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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kallas
cipher variations:
lbmmbt mcnncu ndoodv oeppew pfqqfx
qgrrgy rhsshz sittia tjuujb ukvvkc
vlwwld wmxxme xnyynf yozzog zpaaph
aqbbqi brccrj csddsk dteetl euffum
fvggvn gwhhwo hxiixp iyjjyq jzkkzr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kallas
Cipher: pzoozh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kallas
Cipher: ABAAB AAAAA ABABA ABABA AAAAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kallas
cipher variations:
lbmmbtfbiibdzbeebntbaabxnbwwbhhbssbrvbkkblpbggbv
jbccbfdbyybpxbuubzrbqqbjmcnncugcjjceacffcoucbbcy
ocxxciicttcswcllcmqchhcwkcddcgeczzcqycvvcascrrck
ndoodvhdkkdfbdggdpvdccdzpdyydjjduudtxdmmdnrdiidx
ldeedhfdaadrzdwwdbtdssdloeppewiellegcehheqweddea
qezzekkevveuyenneosejjeymeffeigebbesaexxecuettem
pfqqfxjfmmfhdfiifrxfeefbrfaafllfwwfvzfoofptfkkfz
nfggfjhfccftbfyyfdvfuufnqgrrgykgnngiegjjgsygffgc
sgbbgmmgxxgwagppgqugllgaoghhgkigddgucgzzgewgvvgo
rhsshzlhoohjfhkkhtzhgghdthcchnnhyyhxbhqqhrvhmmhb
phiihljheehvdhaahfxhwwhpsittiamippikgilliuaihhie
uiddiooizziycirriswinnicqijjimkiffiweibbigyixxiq
tjuujbnjqqjlhjmmjvbjiijfvjeejppjaajzdjssjtxjoojd
rjkkjnljggjxfjccjhzjyyjrukvvkcokrrkmiknnkwckjjkg
wkffkqqkbbkaekttkuykppkeskllkomkhhkygkddkiakzzks
vlwwldplsslnjloolxdlkklhxlgglrrlcclbfluulvzlqqlf
tlmmlpnliilzhleeljblaaltwmxxmeqmttmokmppmyemllmi
ymhhmssmddmcgmvvmwamrrmgumnnmqomjjmaimffmkcmbbmu
xnyynfrnuunplnqqnzfnmmnjzniinttneendhnwwnxbnssnh
vnoonrpnkknbjnggnldnccnvyozzogsovvoqmorroagonnok
aojjouuoffoeioxxoycottoiwopposqollockohhomeoddow
zpaaphtpwwprnpsspbhpooplbpkkpvvpggpfjpyypzdpuupj
xpqqptrpmmpdlpiipnfpeepxaqbbqiuqxxqsoqttqciqppqm
cqllqwwqhhqgkqzzqaeqvvqkyqrrqusqnnqemqjjqogqffqy
brccrjvryyrtpruurdjrqqrndrmmrxxriirhlraarbfrwwrl
zrssrvtroorfnrkkrphrggrzcsddskwszzsuqsvvseksrrso
esnnsyysjjsimsbbscgsxxsmasttswusppsgosllsqishhsa
dteetlxtaatvrtwwtfltsstpftootzztkktjntcctdhtyytn
btuutxvtqqthptmmtrjtiitbeuffumyubbuwsuxxugmuttuq
guppuaaullukouddueiuzzuocuvvuywurruiqunnuskujjuc
fvggvnzvccvxtvyyvhnvuuvrhvqqvbbvmmvlpveevfjvaavp
dvwwvzxvssvjrvoovtlvkkvdgwhhwoawddwyuwzzwiowvvws
iwrrwccwnnwmqwffwgkwbbwqewxxwaywttwkswppwumwllwe
hxiixpbxeexzvxaaxjpxwwxtjxssxddxooxnrxggxhlxccxr
fxyyxbzxuuxltxqqxvnxmmxfiyjjyqcyffyawybbykqyxxyu
kyttyeeyppyosyhhyimyddysgyzzycayvvymuyrrywoynnyg
jzkkzrdzggzbxzcczlrzyyzvlzuuzffzqqzptziizjnzeezt
hzaazdbzwwznvzsszxpzoozhkallaseahhacyaddamsazzaw
mavvaggarraquajjakoaffauiabbaecaxxaowattayqappai

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kallas
Cipher: xnyynf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kallas
Cipher: 521113131134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kallas
method variations:
pfqqfxulvvlczqaaqhevffvn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k a l l a s 
5 1 1 1 1 3 
2 1 3 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
511113213314
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kallas
Cipher: ealbnq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: kallas
method variations:
baccly acclyb cclyba
clybac lybacc ybaccl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kallas

all 720 cipher variations:
kallas kallsa kalals kalasl kalsal kalsla kallas kallsa kalals kalasl kalsal
kalsla kaalls kaalsl kaalls kaalsl kaasll kaasll kaslal kaslla kasall kasall
kaslal kaslla klalas klalsa klaals klaasl klasal klasla kllaas kllasa kllaas
kllasa kllsaa kllsaa klalas klalsa klaals klaasl klasal klasla klslaa klslaa
klsala klsaal klsaal klsala kllaas kllasa kllaas kllasa kllsaa kllsaa klalas
klalsa klaals klaasl klasal klasla klaals klaasl klalas klalsa klasla klasal
klsaal klsala klsaal klsala klslaa klslaa kallas kallsa kalals kalasl kalsal
kalsla kallas kallsa kalals kalasl kalsal kalsla kaalls kaalsl kaalls kaalsl
kaasll kaasll kaslal kaslla kasall kasall kaslal kaslla ksllaa ksllaa kslala
kslaal kslaal kslala ksllaa ksllaa kslala kslaal kslaal kslala ksalla ksalal
ksalla ksalal ksaall ksaall ksalal ksalla ksaall ksaall ksalal ksalla akllas
akllsa aklals aklasl aklsal aklsla akllas akllsa aklals aklasl aklsal aklsla
akalls akalsl akalls akalsl akasll akasll akslal akslla aksall aksall akslal
akslla alklas alklsa alkals alkasl alksal alksla allkas allksa allaks allask
allsak allska alalks alalsk alakls alaksl alaskl alaslk alslak alslka alsalk
alsakl alskal alskla allkas allksa allaks allask allsak allska alklas alklsa
alkals alkasl alksal alksla alakls alaksl alalks alalsk alaslk alaskl alskal
alskla alsakl alsalk alslak alslka aallks aallsk aalkls aalksl aalskl aalslk
aallks aallsk aalkls aalksl aalskl aalslk aaklls aaklsl aaklls aaklsl aaksll
aaksll aaslkl aasllk aaskll aaskll aaslkl aasllk asllak asllka aslalk aslakl
aslkal aslkla asllak asllka aslalk aslakl aslkal aslkla asallk asalkl asallk
asalkl asakll asakll asklal asklla askall askall asklal asklla laklas laklsa
lakals lakasl laksal laksla lalkas lalksa lalaks lalask lalsak lalska laalks
laalsk laakls laaksl laaskl laaslk laslak laslka lasalk lasakl laskal laskla
lkalas lkalsa lkaals lkaasl lkasal lkasla lklaas lklasa lklaas lklasa lklsaa
lklsaa lkalas lkalsa lkaals lkaasl lkasal lkasla lkslaa lkslaa lksala lksaal
lksaal lksala llkaas llkasa llkaas llkasa llksaa llksaa llakas llaksa llaaks
llaask llasak llaska llaaks llaask llakas llaksa llaska llasak llsaak llsaka
llsaak llsaka llskaa llskaa laklas laklsa lakals lakasl laksal laksla lalkas
lalksa lalaks lalask lalsak lalska laalks laalsk laakls laaksl laaskl laaslk
laslak laslka lasalk lasakl laskal laskla lsklaa lsklaa lskala lskaal lskaal
lskala lslkaa lslkaa lslaka lslaak lslaak lslaka lsalka lsalak lsakla lsakal
lsaakl lsaalk lsalak lsalka lsaalk lsaakl lsakal lsakla lalkas lalksa lalaks
lalask lalsak lalska laklas laklsa lakals lakasl laksal laksla laakls laaksl
laalks laalsk laaslk laaskl laskal laskla lasakl lasalk laslak laslka llakas
llaksa llaaks llaask llasak llaska llkaas llkasa llkaas llkasa llksaa llksaa
llakas llaksa llaaks llaask llasak llaska llskaa llskaa llsaka llsaak llsaak
llsaka lklaas lklasa lklaas lklasa lklsaa lklsaa lkalas lkalsa lkaals lkaasl
lkasal lkasla lkaals lkaasl lkalas lkalsa lkasla lkasal lksaal lksala lksaal
lksala lkslaa lkslaa lalkas lalksa lalaks lalask lalsak lalska laklas laklsa
lakals lakasl laksal laksla laakls laaksl laalks laalsk laaslk laaskl laskal
laskla lasakl lasalk laslak laslka lslkaa lslkaa lslaka lslaak lslaak lslaka
lsklaa lsklaa lskala lskaal lskaal lskala lsakla lsakal lsalka lsalak lsaalk
lsaakl lsakal lsakla lsaakl lsaalk lsalak lsalka aallks aallsk aalkls aalksl
aalskl aalslk aallks aallsk aalkls aalksl aalskl aalslk aaklls aaklsl aaklls
aaklsl aaksll aaksll aaslkl aasllk aaskll aaskll aaslkl aasllk alalks alalsk
alakls alaksl alaskl alaslk allaks allask allkas allksa allska allsak alklas
alklsa alkals alkasl alksal alksla alslka alslak alskla alskal alsakl alsalk
allaks allask allkas allksa allska allsak alalks alalsk alakls alaksl alaskl
alaslk alkals alkasl alklas alklsa alksla alksal alsakl alsalk alskal alskla
alslka alslak akllas akllsa aklals aklasl aklsal aklsla akllas akllsa aklals
aklasl aklsal aklsla akalls akalsl akalls akalsl akasll akasll akslal akslla
aksall aksall akslal akslla asllka asllak aslkla aslkal aslakl aslalk asllka
asllak aslkla aslkal aslakl aslalk asklla asklal asklla asklal askall askall
asalkl asallk asakll asakll asalkl asallk sallak sallka salalk salakl salkal
salkla sallak sallka salalk salakl salkal salkla saallk saalkl saallk saalkl
saakll saakll saklal saklla sakall sakall saklal saklla slalak slalka slaalk
slaakl slakal slakla sllaak sllaka sllaak sllaka sllkaa sllkaa slalak slalka
slaalk slaakl slakal slakla slklaa slklaa slkala slkaal slkaal slkala sllaak
sllaka sllaak sllaka sllkaa sllkaa slalak slalka slaalk slaakl slakal slakla
slaalk slaakl slalak slalka slakla slakal slkaal slkala slkaal slkala slklaa
slklaa sallak sallka salalk salakl salkal salkla sallak sallka salalk salakl
salkal salkla saallk saalkl saallk saalkl saakll saakll saklal saklla sakall
sakall saklal saklla skllaa skllaa sklala sklaal sklaal sklala skllaa skllaa
sklala sklaal sklaal sklala skalla skalal skalla skalal skaall skaall skalal
skalla skaall skaall skalal skalla

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History of cryptography
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