnccvwgjcchkafcctyubccfm
oxccraitccdowlccbqqhccnekdcczsezcclgyvccxusrccji
noddwxhkddilbgdduzvcddgnpyddsbjuddepxmddcrriddof
leddatfaddmhzwddyvtsddkjopeexyileejmcheevawdeeho
qzeetckveefqyneedssjeepgmfeebugbeeniaxeezwuteelk
pqffyzjmffkndiffwbxeffipraffudlwffgrzoffettkffqh
ngffcvhcffojbyffaxvuffmlqrggzaknggloejggxcyfggjq
sbggvemxgghsapggfuulggriohggdwidggpkczggbywvggnm
rshhablohhmpfkhhydzghhkrtchhwfnyhhitbqhhgvvmhhsj
pihhexjehhqldahhczxwhhonstiibcmpiinqgliizeahiils
udiixgoziijucriihwwniitkqjiifykfiirmebiidayxiipo
tujjcdnqjjorhmjjafbijjmtvejjyhpajjkvdsjjixxojjul
rkjjgzlgjjsnfcjjebzyjjqpuvkkdeorkkpsinkkbgcjkknu
wfkkziqbkklwetkkjyypkkvmslkkhamhkktogdkkfcazkkrq
vwllefpsllqtjollchdkllovxgllajrcllmxfullkzzqllwn
tmllibnilluphellgdballsrwxmmfgqtmmrukpmmdielmmpw
yhmmbksdmmnygvmmlaarmmxounmmjcojmmvqifmmhecbmmts
xynnghrunnsvlqnnejfmnnqxzinncltennozhwnnmbbsnnyp
vonnkdpknnwrjgnnifdcnnutyzoohisvootwmroofkgnoory
ajoodmufoopaixooncctoozqwpooleqlooxskhoojgedoovu
zappijtwppuxnsppglhoppszbkppenvgppqbjyppodduppar
xqppmfrmppytlippkhfeppwvabqqjkuxqqvyotqqhmipqqta
clqqfowhqqrckzqqpeevqqbsyrqqngsnqqzumjqqligfqqxw
bcrrklvyrrwzpurrinjqrrubdmrrgpxirrsdlarrqffwrrct
zsrrohtorravnkrrmjhgrryxcdsslmwzssxaqvssjokrssvc
ensshqyjsstembssrggxssduatsspiupssbwolssnkihsszy
dettmnxattybrwttkplsttwdfottirzkttufncttshhyttev
buttqjvqttcxpmttoljittazefuunoybuuzcsxuulqmtuuxe
gpuujsaluuvgoduutiizuufwcvuurkwruudyqnuupmkjuuba
fgvvopzcvvadtyvvmrnuvvyfhqvvktbmvvwhpevvujjavvgx
dwvvslxsvvezrovvqnlkvvcbghwwpqadwwbeuzwwnsovwwzg
irwwlucnwwxiqfwwvkkbwwhyexwwtmytwwfaspwwromlwwdc
hixxqrbexxcfvaxxotpwxxahjsxxmvdoxxyjrgxxwllcxxiz
fyxxunzuxxgbtqxxspnmxxedijyyrscfyydgwbyypuqxyybi
ktyynwepyyzkshyyxmmdyyjagzyyvoavyyhcuryytqonyyfe
jkzzstdgzzehxczzqvryzzcjluzzoxfqzzaltizzynnezzkb
hazzwpbwzzidvszzurpozzgfklaatuehaafiydaarwszaadk
mvaapygraabmujaazoofaalcibaaxqcxaajewtaavsqpaahg

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: klaatu
Cipher: xynngh

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: klaatu
Cipher: 521311114454

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: klaatu
method variations:
pqffyzuvlldezaqqikefvvop

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k l a a t u 
5 1 1 1 4 5 
2 3 1 1 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
511145231144
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: klaatu
Cipher: eaymat

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: klaatu
method variations:
bcaqyy caqyyb aqyybc
qyybca yybcaq ybcaqy

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: klaatu

all 720 cipher variations:
klaatu klaaut klatau klatua klauta klauat klaatu klaaut klatau klatua klauta
klauat kltaau kltaua kltaau kltaua kltuaa kltuaa kluata kluaat klutaa klutaa
kluata kluaat kalatu kalaut kaltau kaltua kaluta kaluat kaaltu kaalut kaatlu
kaatul kaautl kaault katalu kataul katlau katlua katula katual kauatl kaualt
kautal kautla kaulta kaulat kaaltu kaalut kaatlu kaatul kaautl kaault kalatu
kalaut kaltau kaltua kaluta kaluat katlau katlua katalu kataul katual katula
kaulta kaulat kautla kautal kauatl kaualt ktaalu ktaaul ktalau ktalua ktaula
ktaual ktaalu ktaaul ktalau ktalua ktaula ktaual ktlaau ktlaua ktlaau ktlaua
ktluaa ktluaa ktuala ktuaal ktulaa ktulaa ktuala ktuaal kuaatl kuaalt kuatal
kuatla kualta kualat kuaatl kuaalt kuatal kuatla kualta kualat kutaal kutala
kutaal kutala kutlaa kutlaa kulata kulaat kultaa kultaa kulata kulaat lkaatu
lkaaut lkatau lkatua lkauta lkauat lkaatu lkaaut lkatau lkatua lkauta lkauat
lktaau lktaua lktaau lktaua lktuaa lktuaa lkuata lkuaat lkutaa lkutaa lkuata
lkuaat lakatu lakaut laktau laktua lakuta lakuat laaktu laakut laatku laatuk
laautk laaukt lataku latauk latkau latkua latuka latuak lauatk lauakt lautak
lautka laukta laukat laaktu laakut laatku laatuk laautk laaukt lakatu lakaut
laktau laktua lakuta lakuat latkau latkua lataku latauk latuak latuka laukta
laukat lautka lautak lauatk lauakt ltaaku ltaauk ltakau ltakua ltauka ltauak
ltaaku ltaauk ltakau ltakua ltauka ltauak ltkaau ltkaua ltkaau ltkaua ltkuaa
ltkuaa ltuaka ltuaak ltukaa ltukaa ltuaka ltuaak luaatk luaakt luatak luatka
luakta luakat luaatk luaakt luatak luatka luakta luakat lutaak lutaka lutaak
lutaka lutkaa lutkaa lukata lukaat luktaa luktaa lukata lukaat alkatu alkaut
alktau alktua alkuta alkuat alaktu alakut alatku alatuk alautk alaukt altaku
altauk altkau altkua altuka altuak aluatk aluakt alutak alutka alukta alukat
aklatu aklaut akltau akltua akluta akluat akaltu akalut akatlu akatul akautl
akault aktalu aktaul aktlau aktlua aktula aktual akuatl akualt akutal akutla
akulta akulat aakltu aaklut aaktlu aaktul aakutl aakult aalktu aalkut aaltku
aaltuk aalutk aalukt aatlku aatluk aatklu aatkul aatukl aatulk aaultk aaulkt
aautlk aautkl aauktl aauklt atkalu atkaul atklau atklua atkula atkual ataklu
atakul atalku ataluk ataulk ataukl atlaku atlauk atlkau atlkua atluka atluak
atualk atuakl atulak atulka atukla atukal aukatl aukalt auktal auktla auklta
auklat auaktl auaklt auatkl auatlk aualtk aualkt autakl autalk autkal autkla
autlka autlak aulatk aulakt aultak aultka aulkta aulkat alaktu alakut alatku
alatuk alautk alaukt alkatu alkaut alktau alktua alkuta alkuat altkau altkua
altaku altauk altuak altuka alukta alukat alutka alutak aluatk aluakt aalktu
aalkut aaltku aaltuk aalutk aalukt aakltu aaklut aaktlu aaktul aakutl aakult
aatklu aatkul aatlku aatluk aatulk aatukl aauktl aauklt aautkl aautlk aaultk
aaulkt akaltu akalut akatlu akatul akautl akault aklatu aklaut akltau akltua
akluta akluat aktlau aktlua aktalu aktaul aktual aktula akulta akulat akutla
akutal akuatl akualt ataklu atakul atalku ataluk ataulk ataukl atkalu atkaul
atklau atklua atkula atkual atlkau atlkua atlaku atlauk atluak atluka atukla
atukal atulka atulak atualk atuakl auaktl auaklt auatkl auatlk aualtk aualkt
aukatl aukalt auktal auktla auklta auklat autkal autkla autakl autalk autlak
autlka aulkta aulkat aultka aultak aulatk aulakt tlaaku tlaauk tlakau tlakua
tlauka tlauak tlaaku tlaauk tlakau tlakua tlauka tlauak tlkaau tlkaua tlkaau
tlkaua tlkuaa tlkuaa tluaka tluaak tlukaa tlukaa tluaka tluaak talaku talauk
talkau talkua taluka taluak taalku taaluk taaklu taakul taaukl taaulk takalu
takaul taklau taklua takula takual tauakl taualk taukal taukla taulka taulak
taalku taaluk taaklu taakul taaukl taaulk talaku talauk talkau talkua taluka
taluak taklau taklua takalu takaul takual takula taulka taulak taukla taukal
tauakl taualk tkaalu tkaaul tkalau tkalua tkaula tkaual tkaalu tkaaul tkalau
tkalua tkaula tkaual tklaau tklaua tklaau tklaua tkluaa tkluaa tkuala tkuaal
tkulaa tkulaa tkuala tkuaal tuaakl tuaalk tuakal tuakla tualka tualak tuaakl
tuaalk tuakal tuakla tualka tualak tukaal tukala tukaal tukala tuklaa tuklaa
tulaka tulaak tulkaa tulkaa tulaka tulaak ulaatk ulaakt ulatak ulatka ulakta
ulakat ulaatk ulaakt ulatak ulatka ulakta ulakat ultaak ultaka ultaak ultaka
ultkaa ultkaa ulkata ulkaat ulktaa ulktaa ulkata ulkaat ualatk ualakt ualtak
ualtka ualkta ualkat uaaltk uaalkt uaatlk uaatkl uaaktl uaaklt uatalk uatakl
uatlak uatlka uatkla uatkal uakatl uakalt uaktal uaktla uaklta uaklat uaaltk
uaalkt uaatlk uaatkl uaaktl uaaklt ualatk ualakt ualtak ualtka ualkta ualkat
uatlak uatlka uatalk uatakl uatkal uatkla uaklta uaklat uaktla uaktal uakatl
uakalt utaalk utaakl utalak utalka utakla utakal utaalk utaakl utalak utalka
utakla utakal utlaak utlaka utlaak utlaka utlkaa utlkaa utkala utkaal utklaa
utklaa utkala utkaal ukaatl ukaalt ukatal ukatla ukalta ukalat ukaatl ukaalt
ukatal ukatla ukalta ukalat uktaal uktala uktaal uktala uktlaa uktlaa uklata
uklaat ukltaa ukltaa uklata uklaat

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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