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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: jolene
cipher variations:
kpmfof lqngpg mrohqh nspiri otqjsj
purktk qvslul rwtmvm sxunwn tyvoxo
uzwpyp vaxqzq wbyrar xczsbs ydatct
zebudu afcvev bgdwfw chexgx difyhy
ejgziz fkhaja glibkb hmjclc inkdmd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: jolene
Cipher: qlovmv

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: jolene

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: jolene
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: jolene
Cipher: wbyrar

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: jolene
Cipher: 424313513351

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: jolene
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j o l e n e 
4 4 1 5 3 5 
2 3 3 1 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: jolene
Cipher: tvxmcc

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Method #3

Plaintext: jolene
method variations:
rcxlxq cxlxqr xlxqrc
lxqrcx xqrcxl qrcxlx

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: jolene

all 720 cipher variations:
jolene joleen jolnee jolnee jolene joleen joelne joelen joenle joenel joeenl
joeeln jonele joneel jonlee jonlee jonele joneel joeenl joeeln joenel joenle
joelne joelen jloene jloeen jlonee jlonee jloene jloeen jleone jleoen jlenoe
jleneo jleeno jleeon jlneoe jlneeo jlnoee jlnoee jlneoe jlneeo jleeno jleeon
jleneo jlenoe jleone jleoen jelone jeloen jelnoe jelneo jeleno jeleon jeolne
jeolen jeonle jeonel jeoenl jeoeln jenole jenoel jenloe jenleo jenelo jeneol
jeeonl jeeoln jeenol jeenlo jeelno jeelon jnleoe jnleeo jnloee jnloee jnleoe
jnleeo jneloe jneleo jneole jneoel jneeol jneelo jnoele jnoeel jnolee jnolee
jnoele jnoeel jneeol jneelo jneoel jneole jneloe jneleo jeleno jeleon jelneo
jelnoe jelone jeloen jeelno jeelon jeenlo jeenol jeeonl jeeoln jenelo jeneol
jenleo jenloe jenole jenoel jeoenl jeoeln jeonel jeonle jeolne jeolen ojlene
ojleen ojlnee ojlnee ojlene ojleen ojelne ojelen ojenle ojenel ojeenl ojeeln
ojnele ojneel ojnlee ojnlee ojnele ojneel ojeenl ojeeln ojenel ojenle ojelne
ojelen oljene oljeen oljnee oljnee oljene oljeen olejne olejen olenje olenej
oleenj oleejn olneje olneej olnjee olnjee olneje olneej oleenj oleejn olenej
olenje olejne olejen oeljne oeljen oelnje oelnej oelenj oelejn oejlne oejlen
oejnle oejnel oejenl oejeln oenjle oenjel oenlje oenlej oenelj oenejl oeejnl
oeejln oeenjl oeenlj oeelnj oeeljn onleje onleej onljee onljee onleje onleej
onelje onelej onejle onejel oneejl oneelj onjele onjeel onjlee onjlee onjele
onjeel oneejl oneelj onejel onejle onelje onelej oelenj oelejn oelnej oelnje
oeljne oeljen oeelnj oeeljn oeenlj oeenjl oeejnl oeejln oenelj oenejl oenlej
oenlje oenjle oenjel oejenl oejeln oejnel oejnle oejlne oejlen lojene lojeen
lojnee lojnee lojene lojeen loejne loejen loenje loenej loeenj loeejn loneje
loneej lonjee lonjee loneje loneej loeenj loeejn loenej loenje loejne loejen
ljoene ljoeen ljonee ljonee ljoene ljoeen ljeone ljeoen ljenoe ljeneo ljeeno
ljeeon ljneoe ljneeo ljnoee ljnoee ljneoe ljneeo ljeeno ljeeon ljeneo ljenoe
ljeone ljeoen lejone lejoen lejnoe lejneo lejeno lejeon leojne leojen leonje
leonej leoenj leoejn lenoje lenoej lenjoe lenjeo lenejo leneoj leeonj leeojn
leenoj leenjo leejno leejon lnjeoe lnjeeo lnjoee lnjoee lnjeoe lnjeeo lnejoe
lnejeo lneoje lneoej lneeoj lneejo lnoeje lnoeej lnojee lnojee lnoeje lnoeej
lneeoj lneejo lneoej lneoje lnejoe lnejeo lejeno lejeon lejneo lejnoe lejone
lejoen leejno leejon leenjo leenoj leeonj leeojn lenejo leneoj lenjeo lenjoe
lenoje lenoej leoenj leoejn leonej leonje leojne leojen eoljne eoljen eolnje
eolnej eolenj eolejn eojlne eojlen eojnle eojnel eojenl eojeln eonjle eonjel
eonlje eonlej eonelj eonejl eoejnl eoejln eoenjl eoenlj eoelnj eoeljn elojne
elojen elonje elonej eloenj eloejn eljone eljoen eljnoe eljneo eljeno eljeon
elnjoe elnjeo elnoje elnoej elneoj elnejo elejno elejon elenjo elenoj eleonj
eleojn ejlone ejloen ejlnoe ejlneo ejleno ejleon ejolne ejolen ejonle ejonel
ejoenl ejoeln ejnole ejnoel ejnloe ejnleo ejnelo ejneol ejeonl ejeoln ejenol
ejenlo ejelno ejelon enljoe enljeo enloje enloej enleoj enlejo enjloe enjleo
enjole enjoel enjeol enjelo enojle enojel enolje enolej enoelj enoejl enejol
enejlo eneojl eneolj eneloj eneljo eeljno eeljon eelnjo eelnoj eelonj eelojn
eejlno eejlon eejnlo eejnol eejonl eejoln eenjlo eenjol eenljo eenloj eenolj
eenojl eeojnl eeojln eeonjl eeonlj eeolnj eeoljn noleje noleej noljee noljee
noleje noleej noelje noelej noejle noejel noeejl noeelj nojele nojeel nojlee
nojlee nojele nojeel noeejl noeelj noejel noejle noelje noelej nloeje nloeej
nlojee nlojee nloeje nloeej nleoje nleoej nlejoe nlejeo nleejo nleeoj nljeoe
nljeeo nljoee nljoee nljeoe nljeeo nleejo nleeoj nlejeo nlejoe nleoje nleoej
neloje neloej neljoe neljeo nelejo neleoj neolje neolej neojle neojel neoejl
neoelj nejole nejoel nejloe nejleo nejelo nejeol neeojl neeolj neejol neejlo
neeljo neeloj njleoe njleeo njloee njloee njleoe njleeo njeloe njeleo njeole
njeoel njeeol njeelo njoele njoeel njolee njolee njoele njoeel njeeol njeelo
njeoel njeole njeloe njeleo nelejo neleoj neljeo neljoe neloje neloej neeljo
neeloj neejlo neejol neeojl neeolj nejelo nejeol nejleo nejloe nejole nejoel
neoejl neoelj neojel neojle neolje neolej eolenj eolejn eolnej eolnje eoljne
eoljen eoelnj eoeljn eoenlj eoenjl eoejnl eoejln eonelj eonejl eonlej eonlje
eonjle eonjel eojenl eojeln eojnel eojnle eojlne eojlen eloenj eloejn elonej
elonje elojne elojen eleonj eleojn elenoj elenjo elejno elejon elneoj elnejo
elnoej elnoje elnjoe elnjeo eljeno eljeon eljneo eljnoe eljone eljoen eelonj
eelojn eelnoj eelnjo eeljno eeljon eeolnj eeoljn eeonlj eeonjl eeojnl eeojln
eenolj eenojl eenloj eenljo eenjlo eenjol eejonl eejoln eejnol eejnlo eejlno
eejlon enleoj enlejo enloej enloje enljoe enljeo eneloj eneljo eneolj eneojl
enejol enejlo enoelj enoejl enolej enolje enojle enojel enjeol enjelo enjoel
enjole enjloe enjleo ejleno ejleon ejlneo ejlnoe ejlone ejloen ejelno ejelon
ejenlo ejenol ejeonl ejeoln ejnelo ejneol ejnleo ejnloe ejnole ejnoel ejoenl
ejoeln ejonel ejonle ejolne ejolen

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History of cryptography
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