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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: killam
cipher variations:
ljmmbn mknnco nloodp omppeq pnqqfr
qorrgs rpssht sqttiu truujv usvvkw
vtwwlx wuxxmy xvyynz ywzzoa zxaapb
aybbqc bzccrd caddse dbeetf ecffug
fdggvh gehhwi hfiixj igjjyk jhkkzl

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: killam
Cipher: proozn

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: killam
Cipher: ABAAB ABAAA ABABA ABABA AAAAA ABABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: killam
cipher variations:
ljmmbnfziiblzpeebjtfaabhnvwwbfhlssbdvrkkbzphggbx
jxccbvdnyybtxduubrrtqqbpmknncogajjcmaqffckugbbci
owxxcgimttcewsllcaqihhcykyddcweozzcuyevvcssurrcq
nloodphbkkdnbrggdlvhccdjpxyydhjnuudfxtmmdbrjiidz
lzeedxfpaadvzfwwdttvssdromppeqiclleocshhemwiddek
qyzzeikovvegyunnecskjjeamaffeygqbbewagxxeuuwttes
pnqqfrjdmmfpdtiifnxjeeflrzaafjlpwwfhzvoofdtlkkfb
nbggfzhrccfxbhyyfvvxuuftqorrgskenngqeujjgoykffgm
sabbgkmqxxgiawppgeumllgcochhgaisddgycizzgwwyvvgu
rpsshtlfoohrfvkkhpzlgghntbcchlnryyhjbxqqhfvnmmhd
pdiihbjteehzdjaahxxzwwhvsqttiumgppisgwlliqamhhio
ucddimoszzikcyrrigwonnieqejjickuffiaekbbiyyaxxiw
truujvnhqqjthxmmjrbniijpvdeejnptaajldzssjhxpoojf
rfkkjdlvggjbflccjzzbyyjxusvvkwoirrkuiynnkscojjkq
weffkoqubbkmeattkiyqppkgsgllkemwhhkcgmddkaaczzky
vtwwlxpjsslvjzooltdpkklrxfgglprvcclnfbuuljzrqqlh
thmmlfnxiildhneelbbdaalzwuxxmyqkttmwkappmueqllms
yghhmqswddmogcvvmkasrrmiuinnmgoyjjmeioffmccebbma
xvyynzrluunxlbqqnvfrmmntzhiinrtxeenphdwwnlbtssnj
vjoonhpzkknfjpggnddfccnbywzzoasmvvoymcrrowgsnnou
aijjosuyffoqiexxomcuttokwkppoiqallogkqhhoeegddoc
zxaapbtnwwpzndsspxhtoopvbjkkptvzggprjfyypndvuupl
xlqqpjrbmmphlriipffheepdaybbqcuoxxqaoettqyiuppqw
ckllquwahhqskgzzqoewvvqmymrrqkscnnqimsjjqggiffqe
bzccrdvpyyrbpfuurzjvqqrxdlmmrvxbiirtlhaarpfxwwrn
znssrltdoorjntkkrhhjggrfcaddsewqzzscqgvvsakwrrsy
emnnswycjjsumibbsqgyxxsoaottsmueppskoullsiikhhsg
dbeetfxraatdrhwwtblxsstzfnootxzdkktvnjcctrhzyytp
bpuutnvfqqtlpvmmtjjliithecffugysbbuesixxucmyttua
goppuyaelluwokddusiazzuqcqvvuowgrrumqwnnukkmjjui
fdggvhztccvftjyyvdnzuuvbhpqqvzbfmmvxpleevtjbaavr
drwwvpxhssvnrxoovllnkkvjgehhwiauddwgukzzweoavvwc
iqrrwacgnnwyqmffwukcbbwsesxxwqyittwosyppwmmollwk
hfiixjbveexhvlaaxfpbwwxdjrssxbdhooxzrnggxvldccxt
ftyyxrzjuuxptzqqxnnpmmxligjjykcwffyiwmbbygqcxxye
ksttyceippyasohhywmeddyuguzzysakvvyquarryooqnnym
jhkkzldxggzjxncczhrdyyzfltuuzdfjqqzbtpiizxnfeezv
hvaaztblwwzrvbsszpprooznkillameyhhakyoddaisezzag
muvvaegkrracuqjjayogffawiwbbaucmxxaswcttaqqsppao

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: killam
Cipher: xvyynz

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: killam
Cipher: 524213131123

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: killam
method variations:
poqqfrutvvlwzyaaqbedffvg

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k i l l a m 
5 4 1 1 1 2 
2 2 3 3 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
541112223313
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: killam
Cipher: uafgnl

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: killam
method variations:
rbccfx bccfxr ccfxrb
cfxrbc fxrbcc xrbccf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: killam

all 720 cipher variations:
killam killma kilalm kilaml kilmal kilmla killam killma kilalm kilaml kilmal
kilmla kiallm kialml kiallm kialml kiamll kiamll kimlal kimlla kimall kimall
kimlal kimlla klilam klilma klialm kliaml klimal klimla klliam kllima kllaim
kllami kllmai kllmia klalim klalmi klailm klaiml klamil klamli klmlai klmlia
klmali klmail klmial klmila klliam kllima kllaim kllami kllmai kllmia klilam
klilma klialm kliaml klimal klimla klailm klaiml klalim klalmi klamli klamil
klmial klmila klmail klmali klmlai klmlia kallim kallmi kalilm kaliml kalmil
kalmli kallim kallmi kalilm kaliml kalmil kalmli kaillm kailml kaillm kailml
kaimll kaimll kamlil kamlli kamill kamill kamlil kamlli kmllai kmllia kmlali
kmlail kmlial kmlila kmllai kmllia kmlali kmlail kmlial kmlila kmalli kmalil
kmalli kmalil kmaill kmaill kmilal kmilla kmiall kmiall kmilal kmilla ikllam
ikllma iklalm iklaml iklmal iklmla ikllam ikllma iklalm iklaml iklmal iklmla
ikallm ikalml ikallm ikalml ikamll ikamll ikmlal ikmlla ikmall ikmall ikmlal
ikmlla ilklam ilklma ilkalm ilkaml ilkmal ilkmla illkam illkma illakm illamk
illmak illmka ilalkm ilalmk ilaklm ilakml ilamkl ilamlk ilmlak ilmlka ilmalk
ilmakl ilmkal ilmkla illkam illkma illakm illamk illmak illmka ilklam ilklma
ilkalm ilkaml ilkmal ilkmla ilaklm ilakml ilalkm ilalmk ilamlk ilamkl ilmkal
ilmkla ilmakl ilmalk ilmlak ilmlka iallkm iallmk ialklm ialkml ialmkl ialmlk
iallkm iallmk ialklm ialkml ialmkl ialmlk iakllm iaklml iakllm iaklml iakmll
iakmll iamlkl iamllk iamkll iamkll iamlkl iamllk imllak imllka imlalk imlakl
imlkal imlkla imllak imllka imlalk imlakl imlkal imlkla imallk imalkl imallk
imalkl imakll imakll imklal imklla imkall imkall imklal imklla liklam liklma
likalm likaml likmal likmla lilkam lilkma lilakm lilamk lilmak lilmka lialkm
lialmk liaklm liakml liamkl liamlk limlak limlka limalk limakl limkal limkla
lkilam lkilma lkialm lkiaml lkimal lkimla lkliam lklima lklaim lklami lklmai
lklmia lkalim lkalmi lkailm lkaiml lkamil lkamli lkmlai lkmlia lkmali lkmail
lkmial lkmila llkiam llkima llkaim llkami llkmai llkmia llikam llikma lliakm
lliamk llimak llimka llaikm llaimk llakim llakmi llamki llamik llmiak llmika
llmaik llmaki llmkai llmkia laklim laklmi lakilm lakiml lakmil lakmli lalkim
lalkmi lalikm lalimk lalmik lalmki lailkm lailmk laiklm laikml laimkl laimlk
lamlik lamlki lamilk lamikl lamkil lamkli lmklai lmklia lmkali lmkail lmkial
lmkila lmlkai lmlkia lmlaki lmlaik lmliak lmlika lmalki lmalik lmakli lmakil
lmaikl lmailk lmilak lmilka lmialk lmiakl lmikal lmikla lilkam lilkma lilakm
lilamk lilmak lilmka liklam liklma likalm likaml likmal likmla liaklm liakml
lialkm lialmk liamlk liamkl limkal limkla limakl limalk limlak limlka llikam
llikma lliakm lliamk llimak llimka llkiam llkima llkaim llkami llkmai llkmia
llakim llakmi llaikm llaimk llamik llamki llmkai llmkia llmaki llmaik llmiak
llmika lkliam lklima lklaim lklami lklmai lklmia lkilam lkilma lkialm lkiaml
lkimal lkimla lkailm lkaiml lkalim lkalmi lkamli lkamil lkmial lkmila lkmail
lkmali lkmlai lkmlia lalkim lalkmi lalikm lalimk lalmik lalmki laklim laklmi
lakilm lakiml lakmil lakmli laiklm laikml lailkm lailmk laimlk laimkl lamkil
lamkli lamikl lamilk lamlik lamlki lmlkai lmlkia lmlaki lmlaik lmliak lmlika
lmklai lmklia lmkali lmkail lmkial lmkila lmakli lmakil lmalki lmalik lmailk
lmaikl lmikal lmikla lmiakl lmialk lmilak lmilka aillkm aillmk ailklm ailkml
ailmkl ailmlk aillkm aillmk ailklm ailkml ailmkl ailmlk aikllm aiklml aikllm
aiklml aikmll aikmll aimlkl aimllk aimkll aimkll aimlkl aimllk alilkm alilmk
aliklm alikml alimkl alimlk allikm allimk allkim allkmi allmki allmik alklim
alklmi alkilm alkiml alkmil alkmli almlki almlik almkli almkil almikl almilk
allikm allimk allkim allkmi allmki allmik alilkm alilmk aliklm alikml alimkl
alimlk alkilm alkiml alklim alklmi alkmli alkmil almikl almilk almkil almkli
almlki almlik akllim akllmi aklilm akliml aklmil aklmli akllim akllmi aklilm
akliml aklmil aklmli akillm akilml akillm akilml akimll akimll akmlil akmlli
akmill akmill akmlil akmlli amllki amllik amlkli amlkil amlikl amlilk amllki
amllik amlkli amlkil amlikl amlilk amklli amklil amklli amklil amkill amkill
amilkl amillk amikll amikll amilkl amillk millak millka milalk milakl milkal
milkla millak millka milalk milakl milkal milkla miallk mialkl miallk mialkl
miakll miakll miklal miklla mikall mikall miklal miklla mlilak mlilka mlialk
mliakl mlikal mlikla mlliak mllika mllaik mllaki mllkai mllkia mlalik mlalki
mlailk mlaikl mlakil mlakli mlklai mlklia mlkali mlkail mlkial mlkila mlliak
mllika mllaik mllaki mllkai mllkia mlilak mlilka mlialk mliakl mlikal mlikla
mlailk mlaikl mlalik mlalki mlakli mlakil mlkial mlkila mlkail mlkali mlklai
mlklia mallik mallki malilk malikl malkil malkli mallik mallki malilk malikl
malkil malkli maillk mailkl maillk mailkl maikll maikll maklil maklli makill
makill maklil maklli mkllai mkllia mklali mklail mklial mklila mkllai mkllia
mklali mklail mklial mklila mkalli mkalil mkalli mkalil mkaill mkaill mkilal
mkilla mkiall mkiall mkilal mkilla

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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