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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: jubjub
cipher variations:
kvckvc lwdlwd mxemxe nyfnyf ozgozg
pahpah qbiqbi rcjrcj sdksdk teltel
ufmufm vgnvgn whowho xipxip yjqyjq
zkrzkr alsals bmtbmt cnucnu dovdov
epwepw fqxfqx grygry hszhsz itaita

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: jubjub
Cipher: qfyqfy

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: jubjub
Cipher: BBBAA BAABB AAAAB BBBAA BAABB AAAAB

Read more ...

 

Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: jubjub
cipher variations:
kvckvccjecjeuxguxgmlimliezkezkwnmwnmgpqgpqydsyds
qruqruifwifwatyatyshashalwdlwddkfdkfvyhvyhnmjnmj
falfalxonxonhqrhqrzetzetrsvrsvjgxjgxbuzbuztibtib
mxemxeelgelgwziwzionkonkgbmgbmypoypoirsirsafuafu
stwstwkhykhycvacvaujcujcnyfnyffmhfmhxajxajpolpol
hcnhcnzqpzqpjstjstbgvbgvtuxtuxlizlizdwbdwbvkdvkd
ozgozggnigniybkybkqpmqpmidoidoarqarqktuktuchwchw
uvyuvymjamjaexcexcwlewlepahpahhojhojzclzclrqnrqn
jepjepbsrbsrluvluvdixdixvwzvwznkbnkbfydfydxmfxmf
qbiqbiipkipkadmadmsrosrokfqkfqctsctsmvwmvwejyejy
wxawxaolcolcgzegzeyngyngrcjrcjjqljqlbenbentsptsp
lgrlgrdutdutnwxnwxfkzfkzxybxybpmdpmdhafhafzohzoh
sdksdkkrmkrmcfocfoutqutqmhsmhsevuevuoxyoxyglagla
yzcyzcqneqneibgibgapiapiteltellsnlsndgpdgpvurvur
nitnitfwvfwvpyzpyzhmbhmbzadzadrofrofjchjchbqjbqj
ufmufmmtomtoehqehqwvswvsojuojugxwgxwqzaqzaincinc
abeabespgspgkdikdicrkcrkvgnvgnnupnupfirfirxwtxwt
pkvpkvhyxhyxrabrabjodjodbcfbcftqhtqhlejlejdsldsl
whowhoovqovqgjsgjsyxuyxuqlwqlwizyizysbcsbckpekpe
cdgcdguriurimfkmfketmetmxipxippwrpwrhkthktzyvzyv
rmxrmxjazjaztcdtcdlqflqfdehdehvsjvsjnglnglfunfun
yjqyjqqxsqxsiluiluazwazwsnysnykbakbaudeudemrgmrg
efiefiwtkwtkohmohmgvogvozkrzkrrytrytjmvjmvbaxbax
toztozlcblcbvefvefnshnshfgjfgjxulxulpinpinhwphwp
alsalsszuszuknwknwcbycbyupaupamdcmdcwfgwfgotioti
ghkghkyvmyvmqjoqjoixqixqbmtbmttavtavloxloxdczdcz
vqbvqbnednedxghxghpujpujhilhilzwnzwnrkprkpjyrjyr
cnucnuubwubwmpympyedaedawrcwrcofeofeyhiyhiqvkqvk
ijmijmaxoaxoslqslqkzskzsdovdovvcxvcxnqznqzfebfeb
xsdxsdpgfpgfzijzijrwlrwljknjknbypbyptmrtmrlatlat
epwepwwdywdyoraoragfcgfcyteyteqhgqhgajkajksxmsxm
klokloczqczqunsunsmbumbufqxfqxxezxezpsbpsbhgdhgd
zufzufrihrihbklbkltyntynlmplmpdardarvotvotncvncv
grygryyfayfaqtcqtciheiheavgavgsjisjiclmclmuzouzo
mnqmnqebsebswpuwpuodwodwhszhszzgbzgbrudrudjifjif
bwhbwhtkjtkjdmndmnvapvapnornorfctfctxqvxqvpexpex
itaitaahcahcsvesvekjgkjgcxicxiulkulkenoenowbqwbq
opsopsgdugduyrwyrwqfyqfyjubjubbidbidtwftwflkhlkh
dyjdyjvmlvmlfopfopxcrxcrpqtpqthevhevzsxzsxrgzrgz

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: jubjub
Cipher: whowho

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: jubjub
Cipher: 425421425421

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: jubjub
method variations:
ozgozgtemtemykrykrdpwdpw

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j u b j u b 
4 5 2 4 5 2 
2 4 1 2 4 1 
They are then read out in rows:
452452241241
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: jubjub
Cipher: yrkrfd

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: jubjub
method variations:
wiqwiq iqwiqw qwiqwi
wiqwiq iqwiqw qwiqwi

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: jubjub

all 720 cipher variations:
jubjub jubjbu jubujb jububj jubbuj jubbju jujbub jujbbu jujubb jujubb jujbub
jujbbu juujbb juujbb juubjb juubbj juubbj juubjb jubjub jubjbu jubujb jububj
jubbuj jubbju jbujub jbujbu jbuujb jbuubj jbubuj jbubju jbjuub jbjubu jbjuub
jbjubu jbjbuu jbjbuu jbujub jbujbu jbuujb jbuubj jbubuj jbubju jbbjuu jbbjuu
jbbuju jbbuuj jbbuuj jbbuju jjbuub jjbubu jjbuub jjbubu jjbbuu jjbbuu jjubub
jjubbu jjuubb jjuubb jjubub jjubbu jjuubb jjuubb jjubub jjubbu jjubbu jjubub
jjbuub jjbubu jjbuub jjbubu jjbbuu jjbbuu jubjub jubjbu jubujb jububj jubbuj
jubbju jujbub jujbbu jujubb jujubb jujbub jujbbu juujbb juujbb juubjb juubbj
juubbj juubjb jubjub jubjbu jubujb jububj jubbuj jubbju jbbjuu jbbjuu jbbuju
jbbuuj jbbuuj jbbuju jbjbuu jbjbuu jbjubu jbjuub jbjuub jbjubu jbujbu jbujub
jbubju jbubuj jbuubj jbuujb jbujub jbujbu jbuujb jbuubj jbubuj jbubju ujbjub
ujbjbu ujbujb ujbubj ujbbuj ujbbju ujjbub ujjbbu ujjubb ujjubb ujjbub ujjbbu
ujujbb ujujbb ujubjb ujubbj ujubbj ujubjb ujbjub ujbjbu ujbujb ujbubj ujbbuj
ujbbju ubjjub ubjjbu ubjujb ubjubj ubjbuj ubjbju ubjjub ubjjbu ubjujb ubjubj
ubjbuj ubjbju ubujjb ubujbj ubujjb ubujbj ububjj ububjj ubbjuj ubbjju ubbujj
ubbujj ubbjuj ubbjju ujbjub ujbjbu ujbujb ujbubj ujbbuj ujbbju ujjbub ujjbbu
ujjubb ujjubb ujjbub ujjbbu ujujbb ujujbb ujubjb ujubbj ujubbj ujubjb ujbjub
ujbjbu ujbujb ujbubj ujbbuj ujbbju uubjjb uubjbj uubjjb uubjbj uubbjj uubbjj
uujbjb uujbbj uujjbb uujjbb uujbjb uujbbj uujjbb uujjbb uujbjb uujbbj uujbbj
uujbjb uubjjb uubjbj uubjjb uubjbj uubbjj uubbjj ubbjuj ubbjju ubbujj ubbujj
ubbjuj ubbjju ubjbuj ubjbju ubjubj ubjujb ubjjub ubjjbu ubujbj ubujjb ububjj
ububjj ubujbj ubujjb ubjjub ubjjbu ubjujb ubjubj ubjbuj ubjbju bujjub bujjbu
bujujb bujubj bujbuj bujbju bujjub bujjbu bujujb bujubj bujbuj bujbju buujjb
buujbj buujjb buujbj buubjj buubjj bubjuj bubjju bubujj bubujj bubjuj bubjju
bjujub bjujbu bjuujb bjuubj bjubuj bjubju bjjuub bjjubu bjjuub bjjubu bjjbuu
bjjbuu bjujub bjujbu bjuujb bjuubj bjubuj bjubju bjbjuu bjbjuu bjbuju bjbuuj
bjbuuj bjbuju bjjuub bjjubu bjjuub bjjubu bjjbuu bjjbuu bjujub bjujbu bjuujb
bjuubj bjubuj bjubju bjuujb bjuubj bjujub bjujbu bjubju bjubuj bjbuuj bjbuju
bjbuuj bjbuju bjbjuu bjbjuu bujjub bujjbu bujujb bujubj bujbuj bujbju bujjub
bujjbu bujujb bujubj bujbuj bujbju buujjb buujbj buujjb buujbj buubjj buubjj
bubjuj bubjju bubujj bubujj bubjuj bubjju bbjjuu bbjjuu bbjuju bbjuuj bbjuuj
bbjuju bbjjuu bbjjuu bbjuju bbjuuj bbjuuj bbjuju bbujju bbujuj bbujju bbujuj
bbuujj bbuujj bbujuj bbujju bbuujj bbuujj bbujuj bbujju jubjub jubjbu jubujb
jububj jubbuj jubbju jujbub jujbbu jujubb jujubb jujbub jujbbu juujbb juujbb
juubjb juubbj juubbj juubjb jubjub jubjbu jubujb jububj jubbuj jubbju jbujub
jbujbu jbuujb jbuubj jbubuj jbubju jbjuub jbjubu jbjuub jbjubu jbjbuu jbjbuu
jbujub jbujbu jbuujb jbuubj jbubuj jbubju jbbjuu jbbjuu jbbuju jbbuuj jbbuuj
jbbuju jjbuub jjbubu jjbuub jjbubu jjbbuu jjbbuu jjubub jjubbu jjuubb jjuubb
jjubub jjubbu jjuubb jjuubb jjubub jjubbu jjubbu jjubub jjbuub jjbubu jjbuub
jjbubu jjbbuu jjbbuu jubjub jubjbu jubujb jububj jubbuj jubbju jujbub jujbbu
jujubb jujubb jujbub jujbbu juujbb juujbb juubjb juubbj juubbj juubjb jubjub
jubjbu jubujb jububj jubbuj jubbju jbbjuu jbbjuu jbbuju jbbuuj jbbuuj jbbuju
jbjbuu jbjbuu jbjubu jbjuub jbjuub jbjubu jbujbu jbujub jbubju jbubuj jbuubj
jbuujb jbujub jbujbu jbuujb jbuubj jbubuj jbubju uubjjb uubjbj uubjjb uubjbj
uubbjj uubbjj uujbjb uujbbj uujjbb uujjbb uujbjb uujbbj uujjbb uujjbb uujbjb
uujbbj uujbbj uujbjb uubjjb uubjbj uubjjb uubjbj uubbjj uubbjj ubujjb ubujbj
ubujjb ubujbj ububjj ububjj ubjujb ubjubj ubjjub ubjjbu ubjbju ubjbuj ubjjub
ubjjbu ubjujb ubjubj ubjbuj ubjbju ubbjju ubbjuj ubbjju ubbjuj ubbujj ubbujj
ujbujb ujbubj ujbjub ujbjbu ujbbju ujbbuj ujubjb ujubbj ujujbb ujujbb ujubjb
ujubbj ujjubb ujjubb ujjbub ujjbbu ujjbbu ujjbub ujbujb ujbubj ujbjub ujbjbu
ujbbju ujbbuj ujbjub ujbjbu ujbujb ujbubj ujbbuj ujbbju ujjbub ujjbbu ujjubb
ujjubb ujjbub ujjbbu ujujbb ujujbb ujubjb ujubbj ujubbj ujubjb ujbjub ujbjbu
ujbujb ujbubj ujbbuj ujbbju ubbjju ubbjuj ubbjju ubbjuj ubbujj ubbujj ubjbju
ubjbuj ubjjbu ubjjub ubjujb ubjubj ubjjbu ubjjub ubjbju ubjbuj ubjubj ubjujb
ubujjb ubujbj ubujjb ubujbj ububjj ububjj bubjuj bubjju bubujj bubujj bubjuj
bubjju bujbuj bujbju bujubj bujujb bujjub bujjbu buujbj buujjb buubjj buubjj
buujbj buujjb bujjub bujjbu bujujb bujubj bujbuj bujbju bbujuj bbujju bbuujj
bbuujj bbujuj bbujju bbjuuj bbjuju bbjuuj bbjuju bbjjuu bbjjuu bbujuj bbujju
bbuujj bbuujj bbujuj bbujju bbjjuu bbjjuu bbjuju bbjuuj bbjuuj bbjuju bjbuuj
bjbuju bjbuuj bjbuju bjbjuu bjbjuu bjubuj bjubju bjuubj bjuujb bjujub bjujbu
bjuubj bjuujb bjubuj bjubju bjujbu bjujub bjjuub bjjubu bjjuub bjjubu bjjbuu
bjjbuu bubjuj bubjju bubujj bubujj bubjuj bubjju bujbuj bujbju bujubj bujujb
bujjub bujjbu buujbj buujjb buubjj buubjj buujbj buujjb bujjub bujjbu bujujb
bujubj bujbuj bujbju bjbjuu bjbjuu bjbuju bjbuuj bjbuuj bjbuju bjjbuu bjjbuu
bjjubu bjjuub bjjuub bjjubu bjujbu bjujub bjubju bjubuj bjuubj bjuujb bjujub
bjujbu bjuujb bjuubj bjubuj bjubju

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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