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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kittim
cipher variations:
ljuujn mkvvko nlwwlp omxxmq pnyynr
qozzos rpaapt sqbbqu trccrv usddsw
vteetx wuffuy xvggvz ywhhwa zxiixb
ayjjyc bzkkzd callae dbmmbf ecnncg
fdoodh geppei hfqqfj igrrgk jhsshl

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kittim
Cipher: prggrn

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kittim
Cipher: ABAAB ABAAA BAABA BAABA ABAAA ABABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kittim
cipher variations:
ljuujnfzggzlzpsspjtfeefhnvqqvfhlccldvraarzphmmhx
jxyyxvdnkkntxdwwdrrtiitpmkvvkogahhamaqttqkugffgi
owrrwgimddmewsbbsaqinniykyzzyweollouyexxessujjuq
nlwwlphbiibnbruurlvhgghjpxssxhjneenfxtcctbrjoojz
lzaazxfpmmpvzfyyfttvkkvromxxmqicjjcocsvvsmwihhik
qyttyikoffogyudducskppkamabbaygqnnqwagzzguuwllws
pnyynrjdkkdpdtwwtnxjiijlrzuuzjlpggphzveevdtlqqlb
nbccbzhroorxbhaahvvxmmxtqozzoskelleqeuxxuoykjjkm
savvakmqhhqiawffweumrrmcocddcaisppsycibbiwwynnyu
rpaaptlfmmfrfvyyvpzlkklntbwwblnriirjbxggxfvnssnd
pdeedbjtqqtzdjccjxxzoozvsqbbqumgnngsgwzzwqamllmo
ucxxcmosjjskcyhhygwottoeqeffeckurruaekddkyyappaw
trccrvnhoohthxaaxrbnmmnpvdyydnptkktldziizhxpuupf
rfggfdlvssvbfleelzzbqqbxusddswoippiuiybbysconnoq
wezzeoqullumeajjaiyqvvqgsghhgemwttwcgmffmaacrrcy
vteetxpjqqjvjzccztdpooprxfaafprvmmvnfbkkbjzrwwrh
thiihfnxuuxdhnggnbbdssdzwuffuyqkrrkwkaddaueqppqs
ygbbgqswnnwogcllckasxxsiuijjigoyvvyeiohhoccettea
xvggvzrlsslxlbeebvfrqqrtzhcchrtxooxphdmmdlbtyytj
vjkkjhpzwwzfjpiipddfuufbywhhwasmttmymcffcwgsrrsu
aiddisuyppyqiennemcuzzukwkllkiqaxxagkqjjqeegvvgc
zxiixbtnuunzndggdxhtsstvbjeejtvzqqzrjfoofndvaavl
xlmmljrbyybhlrkkrffhwwhdayjjycuovvoaoehheyiuttuw
ckffkuwarraskgppgoewbbwmymnnmksczzcimsllsggixxie
bzkkzdvpwwpbpfiifzjvuuvxdlgglvxbssbtlhqqhpfxccxn
znoonltdaadjntmmthhjyyjfcallaewqxxqcqgjjgakwvvwy
emhhmwycttcumirriqgyddyoaoppomuebbekounnuiikzzkg
dbmmbfxryyrdrhkkhblxwwxzfniinxzduudvnjssjrhzeezp
bpqqpnvfccflpvoovjjlaalhecnncgyszzsesillicmyxxya
gojjoyaevvewokttksiaffaqcqrrqowgddgmqwppwkkmbbmi
fdoodhztaatftjmmjdnzyyzbhpkkpzbfwwfxpluultjbggbr
drssrpxheehnrxqqxllnccnjgeppeiaubbuguknnkeoazzac
iqllqacgxxgyqmvvmukchhcsesttsqyiffiosyrrymmoddok
hfqqfjbvccvhvloolfpbaabdjrmmrbdhyyhzrnwwnvldiidt
ftuutrzjggjptzssznnpeepligrrgkcwddwiwmppmgqcbbce
ksnnsceizziasoxxowmejjeuguvvusakhhkquattaooqffqm
jhsshldxeexjxnqqnhrdccdfltootdfjaajbtpyypxnfkkfv
hvwwvtbliilrvbuubpprggrnkittimeyffykyorroiseddeg
muppuegkbbkcuqzzqyogllgwiwxxwucmjjmswcvvcqqshhso

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kittim
Cipher: xvggvz

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kittim
Cipher: 524244444223

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kittim
method variations:
poyyorutddtwzyiiybedoodg

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k i t t i m 
5 4 4 4 4 2 
2 2 4 4 2 3 
They are then read out in rows:
544442224423
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kittim
Cipher: utigtm

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: kittim
method variations:
rrttgx rttgxr ttgxrr
tgxrrt gxrrtt xrrttg

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kittim

all 720 cipher variations:
kittim kittmi kititm kitimt kitmit kitmti kittim kittmi kititm kitimt kitmit
kitmti kiittm kiitmt kiittm kiitmt kiimtt kiimtt kimtit kimtti kimitt kimitt
kimtit kimtti ktitim ktitmi ktiitm ktiimt ktimit ktimti kttiim kttimi kttiim
kttimi kttmii kttmii ktitim ktitmi ktiitm ktiimt ktimit ktimti ktmtii ktmtii
ktmiti ktmiit ktmiit ktmiti kttiim kttimi kttiim kttimi kttmii kttmii ktitim
ktitmi ktiitm ktiimt ktimit ktimti ktiitm ktiimt ktitim ktitmi ktimti ktimit
ktmiit ktmiti ktmiit ktmiti ktmtii ktmtii kittim kittmi kititm kitimt kitmit
kitmti kittim kittmi kititm kitimt kitmit kitmti kiittm kiitmt kiittm kiitmt
kiimtt kiimtt kimtit kimtti kimitt kimitt kimtit kimtti kmttii kmttii kmtiti
kmtiit kmtiit kmtiti kmttii kmttii kmtiti kmtiit kmtiit kmtiti kmitti kmitit
kmitti kmitit kmiitt kmiitt kmitit kmitti kmiitt kmiitt kmitit kmitti ikttim
ikttmi iktitm iktimt iktmit iktmti ikttim ikttmi iktitm iktimt iktmit iktmti
ikittm ikitmt ikittm ikitmt ikimtt ikimtt ikmtit ikmtti ikmitt ikmitt ikmtit
ikmtti itktim itktmi itkitm itkimt itkmit itkmti ittkim ittkmi ittikm ittimk
ittmik ittmki ititkm ititmk itiktm itikmt itimkt itimtk itmtik itmtki itmitk
itmikt itmkit itmkti ittkim ittkmi ittikm ittimk ittmik ittmki itktim itktmi
itkitm itkimt itkmit itkmti itiktm itikmt ititkm ititmk itimtk itimkt itmkit
itmkti itmikt itmitk itmtik itmtki iittkm iittmk iitktm iitkmt iitmkt iitmtk
iittkm iittmk iitktm iitkmt iitmkt iitmtk iikttm iiktmt iikttm iiktmt iikmtt
iikmtt iimtkt iimttk iimktt iimktt iimtkt iimttk imttik imttki imtitk imtikt
imtkit imtkti imttik imttki imtitk imtikt imtkit imtkti imittk imitkt imittk
imitkt imiktt imiktt imktit imktti imkitt imkitt imktit imktti tiktim tiktmi
tikitm tikimt tikmit tikmti titkim titkmi titikm titimk titmik titmki tiitkm
tiitmk tiiktm tiikmt tiimkt tiimtk timtik timtki timitk timikt timkit timkti
tkitim tkitmi tkiitm tkiimt tkimit tkimti tktiim tktimi tktiim tktimi tktmii
tktmii tkitim tkitmi tkiitm tkiimt tkimit tkimti tkmtii tkmtii tkmiti tkmiit
tkmiit tkmiti ttkiim ttkimi ttkiim ttkimi ttkmii ttkmii ttikim ttikmi ttiikm
ttiimk ttimik ttimki ttiikm ttiimk ttikim ttikmi ttimki ttimik ttmiik ttmiki
ttmiik ttmiki ttmkii ttmkii tiktim tiktmi tikitm tikimt tikmit tikmti titkim
titkmi titikm titimk titmik titmki tiitkm tiitmk tiiktm tiikmt tiimkt tiimtk
timtik timtki timitk timikt timkit timkti tmktii tmktii tmkiti tmkiit tmkiit
tmkiti tmtkii tmtkii tmtiki tmtiik tmtiik tmtiki tmitki tmitik tmikti tmikit
tmiikt tmiitk tmitik tmitki tmiitk tmiikt tmikit tmikti titkim titkmi titikm
titimk titmik titmki tiktim tiktmi tikitm tikimt tikmit tikmti tiiktm tiikmt
tiitkm tiitmk tiimtk tiimkt timkit timkti timikt timitk timtik timtki ttikim
ttikmi ttiikm ttiimk ttimik ttimki ttkiim ttkimi ttkiim ttkimi ttkmii ttkmii
ttikim ttikmi ttiikm ttiimk ttimik ttimki ttmkii ttmkii ttmiki ttmiik ttmiik
ttmiki tktiim tktimi tktiim tktimi tktmii tktmii tkitim tkitmi tkiitm tkiimt
tkimit tkimti tkiitm tkiimt tkitim tkitmi tkimti tkimit tkmiit tkmiti tkmiit
tkmiti tkmtii tkmtii titkim titkmi titikm titimk titmik titmki tiktim tiktmi
tikitm tikimt tikmit tikmti tiiktm tiikmt tiitkm tiitmk tiimtk tiimkt timkit
timkti timikt timitk timtik timtki tmtkii tmtkii tmtiki tmtiik tmtiik tmtiki
tmktii tmktii tmkiti tmkiit tmkiit tmkiti tmikti tmikit tmitki tmitik tmiitk
tmiikt tmikit tmikti tmiikt tmiitk tmitik tmitki iittkm iittmk iitktm iitkmt
iitmkt iitmtk iittkm iittmk iitktm iitkmt iitmkt iitmtk iikttm iiktmt iikttm
iiktmt iikmtt iikmtt iimtkt iimttk iimktt iimktt iimtkt iimttk ititkm ititmk
itiktm itikmt itimkt itimtk ittikm ittimk ittkim ittkmi ittmki ittmik itktim
itktmi itkitm itkimt itkmit itkmti itmtki itmtik itmkti itmkit itmikt itmitk
ittikm ittimk ittkim ittkmi ittmki ittmik ititkm ititmk itiktm itikmt itimkt
itimtk itkitm itkimt itktim itktmi itkmti itkmit itmikt itmitk itmkit itmkti
itmtki itmtik ikttim ikttmi iktitm iktimt iktmit iktmti ikttim ikttmi iktitm
iktimt iktmit iktmti ikittm ikitmt ikittm ikitmt ikimtt ikimtt ikmtit ikmtti
ikmitt ikmitt ikmtit ikmtti imttki imttik imtkti imtkit imtikt imtitk imttki
imttik imtkti imtkit imtikt imtitk imktti imktit imktti imktit imkitt imkitt
imitkt imittk imiktt imiktt imitkt imittk mittik mittki mititk mitikt mitkit
mitkti mittik mittki mititk mitikt mitkit mitkti miittk miitkt miittk miitkt
miiktt miiktt miktit miktti mikitt mikitt miktit miktti mtitik mtitki mtiitk
mtiikt mtikit mtikti mttiik mttiki mttiik mttiki mttkii mttkii mtitik mtitki
mtiitk mtiikt mtikit mtikti mtktii mtktii mtkiti mtkiit mtkiit mtkiti mttiik
mttiki mttiik mttiki mttkii mttkii mtitik mtitki mtiitk mtiikt mtikit mtikti
mtiitk mtiikt mtitik mtitki mtikti mtikit mtkiit mtkiti mtkiit mtkiti mtktii
mtktii mittik mittki mititk mitikt mitkit mitkti mittik mittki mititk mitikt
mitkit mitkti miittk miitkt miittk miitkt miiktt miiktt miktit miktti mikitt
mikitt miktit miktti mkttii mkttii mktiti mktiit mktiit mktiti mkttii mkttii
mktiti mktiit mktiit mktiti mkitti mkitit mkitti mkitit mkiitt mkiitt mkitit
mkitti mkiitt mkiitt mkitit mkitti

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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