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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kingma
cipher variations:
ljohnb mkpioc nlqjpd omrkqe pnslrf
qotmsg rpunth sqvoui trwpvj usxqwk
vtyrxl wuzsym xvatzn ywbuao zxcvbp
aydwcq bzexdr cafyes dbgzft echagu
fdibhv gejciw hfkdjx igleky jhmflz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kingma
Cipher: prmtnz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kingma

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kingma
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kingma
Cipher: xvatzn

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kingma
Cipher: 524233222311

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kingma
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k i n g m a 
5 4 3 2 2 1 
2 2 3 2 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kingma
Cipher: uhbghc

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Method #3

Plaintext: kingma
method variations:
rmhgcv mhgcvr hgcvrm
gcvrmh cvrmhg vrmhgc

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kingma

all 720 cipher variations:
kingma kingam kinmga kinmag kinamg kinagm kignma kignam kigmna kigman kigamn
kiganm kimgna kimgan kimnga kimnag kimang kimagn kiagmn kiagnm kiamgn kiamng
kianmg kiangm knigma knigam knimga knimag kniamg kniagm kngima kngiam kngmia
kngmai kngami kngaim knmgia knmgai knmiga knmiag knmaig knmagi knagmi knagim
knamgi knamig knaimg knaigm kgnima kgniam kgnmia kgnmai kgnami kgnaim kginma
kginam kgimna kgiman kgiamn kgianm kgmina kgmian kgmnia kgmnai kgmani kgmain
kgaimn kgainm kgamin kgamni kganmi kganim kmngia kmngai kmniga kmniag kmnaig
kmnagi kmgnia kmgnai kmgina kmgian kmgain kmgani kmigna kmigan kminga kminag
kmiang kmiagn kmagin kmagni kmaign kmaing kmanig kmangi kangmi kangim kanmgi
kanmig kanimg kanigm kagnmi kagnim kagmni kagmin kagimn kaginm kamgni kamgin
kamngi kamnig kaming kamign kaigmn kaignm kaimgn kaimng kainmg kaingm ikngma
ikngam iknmga iknmag iknamg iknagm ikgnma ikgnam ikgmna ikgman ikgamn ikganm
ikmgna ikmgan ikmnga ikmnag ikmang ikmagn ikagmn ikagnm ikamgn ikamng ikanmg
ikangm inkgma inkgam inkmga inkmag inkamg inkagm ingkma ingkam ingmka ingmak
ingamk ingakm inmgka inmgak inmkga inmkag inmakg inmagk inagmk inagkm inamgk
inamkg inakmg inakgm ignkma ignkam ignmka ignmak ignamk ignakm igknma igknam
igkmna igkman igkamn igkanm igmkna igmkan igmnka igmnak igmank igmakn igakmn
igaknm igamkn igamnk iganmk igankm imngka imngak imnkga imnkag imnakg imnagk
imgnka imgnak imgkna imgkan imgakn imgank imkgna imkgan imknga imknag imkang
imkagn imagkn imagnk imakgn imakng imankg imangk iangmk iangkm ianmgk ianmkg
iankmg iankgm iagnmk iagnkm iagmnk iagmkn iagkmn iagknm iamgnk iamgkn iamngk
iamnkg iamkng iamkgn iakgmn iakgnm iakmgn iakmng iaknmg iakngm nikgma nikgam
nikmga nikmag nikamg nikagm nigkma nigkam nigmka nigmak nigamk nigakm nimgka
nimgak nimkga nimkag nimakg nimagk niagmk niagkm niamgk niamkg niakmg niakgm
nkigma nkigam nkimga nkimag nkiamg nkiagm nkgima nkgiam nkgmia nkgmai nkgami
nkgaim nkmgia nkmgai nkmiga nkmiag nkmaig nkmagi nkagmi nkagim nkamgi nkamig
nkaimg nkaigm ngkima ngkiam ngkmia ngkmai ngkami ngkaim ngikma ngikam ngimka
ngimak ngiamk ngiakm ngmika ngmiak ngmkia ngmkai ngmaki ngmaik ngaimk ngaikm
ngamik ngamki ngakmi ngakim nmkgia nmkgai nmkiga nmkiag nmkaig nmkagi nmgkia
nmgkai nmgika nmgiak nmgaik nmgaki nmigka nmigak nmikga nmikag nmiakg nmiagk
nmagik nmagki nmaigk nmaikg nmakig nmakgi nakgmi nakgim nakmgi nakmig nakimg
nakigm nagkmi nagkim nagmki nagmik nagimk nagikm namgki namgik namkgi namkig
namikg namigk naigmk naigkm naimgk naimkg naikmg naikgm ginkma ginkam ginmka
ginmak ginamk ginakm giknma giknam gikmna gikman gikamn gikanm gimkna gimkan
gimnka gimnak gimank gimakn giakmn giaknm giamkn giamnk gianmk giankm gnikma
gnikam gnimka gnimak gniamk gniakm gnkima gnkiam gnkmia gnkmai gnkami gnkaim
gnmkia gnmkai gnmika gnmiak gnmaik gnmaki gnakmi gnakim gnamki gnamik gnaimk
gnaikm gknima gkniam gknmia gknmai gknami gknaim gkinma gkinam gkimna gkiman
gkiamn gkianm gkmina gkmian gkmnia gkmnai gkmani gkmain gkaimn gkainm gkamin
gkamni gkanmi gkanim gmnkia gmnkai gmnika gmniak gmnaik gmnaki gmknia gmknai
gmkina gmkian gmkain gmkani gmikna gmikan gminka gminak gmiank gmiakn gmakin
gmakni gmaikn gmaink gmanik gmanki gankmi gankim ganmki ganmik ganimk ganikm
gaknmi gaknim gakmni gakmin gakimn gakinm gamkni gamkin gamnki gamnik gamink
gamikn gaikmn gaiknm gaimkn gaimnk gainmk gainkm mingka mingak minkga minkag
minakg minagk mignka mignak migkna migkan migakn migank mikgna mikgan miknga
miknag mikang mikagn miagkn miagnk miakgn miakng miankg miangk mnigka mnigak
mnikga mnikag mniakg mniagk mngika mngiak mngkia mngkai mngaki mngaik mnkgia
mnkgai mnkiga mnkiag mnkaig mnkagi mnagki mnagik mnakgi mnakig mnaikg mnaigk
mgnika mgniak mgnkia mgnkai mgnaki mgnaik mginka mginak mgikna mgikan mgiakn
mgiank mgkina mgkian mgknia mgknai mgkani mgkain mgaikn mgaink mgakin mgakni
mganki mganik mkngia mkngai mkniga mkniag mknaig mknagi mkgnia mkgnai mkgina
mkgian mkgain mkgani mkigna mkigan mkinga mkinag mkiang mkiagn mkagin mkagni
mkaign mkaing mkanig mkangi mangki mangik mankgi mankig manikg manigk magnki
magnik magkni magkin magikn magink makgni makgin makngi maknig making makign
maigkn maignk maikgn maikng mainkg maingk aingmk aingkm ainmgk ainmkg ainkmg
ainkgm aignmk aignkm aigmnk aigmkn aigkmn aigknm aimgnk aimgkn aimngk aimnkg
aimkng aimkgn aikgmn aikgnm aikmgn aikmng aiknmg aikngm anigmk anigkm animgk
animkg anikmg anikgm angimk angikm angmik angmki angkmi angkim anmgik anmgki
anmigk anmikg anmkig anmkgi ankgmi ankgim ankmgi ankmig ankimg ankigm agnimk
agnikm agnmik agnmki agnkmi agnkim aginmk aginkm agimnk agimkn agikmn agiknm
agmink agmikn agmnik agmnki agmkni agmkin agkimn agkinm agkmin agkmni agknmi
agknim amngik amngki amnigk amnikg amnkig amnkgi amgnik amgnki amgink amgikn
amgkin amgkni amignk amigkn amingk aminkg amikng amikgn amkgin amkgni amkign
amking amknig amkngi akngmi akngim aknmgi aknmig aknimg aknigm akgnmi akgnim
akgmni akgmin akgimn akginm akmgni akmgin akmngi akmnig akming akmign akigmn
akignm akimgn akimng akinmg akingm

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History of cryptography
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