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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kegler
cipher variations:
lfhmfs mgingt nhjohu oikpiv pjlqjw
qkmrkx rlnsly smotmz tnpuna uoqvob
vprwpc wqsxqd xrtyre ysuzsf ztvatg
auwbuh bvxcvi cwydwj dxzexk eyafyl
fzbgzm gachan hbdibo icejcp jdfkdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kegler
Cipher: pvtovi

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kegler
Cipher: ABAAB AABAA AABBA ABABA AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kegler
cipher variations:
lfhmfsfntinazvfevitdradqnldwlyhtpstgvjnkjwprzgre
jzlczmdhxyhuxpjupcrxvqxkmgingtgoujobawgfwjuesber
omexmziuqtuhwkolkxqsahsfkamdaneiyzivyqkvqdsywryl
nhjohuhpvkpcbxhgxkvftcfspnfynajvruvixlpmlyrtbitg
lbnebofjzajwzrlwretzxszmoikpiviqwlqdcyihylwgudgt
qogzobkwsvwjymqnmzsucjuhmcofcpgkabkxasmxsfuaytan
pjlqjwjrxmredzjizmxhvehurphapclxtwxkznronatvdkvi
ndpgdqhlbclybtnytgvbzuboqkmrkxksynsfeakjanyiwfiv
sqibqdmyuxylaospobuwelwjoeqherimcdmzcuozuhwcavcp
rlnslyltzotgfblkbozjxgjwtrjcrenzvyzmbptqpcvxfmxk
pfrifsjndenadvpavixdbwdqsmotmzmuapuhgcmlcpakyhkx
uskdsfoawzancqurqdwygnylqgsjgtkoefobewqbwjyecxer
tnpunanvbqvihdnmdqblzilyvtletgpbxabodrvsrexzhozm
rhtkhulpfgpcfxrcxkzfdyfsuoqvobowcrwjieonercmajmz
wumfuhqcybcpeswtsfyaipansiulivmqghqdgysdylagezgt
vprwpcpxdsxkjfpofsdnbknaxvngvirdzcdqftxutgzbjqbo
tjvmjwnrhirehztezmbhfahuwqsxqdqyetylkgqpgteoclob
ywohwjseaderguyvuhackrcpukwnkxosijsfiaufancigbiv
xrtyrerzfuzmlhrqhufpdmpczxpixktfbefshvzwvibdlsdq
vlxolyptjktgjbvgbodjhcjwysuzsfsagvanmisrivgqenqd
ayqjylugcfgtiwaxwjcemterwmypmzqukluhkcwhcpekidkx
ztvatgtbhwbonjtsjwhrforebzrkzmvhdghujxbyxkdfnufs
xnzqnarvlmvildxidqfljelyauwbuhucixcpokutkxisgpsf
caslanwiehivkyczylegovgtyoarobswmnwjmeyjergmkfmz
bvxcvivdjydqplvulyjthqtgdbtmboxjfijwlzdazmfhpwhu
zpbspctxnoxknfzkfshnlgnacwydwjwekzerqmwvmzkuiruh
ecuncpykgjkxmaebangiqxivaqctqduyopylogalgtiomhob
dxzexkxflafsrnxwnalvjsvifdvodqzlhklynbfcbohjryjw
brdurevzpqzmphbmhujpnipceyafylygmbgtsoyxobmwktwj
gewperamilmzocgdcpikszkxcsevsfwaqranqicnivkqojqd
fzbgzmzhnchutpzypcnxluxkhfxqfsbnjmnapdhedqjltaly
dtfwtgxbrsborjdojwlrpkregachanaiodivuqazqdoymvyl
igyrgtcoknobqeiferkmubmzeugxuhycstcpskepkxmsqlsf
hbdibobjpejwvrbarepznwzmjhzshudplopcrfjgfslnvcna
fvhyvizdtudqtlfqlyntrmtgicejcpckqfkxwscbsfqaoxan
kiativeqmpqdsgkhgtmowdobgwizwjaeuverumgrmzousnuh
jdfkdqdlrglyxtdctgrbpyboljbujwfrnqrethlihunpxepc
hxjaxkbfvwfsvnhsnapvtovikegleremshmzyueduhscqzcp
mkcvkxgsorsfuimjivoqyfqdiykbylcgwxgtwoitobqwupwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kegler
Cipher: xrtyre

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kegler
Cipher: 525122135124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kegler
method variations:
pkmqkwuprvpbzuwaugezbfzm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k e g l e r 
5 5 2 1 5 2 
2 1 2 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
552152212314
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kegler
Cipher: zbkbmq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: kegler
method variations:
wfbxfy fbxfyw bxfywf
xfywfb fywfbx ywfbxf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kegler

all 720 cipher variations:
kegler keglre kegelr kegerl kegrel kegrle kelger kelgre kelegr kelerg kelreg
kelrge keelgr keelrg keeglr keegrl keergl keerlg kerleg kerlge kerelg keregl
kergel kergle kgeler kgelre kgeelr kgeerl kgerel kgerle kgleer kglere kgleer
kglere kglree kglree kgeler kgelre kgeelr kgeerl kgerel kgerle kgrlee kgrlee
kgrele kgreel kgreel kgrele klgeer klgere klgeer klgere klgree klgree kleger
klegre kleegr kleerg klereg klerge kleegr kleerg kleger klegre klerge klereg
klreeg klrege klreeg klrege klrgee klrgee kegler keglre kegelr kegerl kegrel
kegrle kelger kelgre kelegr kelerg kelreg kelrge keelgr keelrg keeglr keegrl
keergl keerlg kerleg kerlge kerelg keregl kergel kergle krglee krglee krgele
krgeel krgeel krgele krlgee krlgee krlege krleeg krleeg krlege krelge kreleg
kregle kregel kreegl kreelg kreleg krelge kreelg kreegl kregel kregle ekgler
ekglre ekgelr ekgerl ekgrel ekgrle eklger eklgre eklegr eklerg eklreg eklrge
ekelgr ekelrg ekeglr ekegrl ekergl ekerlg ekrleg ekrlge ekrelg ekregl ekrgel
ekrgle egkler egklre egkelr egkerl egkrel egkrle eglker eglkre eglekr eglerk
eglrek eglrke egelkr egelrk egeklr egekrl egerkl egerlk egrlek egrlke egrelk
egrekl egrkel egrkle elgker elgkre elgekr elgerk elgrek elgrke elkger elkgre
elkegr elkerg elkreg elkrge elekgr elekrg elegkr elegrk elergk elerkg elrkeg
elrkge elrekg elregk elrgek elrgke eeglkr eeglrk eegklr eegkrl eegrkl eegrlk
eelgkr eelgrk eelkgr eelkrg eelrkg eelrgk eeklgr eeklrg eekglr eekgrl eekrgl
eekrlg eerlkg eerlgk eerklg eerkgl eergkl eerglk erglek erglke ergelk ergekl
ergkel ergkle erlgek erlgke erlegk erlekg erlkeg erlkge erelgk erelkg ereglk
eregkl erekgl ereklg erkleg erklge erkelg erkegl erkgel erkgle gekler geklre
gekelr gekerl gekrel gekrle gelker gelkre gelekr gelerk gelrek gelrke geelkr
geelrk geeklr geekrl geerkl geerlk gerlek gerlke gerelk gerekl gerkel gerkle
gkeler gkelre gkeelr gkeerl gkerel gkerle gkleer gklere gkleer gklere gklree
gklree gkeler gkelre gkeelr gkeerl gkerel gkerle gkrlee gkrlee gkrele gkreel
gkreel gkrele glkeer glkere glkeer glkere glkree glkree gleker glekre gleekr
gleerk glerek glerke gleekr gleerk gleker glekre glerke glerek glreek glreke
glreek glreke glrkee glrkee gekler geklre gekelr gekerl gekrel gekrle gelker
gelkre gelekr gelerk gelrek gelrke geelkr geelrk geeklr geekrl geerkl geerlk
gerlek gerlke gerelk gerekl gerkel gerkle grklee grklee grkele grkeel grkeel
grkele grlkee grlkee grleke grleek grleek grleke grelke grelek grekle grekel
greekl greelk grelek grelke greelk greekl grekel grekle legker legkre legekr
legerk legrek legrke lekger lekgre lekegr lekerg lekreg lekrge leekgr leekrg
leegkr leegrk leergk leerkg lerkeg lerkge lerekg leregk lergek lergke lgeker
lgekre lgeekr lgeerk lgerek lgerke lgkeer lgkere lgkeer lgkere lgkree lgkree
lgeker lgekre lgeekr lgeerk lgerek lgerke lgrkee lgrkee lgreke lgreek lgreek
lgreke lkgeer lkgere lkgeer lkgere lkgree lkgree lkeger lkegre lkeegr lkeerg
lkereg lkerge lkeegr lkeerg lkeger lkegre lkerge lkereg lkreeg lkrege lkreeg
lkrege lkrgee lkrgee legker legkre legekr legerk legrek legrke lekger lekgre
lekegr lekerg lekreg lekrge leekgr leekrg leegkr leegrk leergk leerkg lerkeg
lerkge lerekg leregk lergek lergke lrgkee lrgkee lrgeke lrgeek lrgeek lrgeke
lrkgee lrkgee lrkege lrkeeg lrkeeg lrkege lrekge lrekeg lregke lregek lreegk
lreekg lrekeg lrekge lreekg lreegk lregek lregke eeglkr eeglrk eegklr eegkrl
eegrkl eegrlk eelgkr eelgrk eelkgr eelkrg eelrkg eelrgk eeklgr eeklrg eekglr
eekgrl eekrgl eekrlg eerlkg eerlgk eerklg eerkgl eergkl eerglk egelkr egelrk
egeklr egekrl egerkl egerlk eglekr eglerk eglker eglkre eglrke eglrek egkler
egklre egkelr egkerl egkrel egkrle egrlke egrlek egrkle egrkel egrekl egrelk
elgekr elgerk elgker elgkre elgrke elgrek elegkr elegrk elekgr elekrg elerkg
elergk elkegr elkerg elkger elkgre elkrge elkreg elrekg elregk elrkeg elrkge
elrgke elrgek ekgler ekglre ekgelr ekgerl ekgrel ekgrle eklger eklgre eklegr
eklerg eklreg eklrge ekelgr ekelrg ekeglr ekegrl ekergl ekerlg ekrleg ekrlge
ekrelg ekregl ekrgel ekrgle erglke erglek ergkle ergkel ergekl ergelk erlgke
erlgek erlkge erlkeg erlekg erlegk erklge erkleg erkgle erkgel erkegl erkelg
erelkg erelgk ereklg erekgl eregkl ereglk reglek reglke regelk regekl regkel
regkle relgek relgke relegk relekg relkeg relkge reelgk reelkg reeglk reegkl
reekgl reeklg rekleg reklge rekelg rekegl rekgel rekgle rgelek rgelke rgeelk
rgeekl rgekel rgekle rgleek rgleke rgleek rgleke rglkee rglkee rgelek rgelke
rgeelk rgeekl rgekel rgekle rgklee rgklee rgkele rgkeel rgkeel rgkele rlgeek
rlgeke rlgeek rlgeke rlgkee rlgkee rlegek rlegke rleegk rleekg rlekeg rlekge
rleegk rleekg rlegek rlegke rlekge rlekeg rlkeeg rlkege rlkeeg rlkege rlkgee
rlkgee reglek reglke regelk regekl regkel regkle relgek relgke relegk relekg
relkeg relkge reelgk reelkg reeglk reegkl reekgl reeklg rekleg reklge rekelg
rekegl rekgel rekgle rkglee rkglee rkgele rkgeel rkgeel rkgele rklgee rklgee
rklege rkleeg rkleeg rklege rkelge rkeleg rkegle rkegel rkeegl rkeelg rkeleg
rkelge rkeelg rkeegl rkegel rkegle

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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