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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: jwoods
cipher variations:
kxppet lyqqfu mzrrgv nasshw obttix
pcuujy qdvvkz rewwla sfxxmb tgyync
uhzzod viaape wjbbqf xkccrg ylddsh
zmeeti anffuj boggvk cphhwl dqiixm
erjjyn fskkzo gtllap hummbq ivnncr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: jwoods
Cipher: qdllwh

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: jwoods
Cipher: BBBAA BABAA ABBAB ABBAB AAABB BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: jwoods
cipher variations:
kxppetcprrkduhttqnmzvvwxerxxchwjzzirgtddulylffav
qdhhgfivjjmpanllszsfnnyjlyqqfudqssleviuuronawwxy
fsyydixkaajshueevmzmggbwreiihgjwkknqbommtatgoozk
mzrrgverttmfwjvvspobxxyzgtzzejylbbktivffwnanhhcx
sfjjihkxllorcpnnubuhppalnasshwfsuungxkwwtqpcyyza
huaafkzmcclujwggxoboiidytgkkjilymmpsdqoovcviqqbm
obttixgtvvohylxxurqdzzabivbbglanddmvkxhhypcpjjez
uhllkjmznnqterppwdwjrrcnpcuujyhuwwpizmyyvsreaabc
jwcchmboeenwlyiizqdqkkfavimmlknaoorufsqqxexkssdo
qdvvkzivxxqjanzzwtsfbbcdkxddincpffoxmzjjarerllgb
wjnnmlobppsvgtrryfyltteprewwlajwyyrkboaaxutgccde
lyeejodqggpynakkbsfsmmhcxkoonmpcqqtwhusszgzmuufq
sfxxmbkxzzslcpbbyvuhddefmzffkperhhqzobllctgtnnid
ylpponqdrruxivttahanvvgrtgyynclyaatmdqcczwvieefg
nagglqfsiirapcmmduhuoojezmqqporessvyjwuubibowwhs
uhzzodmzbbunerddaxwjffghobhhmrgtjjsbqdnnevivppkf
anrrqpsfttwzkxvvcjcpxxitviaapenaccvofseebyxkgghi
pciinshukktcreoofwjwqqlgbossrqtguuxalywwdkdqyyju
wjbbqfobddwpgtffczylhhijqdjjotivlludsfppgxkxrrmh
cpttsruhvvybmzxxelerzzkvxkccrgpceexqhuggdazmiijk
rekkpujwmmvetgqqhylyssnidquutsviwwzcnayyfmfsaalw
ylddshqdffyrivhhebanjjklsfllqvkxnnwfuhrrizmzttoj
ervvutwjxxadobzzgngtbbmxzmeetireggzsjwiifcbokklm
tgmmrwlyooxgvissjanauupkfswwvuxkyybepcaahohuccny
anffujsfhhatkxjjgdcpllmnuhnnsxmzppyhwjttkbobvvql
gtxxwvylzzcfqdbbipivddozboggvktgiibulykkhedqmmno
viootynaqqzixkuulcpcwwrmhuyyxwzmaadgreccjqjweepa
cphhwluhjjcvmzllifernnopwjppuzobrrajylvvmdqdxxsn
ivzzyxanbbehsfddkrkxffqbdqiixmvikkdwnammjgfsoopq
xkqqvapcssbkzmwwnereyytojwaazyboccfitgeelslyggrc
erjjynwjllexobnnkhgtppqrylrrwbqdttclanxxofsfzzup
kxbbazcpddgjuhffmtmzhhsdfskkzoxkmmfypcoolihuqqrs
zmssxcreuudmboyypgtgaavqlyccbadqeehkviggnunaiite
gtllapylnngzqdppmjivrrstanttydsfvvencpzzqhuhbbwr
mzddcberffilwjhhovobjjufhummbqzmoohareqqnkjwsstu
bouuzetgwwfodqaariviccxsnaeedcfsggjmxkiipwpckkvg
ivnncranppibsfrrolkxttuvcpvvafuhxxgperbbsjwjddyt
obffedgthhknyljjqxqdllwhjwoodsboqqjctgsspmlyuuvw
dqwwbgviyyhqfscctkxkeezupcggfehuiilozmkkryremmxi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: jwoods
Cipher: wjbbqf

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: jwoods
Cipher: 422543434134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: jwoods
method variations:
obttixtgyyocymddthdriiyn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j w o o d s 
4 2 4 4 4 3 
2 5 3 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
424443253314
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: jwoods
Cipher: itownq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: jwoods
method variations:
gusslt ussltg ssltgu
sltgus ltguss tgussl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: jwoods

all 720 cipher variations:
jwoods jwoosd jwodos jwodso jwosdo jwosod jwoods jwoosd jwodos jwodso jwosdo
jwosod jwdoos jwdoso jwdoos jwdoso jwdsoo jwdsoo jwsodo jwsood jwsdoo jwsdoo
jwsodo jwsood jowods jowosd jowdos jowdso jowsdo jowsod joowds joowsd joodws
joodsw joosdw jooswd jodows jodosw jodwos jodwso jodswo jodsow josodw josowd
josdow josdwo joswdo joswod joowds joowsd joodws joodsw joosdw jooswd jowods
jowosd jowdos jowdso jowsdo jowsod jodwos jodwso jodows jodosw jodsow jodswo
joswdo joswod josdwo josdow josodw josowd jdoows jdoosw jdowos jdowso jdoswo
jdosow jdoows jdoosw jdowos jdowso jdoswo jdosow jdwoos jdwoso jdwoos jdwoso
jdwsoo jdwsoo jdsowo jdsoow jdswoo jdswoo jdsowo jdsoow jsoodw jsoowd jsodow
jsodwo jsowdo jsowod jsoodw jsoowd jsodow jsodwo jsowdo jsowod jsdoow jsdowo
jsdoow jsdowo jsdwoo jsdwoo jswodo jswood jswdoo jswdoo jswodo jswood wjoods
wjoosd wjodos wjodso wjosdo wjosod wjoods wjoosd wjodos wjodso wjosdo wjosod
wjdoos wjdoso wjdoos wjdoso wjdsoo wjdsoo wjsodo wjsood wjsdoo wjsdoo wjsodo
wjsood wojods wojosd wojdos wojdso wojsdo wojsod woojds woojsd woodjs woodsj
woosdj woosjd wodojs wodosj wodjos wodjso wodsjo wodsoj wosodj wosojd wosdoj
wosdjo wosjdo wosjod woojds woojsd woodjs woodsj woosdj woosjd wojods wojosd
wojdos wojdso wojsdo wojsod wodjos wodjso wodojs wodosj wodsoj wodsjo wosjdo
wosjod wosdjo wosdoj wosodj wosojd wdoojs wdoosj wdojos wdojso wdosjo wdosoj
wdoojs wdoosj wdojos wdojso wdosjo wdosoj wdjoos wdjoso wdjoos wdjoso wdjsoo
wdjsoo wdsojo wdsooj wdsjoo wdsjoo wdsojo wdsooj wsoodj wsoojd wsodoj wsodjo
wsojdo wsojod wsoodj wsoojd wsodoj wsodjo wsojdo wsojod wsdooj wsdojo wsdooj
wsdojo wsdjoo wsdjoo wsjodo wsjood wsjdoo wsjdoo wsjodo wsjood owjods owjosd
owjdos owjdso owjsdo owjsod owojds owojsd owodjs owodsj owosdj owosjd owdojs
owdosj owdjos owdjso owdsjo owdsoj owsodj owsojd owsdoj owsdjo owsjdo owsjod
ojwods ojwosd ojwdos ojwdso ojwsdo ojwsod ojowds ojowsd ojodws ojodsw ojosdw
ojoswd ojdows ojdosw ojdwos ojdwso ojdswo ojdsow ojsodw ojsowd ojsdow ojsdwo
ojswdo ojswod oojwds oojwsd oojdws oojdsw oojsdw oojswd oowjds oowjsd oowdjs
oowdsj oowsdj oowsjd oodwjs oodwsj oodjws oodjsw oodsjw oodswj ooswdj ooswjd
oosdwj oosdjw oosjdw oosjwd odjows odjosw odjwos odjwso odjswo odjsow odojws
odojsw odowjs odowsj odoswj odosjw odwojs odwosj odwjos odwjso odwsjo odwsoj
odsowj odsojw odswoj odswjo odsjwo odsjow osjodw osjowd osjdow osjdwo osjwdo
osjwod osojdw osojwd osodjw osodwj osowdj osowjd osdojw osdowj osdjow osdjwo
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oowjsd oowdjs oowdsj oowsdj oowsjd oojwds oojwsd oojdws oojdsw oojsdw oojswd
oodjws oodjsw oodwjs oodwsj oodswj oodsjw oosjdw oosjwd oosdjw oosdwj ooswdj
ooswjd ojowds ojowsd ojodws ojodsw ojosdw ojoswd ojwods ojwosd ojwdos ojwdso
ojwsdo ojwsod ojdwos ojdwso ojdows ojdosw ojdsow ojdswo ojswdo ojswod ojsdwo
ojsdow ojsodw ojsowd odojws odojsw odowjs odowsj odoswj odosjw odjows odjosw
odjwos odjwso odjswo odjsow odwjos odwjso odwojs odwosj odwsoj odwsjo odsjwo
odsjow odswjo odswoj odsowj odsojw osojdw osojwd osodjw osodwj osowdj osowjd
osjodw osjowd osjdow osjdwo osjwdo osjwod osdjow osdjwo osdojw osdowj osdwoj
osdwjo oswjdo oswjod oswdjo oswdoj oswodj oswojd dwoojs dwoosj dwojos dwojso
dwosjo dwosoj dwoojs dwoosj dwojos dwojso dwosjo dwosoj dwjoos dwjoso dwjoos
dwjoso dwjsoo dwjsoo dwsojo dwsooj dwsjoo dwsjoo dwsojo dwsooj dowojs dowosj
dowjos dowjso dowsjo dowsoj doowjs doowsj doojws doojsw doosjw dooswj dojows
dojosw dojwos dojwso dojswo dojsow dosojw dosowj dosjow dosjwo doswjo doswoj
doowjs doowsj doojws doojsw doosjw dooswj dowojs dowosj dowjos dowjso dowsjo
dowsoj dojwos dojwso dojows dojosw dojsow dojswo doswjo doswoj dosjwo dosjow
dosojw dosowj djoows djoosw djowos djowso djoswo djosow djoows djoosw djowos
djowso djoswo djosow djwoos djwoso djwoos djwoso djwsoo djwsoo djsowo djsoow
djswoo djswoo djsowo djsoow dsoojw dsoowj dsojow dsojwo dsowjo dsowoj dsoojw
dsoowj dsojow dsojwo dsowjo dsowoj dsjoow dsjowo dsjoow dsjowo dsjwoo dsjwoo
dswojo dswooj dswjoo dswjoo dswojo dswooj swoodj swoojd swodoj swodjo swojdo
swojod swoodj swoojd swodoj swodjo swojdo swojod swdooj swdojo swdooj swdojo
swdjoo swdjoo swjodo swjood swjdoo swjdoo swjodo swjood sowodj sowojd sowdoj
sowdjo sowjdo sowjod soowdj soowjd soodwj soodjw soojdw soojwd sodowj sodojw
sodwoj sodwjo sodjwo sodjow sojodw sojowd sojdow sojdwo sojwdo sojwod soowdj
soowjd soodwj soodjw soojdw soojwd sowodj sowojd sowdoj sowdjo sowjdo sowjod
sodwoj sodwjo sodowj sodojw sodjow sodjwo sojwdo sojwod sojdwo sojdow sojodw
sojowd sdoowj sdoojw sdowoj sdowjo sdojwo sdojow sdoowj sdoojw sdowoj sdowjo
sdojwo sdojow sdwooj sdwojo sdwooj sdwojo sdwjoo sdwjoo sdjowo sdjoow sdjwoo
sdjwoo sdjowo sdjoow sjoodw sjoowd sjodow sjodwo sjowdo sjowod sjoodw sjoowd
sjodow sjodwo sjowdo sjowod sjdoow sjdowo sjdoow sjdowo sjdwoo sjdwoo sjwodo
sjwood sjwdoo sjwdoo sjwodo sjwood

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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