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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kayron
cipher variations:
lbzspo mcatqp ndburq oecvsr pfdwts
qgexut rhfyvu sigzwv tjhaxw ukibyx
vljczy wmkdaz xnleba yomfcb zpngdc
aqohed brpife csqjgf dtrkhg euslih
fvtmji gwunkj hxvolk iywpml jzxqnm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kayron
Cipher: pzbilm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kayron

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kayron
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kayron
Cipher: xnleba

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kayron
Cipher: 521145244333

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kayron
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k a y r o n 
5 1 4 2 4 3 
2 1 5 4 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kayron
Cipher: eiobun

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Method #3

Plaintext: kayron
method variations:
bqktnx qktnxb ktnxbq
tnxbqk nxbqkt xbqktn

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kayron

all 720 cipher variations:
kayron kayrno kayorn kayonr kaynor kaynro karyon karyno karoyn karony karnoy
karnyo kaoryn kaorny kaoyrn kaoynr kaonyr kaonry kanroy kanryo kanory kanoyr
kanyor kanyro kyaron kyarno kyaorn kyaonr kyanor kyanro kyraon kyrano kyroan
kyrona kyrnoa kyrnao kyoran kyorna kyoarn kyoanr kyonar kyonra kynroa kynrao
kynora kynoar kynaor kynaro kryaon kryano kryoan kryona krynoa krynao krayon
krayno kraoyn kraony kranoy kranyo kroayn kroany kroyan kroyna kronya kronay
krnaoy krnayo krnoay krnoya krnyoa krnyao koyran koyrna koyarn koyanr koynar
koynra koryan koryna korayn korany kornay kornya koaryn koarny koayrn koaynr
koanyr koanry konray konrya konary konayr konyar konyra knyroa knyrao knyora
knyoar knyaor knyaro knryoa knryao knroya knroay knraoy knrayo knorya knoray
knoyra knoyar knoayr knoary knaroy knaryo knaory knaoyr knayor knayro akyron
akyrno akyorn akyonr akynor akynro akryon akryno akroyn akrony akrnoy akrnyo
akoryn akorny akoyrn akoynr akonyr akonry aknroy aknryo aknory aknoyr aknyor
aknyro aykron aykrno aykorn aykonr ayknor ayknro ayrkon ayrkno ayrokn ayronk
ayrnok ayrnko ayorkn ayornk ayokrn ayoknr ayonkr ayonrk aynrok aynrko aynork
aynokr aynkor aynkro arykon arykno aryokn aryonk arynok arynko arkyon arkyno
arkoyn arkony arknoy arknyo arokyn arokny aroykn aroynk aronyk aronky arnkoy
arnkyo arnoky arnoyk arnyok arnyko aoyrkn aoyrnk aoykrn aoyknr aoynkr aoynrk
aorykn aorynk aorkyn aorkny aornky aornyk aokryn aokrny aokyrn aokynr aoknyr
aoknry aonrky aonryk aonkry aonkyr aonykr aonyrk anyrok anyrko anyork anyokr
anykor anykro anryok anryko anroyk anroky anrkoy anrkyo anoryk anorky anoyrk
anoykr anokyr anokry ankroy ankryo ankory ankoyr ankyor ankyro yakron yakrno
yakorn yakonr yaknor yaknro yarkon yarkno yarokn yaronk yarnok yarnko yaorkn
yaornk yaokrn yaoknr yaonkr yaonrk yanrok yanrko yanork yanokr yankor yankro
ykaron ykarno ykaorn ykaonr ykanor ykanro ykraon ykrano ykroan ykrona ykrnoa
ykrnao ykoran ykorna ykoarn ykoanr ykonar ykonra yknroa yknrao yknora yknoar
yknaor yknaro yrkaon yrkano yrkoan yrkona yrknoa yrknao yrakon yrakno yraokn
yraonk yranok yranko yroakn yroank yrokan yrokna yronka yronak yrnaok yrnako
yrnoak yrnoka yrnkoa yrnkao yokran yokrna yokarn yokanr yoknar yoknra yorkan
yorkna yorakn yorank yornak yornka yoarkn yoarnk yoakrn yoaknr yoankr yoanrk
yonrak yonrka yonark yonakr yonkar yonkra ynkroa ynkrao ynkora ynkoar ynkaor
ynkaro ynrkoa ynrkao ynroka ynroak ynraok ynrako ynorka ynorak ynokra ynokar
ynoakr ynoark ynarok ynarko ynaork ynaokr ynakor ynakro raykon raykno rayokn
rayonk raynok raynko rakyon rakyno rakoyn rakony raknoy raknyo raokyn raokny
raoykn raoynk raonyk raonky rankoy rankyo ranoky ranoyk ranyok ranyko ryakon
ryakno ryaokn ryaonk ryanok ryanko rykaon rykano rykoan rykona ryknoa ryknao
ryokan ryokna ryoakn ryoank ryonak ryonka rynkoa rynkao rynoka rynoak rynaok
rynako rkyaon rkyano rkyoan rkyona rkynoa rkynao rkayon rkayno rkaoyn rkaony
rkanoy rkanyo rkoayn rkoany rkoyan rkoyna rkonya rkonay rknaoy rknayo rknoay
rknoya rknyoa rknyao roykan roykna royakn royank roynak roynka rokyan rokyna
rokayn rokany roknay roknya roakyn roakny roaykn roaynk roanyk roanky ronkay
ronkya ronaky ronayk ronyak ronyka rnykoa rnykao rnyoka rnyoak rnyaok rnyako
rnkyoa rnkyao rnkoya rnkoay rnkaoy rnkayo rnokya rnokay rnoyka rnoyak rnoayk
rnoaky rnakoy rnakyo rnaoky rnaoyk rnayok rnayko oayrkn oayrnk oaykrn oayknr
oaynkr oaynrk oarykn oarynk oarkyn oarkny oarnky oarnyk oakryn oakrny oakyrn
oakynr oaknyr oaknry oanrky oanryk oankry oankyr oanykr oanyrk oyarkn oyarnk
oyakrn oyaknr oyankr oyanrk oyrakn oyrank oyrkan oyrkna oyrnka oyrnak oykran
oykrna oykarn oykanr oyknar oyknra oynrka oynrak oynkra oynkar oynakr oynark
oryakn oryank orykan orykna orynka orynak oraykn oraynk orakyn orakny oranky
oranyk orkayn orkany orkyan orkyna orknya orknay ornaky ornayk ornkay ornkya
ornyka ornyak okyran okyrna okyarn okyanr okynar okynra okryan okryna okrayn
okrany okrnay okrnya okaryn okarny okayrn okaynr okanyr okanry oknray oknrya
oknary oknayr oknyar oknyra onyrka onyrak onykra onykar onyakr onyark onryka
onryak onrkya onrkay onraky onrayk onkrya onkray onkyra onkyar onkayr onkary
onarky onaryk onakry onakyr onaykr onayrk nayrok nayrko nayork nayokr naykor
naykro naryok naryko naroyk naroky narkoy narkyo naoryk naorky naoyrk naoykr
naokyr naokry nakroy nakryo nakory nakoyr nakyor nakyro nyarok nyarko nyaork
nyaokr nyakor nyakro nyraok nyrako nyroak nyroka nyrkoa nyrkao nyorak nyorka
nyoark nyoakr nyokar nyokra nykroa nykrao nykora nykoar nykaor nykaro nryaok
nryako nryoak nryoka nrykoa nrykao nrayok nrayko nraoyk nraoky nrakoy nrakyo
nroayk nroaky nroyak nroyka nrokya nrokay nrkaoy nrkayo nrkoay nrkoya nrkyoa
nrkyao noyrak noyrka noyark noyakr noykar noykra noryak noryka norayk noraky
norkay norkya noaryk noarky noayrk noaykr noakyr noakry nokray nokrya nokary
nokayr nokyar nokyra nkyroa nkyrao nkyora nkyoar nkyaor nkyaro nkryoa nkryao
nkroya nkroay nkraoy nkrayo nkorya nkoray nkoyra nkoyar nkoayr nkoary nkaroy
nkaryo nkaory nkaoyr nkayor nkayro

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History of cryptography
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