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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: jument
cipher variations:
kvnfou lwogpv mxphqw nyqirx ozrjsy
pasktz qbtlua rcumvb sdvnwc tewoxd
ufxpye vgyqzf whzrag xiasbh yjbtci
zkcudj aldvek bmewfl cnfxgm dogyhn
ephzio fqiajp grjbkq hskclr itldms

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: jument
Cipher: qfnvmg

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: jument

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: jument
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: jument
Cipher: whzrag

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: jument
Cipher: 425423513344

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: jument
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j u m e n t 
4 5 2 5 3 4 
2 4 3 1 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: jument
Cipher: ywsrcs

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Method #3

Plaintext: jument
method variations:
wixlst ixlstw xlstwi
lstwix stwixl twixls

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: jument

all 720 cipher variations:
jument jumetn jumnet jumnte jumtne jumten juemnt juemtn juenmt juentm juetnm
juetmn junemt junetm junmet junmte juntme juntem jutenm jutemn jutnem jutnme
jutmne jutmen jmuent jmuetn jmunet jmunte jmutne jmuten jmeunt jmeutn jmenut
jmentu jmetnu jmetun jmneut jmnetu jmnuet jmnute jmntue jmnteu jmtenu jmteun
jmtneu jmtnue jmtune jmtuen jemunt jemutn jemnut jemntu jemtnu jemtun jeumnt
jeumtn jeunmt jeuntm jeutnm jeutmn jenumt jenutm jenmut jenmtu jentmu jentum
jetunm jetumn jetnum jetnmu jetmnu jetmun jnmeut jnmetu jnmuet jnmute jnmtue
jnmteu jnemut jnemtu jneumt jneutm jnetum jnetmu jnuemt jnuetm jnumet jnumte
jnutme jnutem jnteum jntemu jntuem jntume jntmue jntmeu jtmenu jtmeun jtmneu
jtmnue jtmune jtmuen jtemnu jtemun jtenmu jtenum jteunm jteumn jtnemu jtneum
jtnmeu jtnmue jtnume jtnuem jtuenm jtuemn jtunem jtunme jtumne jtumen ujment
ujmetn ujmnet ujmnte ujmtne ujmten ujemnt ujemtn ujenmt ujentm ujetnm ujetmn
ujnemt ujnetm ujnmet ujnmte ujntme ujntem ujtenm ujtemn ujtnem ujtnme ujtmne
ujtmen umjent umjetn umjnet umjnte umjtne umjten umejnt umejtn umenjt umentj
umetnj umetjn umnejt umnetj umnjet umnjte umntje umntej umtenj umtejn umtnej
umtnje umtjne umtjen uemjnt uemjtn uemnjt uemntj uemtnj uemtjn uejmnt uejmtn
uejnmt uejntm uejtnm uejtmn uenjmt uenjtm uenmjt uenmtj uentmj uentjm uetjnm
uetjmn uetnjm uetnmj uetmnj uetmjn unmejt unmetj unmjet unmjte unmtje unmtej
unemjt unemtj unejmt unejtm unetjm unetmj unjemt unjetm unjmet unjmte unjtme
unjtem untejm untemj untjem untjme untmje untmej utmenj utmejn utmnej utmnje
utmjne utmjen utemnj utemjn utenmj utenjm utejnm utejmn utnemj utnejm utnmej
utnmje utnjme utnjem utjenm utjemn utjnem utjnme utjmne utjmen mujent mujetn
mujnet mujnte mujtne mujten muejnt muejtn muenjt muentj muetnj muetjn munejt
munetj munjet munjte muntje muntej mutenj mutejn mutnej mutnje mutjne mutjen
mjuent mjuetn mjunet mjunte mjutne mjuten mjeunt mjeutn mjenut mjentu mjetnu
mjetun mjneut mjnetu mjnuet mjnute mjntue mjnteu mjtenu mjteun mjtneu mjtnue
mjtune mjtuen mejunt mejutn mejnut mejntu mejtnu mejtun meujnt meujtn meunjt
meuntj meutnj meutjn menujt menutj menjut menjtu mentju mentuj metunj metujn
metnuj metnju metjnu metjun mnjeut mnjetu mnjuet mnjute mnjtue mnjteu mnejut
mnejtu mneujt mneutj mnetuj mnetju mnuejt mnuetj mnujet mnujte mnutje mnutej
mnteuj mnteju mntuej mntuje mntjue mntjeu mtjenu mtjeun mtjneu mtjnue mtjune
mtjuen mtejnu mtejun mtenju mtenuj mteunj mteujn mtneju mtneuj mtnjeu mtnjue
mtnuje mtnuej mtuenj mtuejn mtunej mtunje mtujne mtujen eumjnt eumjtn eumnjt
eumntj eumtnj eumtjn eujmnt eujmtn eujnmt eujntm eujtnm eujtmn eunjmt eunjtm
eunmjt eunmtj euntmj euntjm eutjnm eutjmn eutnjm eutnmj eutmnj eutmjn emujnt
emujtn emunjt emuntj emutnj emutjn emjunt emjutn emjnut emjntu emjtnu emjtun
emnjut emnjtu emnujt emnutj emntuj emntju emtjnu emtjun emtnju emtnuj emtunj
emtujn ejmunt ejmutn ejmnut ejmntu ejmtnu ejmtun ejumnt ejumtn ejunmt ejuntm
ejutnm ejutmn ejnumt ejnutm ejnmut ejnmtu ejntmu ejntum ejtunm ejtumn ejtnum
ejtnmu ejtmnu ejtmun enmjut enmjtu enmujt enmutj enmtuj enmtju enjmut enjmtu
enjumt enjutm enjtum enjtmu enujmt enujtm enumjt enumtj enutmj enutjm entjum
entjmu entujm entumj entmuj entmju etmjnu etmjun etmnju etmnuj etmunj etmujn
etjmnu etjmun etjnmu etjnum etjunm etjumn etnjmu etnjum etnmju etnmuj etnumj
etnujm etujnm etujmn etunjm etunmj etumnj etumjn numejt numetj numjet numjte
numtje numtej nuemjt nuemtj nuejmt nuejtm nuetjm nuetmj nujemt nujetm nujmet
nujmte nujtme nujtem nutejm nutemj nutjem nutjme nutmje nutmej nmuejt nmuetj
nmujet nmujte nmutje nmutej nmeujt nmeutj nmejut nmejtu nmetju nmetuj nmjeut
nmjetu nmjuet nmjute nmjtue nmjteu nmteju nmteuj nmtjeu nmtjue nmtuje nmtuej
nemujt nemutj nemjut nemjtu nemtju nemtuj neumjt neumtj neujmt neujtm neutjm
neutmj nejumt nejutm nejmut nejmtu nejtmu nejtum netujm netumj netjum netjmu
netmju netmuj njmeut njmetu njmuet njmute njmtue njmteu njemut njemtu njeumt
njeutm njetum njetmu njuemt njuetm njumet njumte njutme njutem njteum njtemu
njtuem njtume njtmue njtmeu ntmeju ntmeuj ntmjeu ntmjue ntmuje ntmuej ntemju
ntemuj ntejmu ntejum nteujm nteumj ntjemu ntjeum ntjmeu ntjmue ntjume ntjuem
ntuejm ntuemj ntujem ntujme ntumje ntumej tumenj tumejn tumnej tumnje tumjne
tumjen tuemnj tuemjn tuenmj tuenjm tuejnm tuejmn tunemj tunejm tunmej tunmje
tunjme tunjem tujenm tujemn tujnem tujnme tujmne tujmen tmuenj tmuejn tmunej
tmunje tmujne tmujen tmeunj tmeujn tmenuj tmenju tmejnu tmejun tmneuj tmneju
tmnuej tmnuje tmnjue tmnjeu tmjenu tmjeun tmjneu tmjnue tmjune tmjuen temunj
temujn temnuj temnju temjnu temjun teumnj teumjn teunmj teunjm teujnm teujmn
tenumj tenujm tenmuj tenmju tenjmu tenjum tejunm tejumn tejnum tejnmu tejmnu
tejmun tnmeuj tnmeju tnmuej tnmuje tnmjue tnmjeu tnemuj tnemju tneumj tneujm
tnejum tnejmu tnuemj tnuejm tnumej tnumje tnujme tnujem tnjeum tnjemu tnjuem
tnjume tnjmue tnjmeu tjmenu tjmeun tjmneu tjmnue tjmune tjmuen tjemnu tjemun
tjenmu tjenum tjeunm tjeumn tjnemu tjneum tjnmeu tjnmue tjnume tjnuem tjuenm
tjuemn tjunem tjunme tjumne tjumen

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History of cryptography
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