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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: justen
cipher variations:
kvtufo lwuvgp mxvwhq nywxir ozxyjs
payzkt qbzalu rcabmv sdbcnw tecdox
ufdepy vgefqz whfgra xighsb yjhitc
zkijud aljkve bmklwf cnlmxg domnyh
epnozi fqopaj grpqbk hsqrcl itrsdm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: justen
Cipher: qfhgvm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: justen

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: justen
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: justen
Cipher: whfgra

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: justen
Cipher: 425434445133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: justen
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j u s t e n 
4 5 3 4 5 3 
2 4 4 4 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: justen
Cipher: ysprtl

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Method #3

Plaintext: justen
method variations:
wotyls otylsw tylswo
ylswot lswoty swotyl

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: justen

all 720 cipher variations:
justen justne jusetn jusent jusnet jusnte jutsen jutsne jutesn jutens jutnes
jutnse juetsn juetns juestn juesnt juenst juents juntes juntse junets junest
junset junste jsuten jsutne jsuetn jsuent jsunet jsunte jstuen jstune jsteun
jstenu jstneu jstnue jsetun jsetnu jseutn jseunt jsenut jsentu jsnteu jsntue
jsnetu jsneut jsnuet jsnute jtsuen jtsune jtseun jtsenu jtsneu jtsnue jtusen
jtusne jtuesn jtuens jtunes jtunse jteusn jteuns jtesun jtesnu jtensu jtenus
jtnues jtnuse jtneus jtnesu jtnseu jtnsue jestun jestnu jesutn jesunt jesnut
jesntu jetsun jetsnu jetusn jetuns jetnus jetnsu jeutsn jeutns jeustn jeusnt
jeunst jeunts jentus jentsu jenuts jenust jensut jenstu jnsteu jnstue jnsetu
jnseut jnsuet jnsute jntseu jntsue jntesu jnteus jntues jntuse jnetsu jnetus
jnestu jnesut jneust jneuts jnutes jnutse jnuets jnuest jnuset jnuste ujsten
ujstne ujsetn ujsent ujsnet ujsnte ujtsen ujtsne ujtesn ujtens ujtnes ujtnse
ujetsn ujetns ujestn ujesnt ujenst ujents ujntes ujntse ujnets ujnest ujnset
ujnste usjten usjtne usjetn usjent usjnet usjnte ustjen ustjne ustejn ustenj
ustnej ustnje usetjn usetnj usejtn usejnt usenjt usentj usntej usntje usnetj
usnejt usnjet usnjte utsjen utsjne utsejn utsenj utsnej utsnje utjsen utjsne
utjesn utjens utjnes utjnse utejsn utejns utesjn utesnj utensj utenjs utnjes
utnjse utnejs utnesj utnsej utnsje uestjn uestnj uesjtn uesjnt uesnjt uesntj
uetsjn uetsnj uetjsn uetjns uetnjs uetnsj uejtsn uejtns uejstn uejsnt uejnst
uejnts uentjs uentsj uenjts uenjst uensjt uenstj unstej unstje unsetj unsejt
unsjet unsjte untsej untsje untesj untejs untjes untjse unetsj unetjs unestj
unesjt unejst unejts unjtes unjtse unjets unjest unjset unjste sujten sujtne
sujetn sujent sujnet sujnte sutjen sutjne sutejn sutenj sutnej sutnje suetjn
suetnj suejtn suejnt suenjt suentj suntej suntje sunetj sunejt sunjet sunjte
sjuten sjutne sjuetn sjuent sjunet sjunte sjtuen sjtune sjteun sjtenu sjtneu
sjtnue sjetun sjetnu sjeutn sjeunt sjenut sjentu sjnteu sjntue sjnetu sjneut
sjnuet sjnute stjuen stjune stjeun stjenu stjneu stjnue stujen stujne stuejn
stuenj stunej stunje steujn steunj stejun stejnu stenju stenuj stnuej stnuje
stneuj stneju stnjeu stnjue sejtun sejtnu sejutn sejunt sejnut sejntu setjun
setjnu setujn setunj setnuj setnju seutjn seutnj seujtn seujnt seunjt seuntj
sentuj sentju senutj senujt senjut senjtu snjteu snjtue snjetu snjeut snjuet
snjute sntjeu sntjue snteju snteuj sntuej sntuje snetju snetuj snejtu snejut
sneujt sneutj snutej snutje snuetj snuejt snujet snujte tusjen tusjne tusejn
tusenj tusnej tusnje tujsen tujsne tujesn tujens tujnes tujnse tuejsn tuejns
tuesjn tuesnj tuensj tuenjs tunjes tunjse tunejs tunesj tunsej tunsje tsujen
tsujne tsuejn tsuenj tsunej tsunje tsjuen tsjune tsjeun tsjenu tsjneu tsjnue
tsejun tsejnu tseujn tseunj tsenuj tsenju tsnjeu tsnjue tsneju tsneuj tsnuej
tsnuje tjsuen tjsune tjseun tjsenu tjsneu tjsnue tjusen tjusne tjuesn tjuens
tjunes tjunse tjeusn tjeuns tjesun tjesnu tjensu tjenus tjnues tjnuse tjneus
tjnesu tjnseu tjnsue tesjun tesjnu tesujn tesunj tesnuj tesnju tejsun tejsnu
tejusn tejuns tejnus tejnsu teujsn teujns teusjn teusnj teunsj teunjs tenjus
tenjsu tenujs tenusj tensuj tensju tnsjeu tnsjue tnseju tnseuj tnsuej tnsuje
tnjseu tnjsue tnjesu tnjeus tnjues tnjuse tnejsu tnejus tnesju tnesuj tneusj
tneujs tnujes tnujse tnuejs tnuesj tnusej tnusje eustjn eustnj eusjtn eusjnt
eusnjt eusntj eutsjn eutsnj eutjsn eutjns eutnjs eutnsj eujtsn eujtns eujstn
eujsnt eujnst eujnts euntjs euntsj eunjts eunjst eunsjt eunstj esutjn esutnj
esujtn esujnt esunjt esuntj estujn estunj estjun estjnu estnju estnuj esjtun
esjtnu esjutn esjunt esjnut esjntu esntju esntuj esnjtu esnjut esnujt esnutj
etsujn etsunj etsjun etsjnu etsnju etsnuj etusjn etusnj etujsn etujns etunjs
etunsj etjusn etjuns etjsun etjsnu etjnsu etjnus etnujs etnusj etnjus etnjsu
etnsju etnsuj ejstun ejstnu ejsutn ejsunt ejsnut ejsntu ejtsun ejtsnu ejtusn
ejtuns ejtnus ejtnsu ejutsn ejutns ejustn ejusnt ejunst ejunts ejntus ejntsu
ejnuts ejnust ejnsut ejnstu enstju enstuj ensjtu ensjut ensujt ensutj entsju
entsuj entjsu entjus entujs entusj enjtsu enjtus enjstu enjsut enjust enjuts
enutjs enutsj enujts enujst enusjt enustj nustej nustje nusetj nusejt nusjet
nusjte nutsej nutsje nutesj nutejs nutjes nutjse nuetsj nuetjs nuestj nuesjt
nuejst nuejts nujtes nujtse nujets nujest nujset nujste nsutej nsutje nsuetj
nsuejt nsujet nsujte nstuej nstuje nsteuj nsteju nstjeu nstjue nsetuj nsetju
nseutj nseujt nsejut nsejtu nsjteu nsjtue nsjetu nsjeut nsjuet nsjute ntsuej
ntsuje ntseuj ntseju ntsjeu ntsjue ntusej ntusje ntuesj ntuejs ntujes ntujse
nteusj nteujs ntesuj ntesju ntejsu ntejus ntjues ntjuse ntjeus ntjesu ntjseu
ntjsue nestuj nestju nesutj nesujt nesjut nesjtu netsuj netsju netusj netujs
netjus netjsu neutsj neutjs neustj neusjt neujst neujts nejtus nejtsu nejuts
nejust nejsut nejstu njsteu njstue njsetu njseut njsuet njsute njtseu njtsue
njtesu njteus njtues njtuse njetsu njetus njestu njesut njeust njeuts njutes
njutse njuets njuest njuset njuste

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History of cryptography
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