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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kaylen
cipher variations:
lbzmfo mcangp ndbohq oecpir pfdqjs
qgerkt rhfslu sigtmv tjhunw ukivox
vljwpy wmkxqz xnlyra yomzsb zpnatc
aqobud brpcve csqdwf dtrexg eusfyh
fvtgzi gwuhaj hxvibk iywjcl jzxkdm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kaylen
Cipher: pzbovm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kaylen

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kaylen
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kaylen
Cipher: xnlyra

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kaylen
Cipher: 521145135133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kaylen
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k a y l e n 
5 1 4 1 5 3 
2 1 5 3 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kaylen
Cipher: edpbpl

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Method #3

Plaintext: kaylen
method variations:
bqexlx qexlxb exlxbq
xlxbqe lxbqex xbqexl

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kaylen

all 720 cipher variations:
kaylen kaylne kayeln kayenl kaynel kaynle kalyen kalyne kaleyn kaleny kalney
kalnye kaelyn kaelny kaeyln kaeynl kaenyl kaenly kanley kanlye kanely kaneyl
kanyel kanyle kyalen kyalne kyaeln kyaenl kyanel kyanle kylaen kylane kylean
kylena kylnea kylnae kyelan kyelna kyealn kyeanl kyenal kyenla kynlea kynlae
kynela kyneal kynael kynale klyaen klyane klyean klyena klynea klynae klayen
klayne klaeyn klaeny klaney klanye kleayn kleany kleyan kleyna klenya klenay
klnaey klnaye klneay klneya klnyea klnyae keylan keylna keyaln keyanl keynal
keynla kelyan kelyna kelayn kelany kelnay kelnya kealyn kealny keayln keaynl
keanyl keanly kenlay kenlya kenaly kenayl kenyal kenyla knylea knylae knyela
knyeal knyael knyale knlyea knlyae knleya knleay knlaey knlaye knelya knelay
kneyla kneyal kneayl knealy knaley knalye knaely knaeyl knayel knayle akylen
akylne akyeln akyenl akynel akynle aklyen aklyne akleyn akleny aklney aklnye
akelyn akelny akeyln akeynl akenyl akenly aknley aknlye aknely akneyl aknyel
aknyle ayklen ayklne aykeln aykenl ayknel ayknle aylken aylkne aylekn aylenk
aylnek aylnke ayelkn ayelnk ayekln ayeknl ayenkl ayenlk aynlek aynlke aynelk
aynekl aynkel aynkle alyken alykne alyekn alyenk alynek alynke alkyen alkyne
alkeyn alkeny alkney alknye alekyn alekny aleykn aleynk alenyk alenky alnkey
alnkye alneky alneyk alnyek alnyke aeylkn aeylnk aeykln aeyknl aeynkl aeynlk
aelykn aelynk aelkyn aelkny aelnky aelnyk aeklyn aeklny aekyln aekynl aeknyl
aeknly aenlky aenlyk aenkly aenkyl aenykl aenylk anylek anylke anyelk anyekl
anykel anykle anlyek anlyke anleyk anleky anlkey anlkye anelyk anelky aneylk
aneykl anekyl anekly ankley anklye ankely ankeyl ankyel ankyle yaklen yaklne
yakeln yakenl yaknel yaknle yalken yalkne yalekn yalenk yalnek yalnke yaelkn
yaelnk yaekln yaeknl yaenkl yaenlk yanlek yanlke yanelk yanekl yankel yankle
ykalen ykalne ykaeln ykaenl ykanel ykanle yklaen yklane yklean yklena yklnea
yklnae ykelan ykelna ykealn ykeanl ykenal ykenla yknlea yknlae yknela ykneal
yknael yknale ylkaen ylkane ylkean ylkena ylknea ylknae ylaken ylakne ylaekn
ylaenk ylanek ylanke yleakn yleank ylekan ylekna ylenka ylenak ylnaek ylnake
ylneak ylneka ylnkea ylnkae yeklan yeklna yekaln yekanl yeknal yeknla yelkan
yelkna yelakn yelank yelnak yelnka yealkn yealnk yeakln yeaknl yeankl yeanlk
yenlak yenlka yenalk yenakl yenkal yenkla ynklea ynklae ynkela ynkeal ynkael
ynkale ynlkea ynlkae ynleka ynleak ynlaek ynlake ynelka ynelak ynekla ynekal
yneakl ynealk ynalek ynalke ynaelk ynaekl ynakel ynakle layken laykne layekn
layenk laynek laynke lakyen lakyne lakeyn lakeny lakney laknye laekyn laekny
laeykn laeynk laenyk laenky lankey lankye laneky laneyk lanyek lanyke lyaken
lyakne lyaekn lyaenk lyanek lyanke lykaen lykane lykean lykena lyknea lyknae
lyekan lyekna lyeakn lyeank lyenak lyenka lynkea lynkae lyneka lyneak lynaek
lynake lkyaen lkyane lkyean lkyena lkynea lkynae lkayen lkayne lkaeyn lkaeny
lkaney lkanye lkeayn lkeany lkeyan lkeyna lkenya lkenay lknaey lknaye lkneay
lkneya lknyea lknyae leykan leykna leyakn leyank leynak leynka lekyan lekyna
lekayn lekany leknay leknya leakyn leakny leaykn leaynk leanyk leanky lenkay
lenkya lenaky lenayk lenyak lenyka lnykea lnykae lnyeka lnyeak lnyaek lnyake
lnkyea lnkyae lnkeya lnkeay lnkaey lnkaye lnekya lnekay lneyka lneyak lneayk
lneaky lnakey lnakye lnaeky lnaeyk lnayek lnayke eaylkn eaylnk eaykln eayknl
eaynkl eaynlk ealykn ealynk ealkyn ealkny ealnky ealnyk eaklyn eaklny eakyln
eakynl eaknyl eaknly eanlky eanlyk eankly eankyl eanykl eanylk eyalkn eyalnk
eyakln eyaknl eyankl eyanlk eylakn eylank eylkan eylkna eylnka eylnak eyklan
eyklna eykaln eykanl eyknal eyknla eynlka eynlak eynkla eynkal eynakl eynalk
elyakn elyank elykan elykna elynka elynak elaykn elaynk elakyn elakny elanky
elanyk elkayn elkany elkyan elkyna elknya elknay elnaky elnayk elnkay elnkya
elnyka elnyak ekylan ekylna ekyaln ekyanl ekynal ekynla eklyan eklyna eklayn
eklany eklnay eklnya ekalyn ekalny ekayln ekaynl ekanyl ekanly eknlay eknlya
eknaly eknayl eknyal eknyla enylka enylak enykla enykal enyakl enyalk enlyka
enlyak enlkya enlkay enlaky enlayk enklya enklay enkyla enkyal enkayl enkaly
enalky enalyk enakly enakyl enaykl enaylk naylek naylke nayelk nayekl naykel
naykle nalyek nalyke naleyk naleky nalkey nalkye naelyk naelky naeylk naeykl
naekyl naekly nakley naklye nakely nakeyl nakyel nakyle nyalek nyalke nyaelk
nyaekl nyakel nyakle nylaek nylake nyleak nyleka nylkea nylkae nyelak nyelka
nyealk nyeakl nyekal nyekla nyklea nyklae nykela nykeal nykael nykale nlyaek
nlyake nlyeak nlyeka nlykea nlykae nlayek nlayke nlaeyk nlaeky nlakey nlakye
nleayk nleaky nleyak nleyka nlekya nlekay nlkaey nlkaye nlkeay nlkeya nlkyea
nlkyae neylak neylka neyalk neyakl neykal neykla nelyak nelyka nelayk nelaky
nelkay nelkya nealyk nealky neaylk neaykl neakyl neakly neklay neklya nekaly
nekayl nekyal nekyla nkylea nkylae nkyela nkyeal nkyael nkyale nklyea nklyae
nkleya nkleay nklaey nklaye nkelya nkelay nkeyla nkeyal nkeayl nkealy nkaley
nkalye nkaely nkaeyl nkayel nkayle

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History of cryptography
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