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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: kahuna
cipher variations:
lbivob mcjwpc ndkxqd oelyre pfmzsf
qgnatg rhobuh sipcvi tjqdwj ukrexk
vlsfyl wmtgzm xnuhan yovibo zpwjcp
aqxkdq bryler cszmfs dtangt eubohu
fvcpiv gwdqjw hxerkx iyfsly jzgtmz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: kahuna
Cipher: pzsfmz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: kahuna
Cipher: ABAAB AAAAA AABBB BAABB ABBAA AAAAA

Read more ...

 

Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: kahuna
cipher variations:
lbivobfbwjobzbkxobtbylobnbmzobhbanobvbcpobpbqdob
jberobdbsfobxbgtobrbuhobmcjwpcgcxkpcaclypcuczmpc
ocnapcicbopcwcdqpcqcrepckcfspcectgpcychupcscvipc
ndkxqdhdylqdbdmzqdvdanqdpdobqdjdcpqdxderqdrdsfqd
ldgtqdfduhqdzdivqdtdwjqdoelyreiezmrecenarewebore
qepcrekedqreyefsresetgremehuregevireaejwreuexkre
pfmzsfjfansfdfobsfxfcpsfrfqdsflfersfzfgtsftfuhsf
nfivsfhfwjsfbfkxsfvfylsfqgnatgkgbotgegpctgygdqtg
sgretgmgfstgaghutgugvitgogjwtgigxktgcglytgwgzmtg
rhobuhlhcpuhfhqduhzheruhthsfuhnhgtuhbhivuhvhwjuh
phkxuhjhyluhdhmzuhxhanuhsipcvimidqvigireviaifsvi
uitgvioihuvicijwviwixkviqilyvikizmvieinaviyibovi
tjqdwjnjerwjhjsfwjbjgtwjvjuhwjpjivwjdjkxwjxjylwj
rjmzwjljanwjfjobwjzjcpwjukrexkokfsxkiktgxkckhuxk
wkvixkqkjwxkeklyxkykzmxksknaxkmkboxkgkpcxkakdqxk
vlsfylplgtyljluhyldlivylxlwjylrlkxylflmzylzlanyl
tlobylnlcpylhlqdylblerylwmtgzmqmhuzmkmvizmemjwzm
ymxkzmsmlyzmgmnazmambozmumpczmomdqzmimrezmcmfszm
xnuhanrnivanlnwjanfnkxanznylantnmzanhnobanbncpan
vnqdanpneranjnsfandngtanyovibosojwbomoxkbogolybo
aozmbouonaboiopcbocodqboworeboqofsbokotgboeohubo
zpwjcptpkxcpnpylcphpmzcpbpancpvpobcpjpqdcpdpercp
xpsfcprpgtcplpuhcpfpivcpaqxkdquqlydqoqzmdqiqnadq
cqbodqwqpcdqkqredqeqfsdqyqtgdqsqhudqmqvidqgqjwdq
brylervrmzerpranerjroberdrcperxrqderlrsferfrgter
zruhertrivernrwjerhrkxercszmfswsnafsqsbofskspcfs
esdqfsysrefsmstgfsgshufsasvifsusjwfsosxkfsislyfs
dtangtxtobgtrtcpgtltqdgtftergtztsfgtntuhgthtivgt
btwjgtvtkxgtptylgtjtmzgteubohuyupchusudqhumurehu
gufshuautghuouvihuiujwhucuxkhuwulyhuquzmhukunahu
fvcpivzvqdivtverivnvsfivhvgtivbvuhivpvwjivjvkxiv
dvylivxvmzivrvanivlvobivgwdqjwawrejwuwfsjwowtgjw
iwhujwcwvijwqwxkjwkwlyjwewzmjwywnajwswbojwmwpcjw
hxerkxbxsfkxvxgtkxpxuhkxjxivkxdxwjkxrxylkxlxmzkx
fxankxzxobkxtxcpkxnxqdkxiyfslycytglywyhulyqyvily
kyjwlyeyxklysyzmlymynalygybolyaypclyuydqlyoyrely
jzgtmzdzuhmzxzivmzrzwjmzlzkxmzfzylmztzanmznzobmz
hzcpmzbzqdmzvzermzpzsfmzkahunaeavinayajwnasaxkna
malynagazmnauabonaoapcnaiadqnacarenawafsnaqatgna

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: kahuna
Cipher: xnuhan

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: kahuna
Cipher: 521132543311

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: kahuna
method variations:
pfnzsfulsexlzqxkcqevcphv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
k a h u n a 
5 1 3 5 3 1 
2 1 2 4 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
513531212431
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: kahuna
Cipher: excbrc

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: kahuna
method variations:
blwocv lwocvb wocvbl
ocvblw cvblwo vblwoc

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: kahuna

all 720 cipher variations:
kahuna kahuan kahnua kahnau kahanu kahaun kauhna kauhan kaunha kaunah kauanh
kauahn kanuha kanuah kanhua kanhau kanahu kanauh kaaunh kaauhn kaanuh kaanhu
kaahnu kaahun khauna khauan khanua khanau khaanu khaaun khuana khuaan khunaa
khunaa khuana khuaan khnuaa khnuaa khnaua khnaau khnaau khnaua khauna khauan
khanua khanau khaanu khaaun kuhana kuhaan kuhnaa kuhnaa kuhana kuhaan kuahna
kuahan kuanha kuanah kuaanh kuaahn kunaha kunaah kunhaa kunhaa kunaha kunaah
kuaanh kuaahn kuanah kuanha kuahna kuahan knhuaa knhuaa knhaua knhaau knhaau
knhaua knuhaa knuhaa knuaha knuaah knuaah knuaha knauha knauah knahua knahau
knaahu knaauh knauah knauha knaauh knaahu knahau knahua kahuna kahuan kahnua
kahnau kahanu kahaun kauhna kauhan kaunha kaunah kauanh kauahn kanuha kanuah
kanhua kanhau kanahu kanauh kaaunh kaauhn kaanuh kaanhu kaahnu kaahun akhuna
akhuan akhnua akhnau akhanu akhaun akuhna akuhan akunha akunah akuanh akuahn
aknuha aknuah aknhua aknhau aknahu aknauh akaunh akauhn akanuh akanhu akahnu
akahun ahkuna ahkuan ahknua ahknau ahkanu ahkaun ahukna ahukan ahunka ahunak
ahuank ahuakn ahnuka ahnuak ahnkua ahnkau ahnaku ahnauk ahaunk ahaukn ahanuk
ahanku ahaknu ahakun auhkna auhkan auhnka auhnak auhank auhakn aukhna aukhan
auknha auknah aukanh aukahn aunkha aunkah aunhka aunhak aunahk aunakh auaknh
auakhn auankh auanhk auahnk auahkn anhuka anhuak anhkua anhkau anhaku anhauk
anuhka anuhak anukha anukah anuakh anuahk ankuha ankuah ankhua ankhau ankahu
ankauh anaukh anauhk anakuh anakhu anahku anahuk aahunk aahukn aahnuk aahnku
aahknu aahkun aauhnk aauhkn aaunhk aaunkh aauknh aaukhn aanuhk aanukh aanhuk
aanhku aankhu aankuh aakunh aakuhn aaknuh aaknhu aakhnu aakhun hakuna hakuan
haknua haknau hakanu hakaun haukna haukan haunka haunak hauank hauakn hanuka
hanuak hankua hankau hanaku hanauk haaunk haaukn haanuk haanku haaknu haakun
hkauna hkauan hkanua hkanau hkaanu hkaaun hkuana hkuaan hkunaa hkunaa hkuana
hkuaan hknuaa hknuaa hknaua hknaau hknaau hknaua hkauna hkauan hkanua hkanau
hkaanu hkaaun hukana hukaan huknaa huknaa hukana hukaan huakna huakan huanka
huanak huaank huaakn hunaka hunaak hunkaa hunkaa hunaka hunaak huaank huaakn
huanak huanka huakna huakan hnkuaa hnkuaa hnkaua hnkaau hnkaau hnkaua hnukaa
hnukaa hnuaka hnuaak hnuaak hnuaka hnauka hnauak hnakua hnakau hnaaku hnaauk
hnauak hnauka hnaauk hnaaku hnakau hnakua hakuna hakuan haknua haknau hakanu
hakaun haukna haukan haunka haunak hauank hauakn hanuka hanuak hankua hankau
hanaku hanauk haaunk haaukn haanuk haanku haaknu haakun uahkna uahkan uahnka
uahnak uahank uahakn uakhna uakhan uaknha uaknah uakanh uakahn uankha uankah
uanhka uanhak uanahk uanakh uaaknh uaakhn uaankh uaanhk uaahnk uaahkn uhakna
uhakan uhanka uhanak uhaank uhaakn uhkana uhkaan uhknaa uhknaa uhkana uhkaan
uhnkaa uhnkaa uhnaka uhnaak uhnaak uhnaka uhakna uhakan uhanka uhanak uhaank
uhaakn ukhana ukhaan ukhnaa ukhnaa ukhana ukhaan ukahna ukahan ukanha ukanah
ukaanh ukaahn uknaha uknaah uknhaa uknhaa uknaha uknaah ukaanh ukaahn ukanah
ukanha ukahna ukahan unhkaa unhkaa unhaka unhaak unhaak unhaka unkhaa unkhaa
unkaha unkaah unkaah unkaha unakha unakah unahka unahak unaahk unaakh unakah
unakha unaakh unaahk unahak unahka uahkna uahkan uahnka uahnak uahank uahakn
uakhna uakhan uaknha uaknah uakanh uakahn uankha uankah uanhka uanhak uanahk
uanakh uaaknh uaakhn uaankh uaanhk uaahnk uaahkn nahuka nahuak nahkua nahkau
nahaku nahauk nauhka nauhak naukha naukah nauakh nauahk nakuha nakuah nakhua
nakhau nakahu nakauh naaukh naauhk naakuh naakhu naahku naahuk nhauka nhauak
nhakua nhakau nhaaku nhaauk nhuaka nhuaak nhukaa nhukaa nhuaka nhuaak nhkuaa
nhkuaa nhkaua nhkaau nhkaau nhkaua nhauka nhauak nhakua nhakau nhaaku nhaauk
nuhaka nuhaak nuhkaa nuhkaa nuhaka nuhaak nuahka nuahak nuakha nuakah nuaakh
nuaahk nukaha nukaah nukhaa nukhaa nukaha nukaah nuaakh nuaahk nuakah nuakha
nuahka nuahak nkhuaa nkhuaa nkhaua nkhaau nkhaau nkhaua nkuhaa nkuhaa nkuaha
nkuaah nkuaah nkuaha nkauha nkauah nkahua nkahau nkaahu nkaauh nkauah nkauha
nkaauh nkaahu nkahau nkahua nahuka nahuak nahkua nahkau nahaku nahauk nauhka
nauhak naukha naukah nauakh nauahk nakuha nakuah nakhua nakhau nakahu nakauh
naaukh naauhk naakuh naakhu naahku naahuk aahunk aahukn aahnuk aahnku aahknu
aahkun aauhnk aauhkn aaunhk aaunkh aauknh aaukhn aanuhk aanukh aanhuk aanhku
aankhu aankuh aakunh aakuhn aaknuh aaknhu aakhnu aakhun ahaunk ahaukn ahanuk
ahanku ahaknu ahakun ahuank ahuakn ahunak ahunka ahukna ahukan ahnuak ahnuka
ahnauk ahnaku ahnkau ahnkua ahkuna ahkuan ahknua ahknau ahkanu ahkaun auhank
auhakn auhnak auhnka auhkna auhkan auahnk auahkn auanhk auankh auaknh auakhn
aunahk aunakh aunhak aunhka aunkha aunkah aukanh aukahn auknah auknha aukhna
aukhan anhuak anhuka anhauk anhaku anhkau anhkua anuhak anuhka anuahk anuakh
anukah anukha anauhk anaukh anahuk anahku anakhu anakuh ankuah ankuha ankauh
ankahu ankhau ankhua akhuna akhuan akhnua akhnau akhanu akhaun akuhna akuhan
akunha akunah akuanh akuahn aknuha aknuah aknhua aknhau aknahu aknauh akaunh
akauhn akanuh akanhu akahnu akahun

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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