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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kittie
cipher variations:
ljuujf mkvvkg nlwwlh omxxmi pnyynj
qozzok rpaapl sqbbqm trccrn usddso
vteetp wuffuq xvggvr ywhhws zxiixt
ayjjyu bzkkzv callaw dbmmbx ecnncy
fdoodz geppea hfqqfb igrrgc jhsshd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kittie
Cipher: prggrv

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kittie
Cipher: ABAAB ABAAA BAABA BAABA ABAAA AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kittie
cipher variations:
ljuujffzggznzpsspvtfeefdnvqqvlhlccltvraarjphmmhr
jxyyxzdnkknhxdwwdprtiitxmkvvkggahhaoaqttqwugffge
owrrwmimddmuwsbbskqinniskyzzyaeolloiyexxeqsujjuy
nlwwlhhbiibpbruurxvhgghfpxssxnjneenvxtcctlrjoojt
lzaazbfpmmpjzfyyfrtvkkvzomxxmiicjjcqcsvvsywihhig
qyttyokoffowyuddumskppkumabbacgqnnqkagzzgsuwllwa
pnyynjjdkkdrdtwwtzxjiijhrzuuzplpggpxzveevntlqqlv
nbccbdhroorlbhaahtvxmmxbqozzokkelleseuxxuaykjjki
savvaqmqhhqyawffwoumrrmwocddceisppsmcibbiuwynnyc
rpaapllfmmftfvyyvbzlkkljtbwwbrnriirzbxggxpvnssnx
pdeedfjtqqtndjccjvxzoozdsqbbqmmgnngugwzzwcamllmk
ucxxcsosjjsacyhhyqwottoyqeffegkurruoekddkwyappae
trccrnnhoohvhxaaxdbnmmnlvdyydtptkktbdziizrxpuupz
rfggfhlvssvpfleelxzbqqbfusddsooippiwiybbyeconnom
wezzeuqulluceajjasyqvvqasghhgimwttwqgmffmyacrrcg
vteetppjqqjxjzcczfdpoopnxfaafvrvmmvdfbkkbtzrwwrb
thiihjnxuuxrhnggnzbdssdhwuffuqqkrrkykaddageqppqo
ygbbgwswnnwegcllcuasxxscuijjikoyvvysiohhoacettei
xvggvrrlsslzlbeebhfrqqrpzhcchxtxooxfhdmmdvbtyytd
vjkkjlpzwwztjpiipbdfuufjywhhwssmttmamcffcigsrrsq
aiddiyuyppygiennewcuzzuewkllkmqaxxaukqjjqcegvvgk
zxiixttnuunbndggdjhtsstrbjeejzvzqqzhjfoofxdvaavf
xlmmlnrbyybvlrkkrdfhwwhlayjjyuuovvocoehhekiuttus
ckffkawarraikgppgyewbbwgymnnmosczzcwmsllsegixxim
bzkkzvvpwwpdpfiifljvuuvtdlgglbxbssbjlhqqhzfxccxh
znoonptdaadxntmmtfhjyyjncallawwqxxqeqgjjgmkwvvwu
emhhmcycttckmirriagyddyiaoppoquebbeyounnugikzzko
dbmmbxxryyrfrhkkhnlxwwxvfniindzduudlnjssjbhzeezj
bpqqprvfccfzpvoovhjlaalpecnncyyszzsgsilliomyxxyw
gojjoeaevvemokttkciaffakcqrrqswgddgaqwppwikmbbmq
fdoodzztaathtjmmjpnzyyzxhpkkpfbfwwfnpluuldjbggbl
drssrtxheehbrxqqxjlnccnrgeppeaaubbuiuknnkqoazzay
iqllqgcgxxgoqmvvmekchhcmesttsuyifficsyrrykmoddos
hfqqfbbvccvjvloolrpbaabzjrmmrhdhyyhprnwwnfldiidn
ftuutvzjggjdtzsszlnpeeptigrrgccwddwkwmppmsqcbbca
ksnnsieizziqsoxxogmejjeoguvvuwakhhkeuattamoqffqu
jhsshddxeexlxnqqntrdccdbltootjfjaajrtpyyphnfkkfp
hvwwvxbliilfvbuubnprggrvkittieeyffymyorrouseddec
muppukgkbbksuqzzqiogllgqiwxxwycmjjmgwcvvcoqshhsw

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kittie
Cipher: xvggvr

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kittie
Cipher: 524244444251

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kittie
method variations:
poyyokutddtpzyiiyuedoodz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k i t t i e 
5 4 4 4 4 5 
2 2 4 4 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
544445224421
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kittie
Cipher: utygtb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: kittie
method variations:
rrttwv rttwvr ttwvrr
twvrrt wvrrtt vrrttw

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kittie

all 720 cipher variations:
kittie kittei kitite kitiet kiteit kiteti kittie kittei kitite kitiet kiteit
kiteti kiitte kiitet kiitte kiitet kiiett kiiett kietit kietti kieitt kieitt
kietit kietti ktitie ktitei ktiite ktiiet ktieit ktieti kttiie kttiei kttiie
kttiei ktteii ktteii ktitie ktitei ktiite ktiiet ktieit ktieti ktetii ktetii
kteiti kteiit kteiit kteiti kttiie kttiei kttiie kttiei ktteii ktteii ktitie
ktitei ktiite ktiiet ktieit ktieti ktiite ktiiet ktitie ktitei ktieti ktieit
kteiit kteiti kteiit kteiti ktetii ktetii kittie kittei kitite kitiet kiteit
kiteti kittie kittei kitite kitiet kiteit kiteti kiitte kiitet kiitte kiitet
kiiett kiiett kietit kietti kieitt kieitt kietit kietti kettii kettii ketiti
ketiit ketiit ketiti kettii kettii ketiti ketiit ketiit ketiti keitti keitit
keitti keitit keiitt keiitt keitit keitti keiitt keiitt keitit keitti ikttie
ikttei iktite iktiet ikteit ikteti ikttie ikttei iktite iktiet ikteit ikteti
ikitte ikitet ikitte ikitet ikiett ikiett iketit iketti ikeitt ikeitt iketit
iketti itktie itktei itkite itkiet itkeit itketi ittkie ittkei ittike ittiek
itteik itteki ititke ititek itikte itiket itiekt itietk itetik itetki iteitk
iteikt itekit itekti ittkie ittkei ittike ittiek itteik itteki itktie itktei
itkite itkiet itkeit itketi itikte itiket ititke ititek itietk itiekt itekit
itekti iteikt iteitk itetik itetki iittke iittek iitkte iitket iitekt iitetk
iittke iittek iitkte iitket iitekt iitetk iiktte iiktet iiktte iiktet iikett
iikett iietkt iiettk iiektt iiektt iietkt iiettk iettik iettki ietitk ietikt
ietkit ietkti iettik iettki ietitk ietikt ietkit ietkti ieittk ieitkt ieittk
ieitkt ieiktt ieiktt iektit iektti iekitt iekitt iektit iektti tiktie tiktei
tikite tikiet tikeit tiketi titkie titkei titike titiek titeik titeki tiitke
tiitek tiikte tiiket tiiekt tiietk tietik tietki tieitk tieikt tiekit tiekti
tkitie tkitei tkiite tkiiet tkieit tkieti tktiie tktiei tktiie tktiei tkteii
tkteii tkitie tkitei tkiite tkiiet tkieit tkieti tketii tketii tkeiti tkeiit
tkeiit tkeiti ttkiie ttkiei ttkiie ttkiei ttkeii ttkeii ttikie ttikei ttiike
ttiiek ttieik ttieki ttiike ttiiek ttikie ttikei ttieki ttieik tteiik tteiki
tteiik tteiki ttekii ttekii tiktie tiktei tikite tikiet tikeit tiketi titkie
titkei titike titiek titeik titeki tiitke tiitek tiikte tiiket tiiekt tiietk
tietik tietki tieitk tieikt tiekit tiekti tektii tektii tekiti tekiit tekiit
tekiti tetkii tetkii tetiki tetiik tetiik tetiki teitki teitik teikti teikit
teiikt teiitk teitik teitki teiitk teiikt teikit teikti titkie titkei titike
titiek titeik titeki tiktie tiktei tikite tikiet tikeit tiketi tiikte tiiket
tiitke tiitek tiietk tiiekt tiekit tiekti tieikt tieitk tietik tietki ttikie
ttikei ttiike ttiiek ttieik ttieki ttkiie ttkiei ttkiie ttkiei ttkeii ttkeii
ttikie ttikei ttiike ttiiek ttieik ttieki ttekii ttekii tteiki tteiik tteiik
tteiki tktiie tktiei tktiie tktiei tkteii tkteii tkitie tkitei tkiite tkiiet
tkieit tkieti tkiite tkiiet tkitie tkitei tkieti tkieit tkeiit tkeiti tkeiit
tkeiti tketii tketii titkie titkei titike titiek titeik titeki tiktie tiktei
tikite tikiet tikeit tiketi tiikte tiiket tiitke tiitek tiietk tiiekt tiekit
tiekti tieikt tieitk tietik tietki tetkii tetkii tetiki tetiik tetiik tetiki
tektii tektii tekiti tekiit tekiit tekiti teikti teikit teitki teitik teiitk
teiikt teikit teikti teiikt teiitk teitik teitki iittke iittek iitkte iitket
iitekt iitetk iittke iittek iitkte iitket iitekt iitetk iiktte iiktet iiktte
iiktet iikett iikett iietkt iiettk iiektt iiektt iietkt iiettk ititke ititek
itikte itiket itiekt itietk ittike ittiek ittkie ittkei itteki itteik itktie
itktei itkite itkiet itkeit itketi itetki itetik itekti itekit iteikt iteitk
ittike ittiek ittkie ittkei itteki itteik ititke ititek itikte itiket itiekt
itietk itkite itkiet itktie itktei itketi itkeit iteikt iteitk itekit itekti
itetki itetik ikttie ikttei iktite iktiet ikteit ikteti ikttie ikttei iktite
iktiet ikteit ikteti ikitte ikitet ikitte ikitet ikiett ikiett iketit iketti
ikeitt ikeitt iketit iketti iettki iettik ietkti ietkit ietikt ietitk iettki
iettik ietkti ietkit ietikt ietitk iektti iektit iektti iektit iekitt iekitt
ieitkt ieittk ieiktt ieiktt ieitkt ieittk eittik eittki eititk eitikt eitkit
eitkti eittik eittki eititk eitikt eitkit eitkti eiittk eiitkt eiittk eiitkt
eiiktt eiiktt eiktit eiktti eikitt eikitt eiktit eiktti etitik etitki etiitk
etiikt etikit etikti ettiik ettiki ettiik ettiki ettkii ettkii etitik etitki
etiitk etiikt etikit etikti etktii etktii etkiti etkiit etkiit etkiti ettiik
ettiki ettiik ettiki ettkii ettkii etitik etitki etiitk etiikt etikit etikti
etiitk etiikt etitik etitki etikti etikit etkiit etkiti etkiit etkiti etktii
etktii eittik eittki eititk eitikt eitkit eitkti eittik eittki eititk eitikt
eitkit eitkti eiittk eiitkt eiittk eiitkt eiiktt eiiktt eiktit eiktti eikitt
eikitt eiktit eiktti ekttii ekttii ektiti ektiit ektiit ektiti ekttii ekttii
ektiti ektiit ektiit ektiti ekitti ekitit ekitti ekitit ekiitt ekiitt ekitit
ekitti ekiitt ekiitt ekitit ekitti

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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