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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: jeffry
cipher variations:
kfggsz lghhta mhiiub nijjvc ojkkwd
pkllxe qlmmyf rmnnzg snooah toppbi
upqqcj vqrrdk wrssel xsttfm ytuugn
zuvvho avwwip bwxxjq cxyykr dyzzls
ezaamt fabbnu gbccov hcddpw ideeqx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: jeffry
Cipher: qvuuib

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: jeffry
Cipher: BBBAA AABAA AABAB AABAB BAAAA BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: jeffry
cipher variations:
kfggszcnqqavuvaairmdkkqneluuyjwteegfgjyywxyriiet
qzssmpihcculapmmchsxwwkdlghhtadorrbwvwbbjsnellro
fmvvzkxuffhghkzzxyzsjjfurattnqjiddvmbqnndityxxle
mhiiubepsscxwxccktofmmspgnwwalyvggihilaayzatkkgv
sbuuorkjeewncrooejuzyymfnijjvcfqttdyxyddlupgnntq
hoxxbmzwhhjijmbbzabullhwtcvvpslkffxodsppfkvazzng
ojkkwdgruuezyzeemvqhoouripyycnaxiikjknccabcvmmix
udwwqtmlggypetqqglwbaaohpkllxehsvvfazaffnwrippvs
jqzzdobyjjlkloddbcdwnnjyvexxrunmhhzqfurrhmxcbbpi
qlmmyfitwwgbabggoxsjqqwtkraaepczkkmlmpeecdexookz
wfyysvoniiargvssinydccqjrmnnzgjuxxhcbchhpytkrrxu
lsbbfqdallnmnqffdefypplaxgzztwpojjbshwttjozeddrk
snooahkvyyidcdiiqzulssyvmtccgrebmmonorggefgzqqmb
yhaauxqpkkctixuukpafeesltoppbilwzzjedejjravmttzw
nuddhsfcnnpopshhfgharrnczibbvyrqlldujyvvlqbgfftm
upqqcjmxaakfefkksbwnuuaxoveeitgdooqpqtiighibssod
ajccwzsrmmevkzwwmrchggunvqrrdknybblgfglltcxovvby
pwffjuhepprqrujjhijcttpebkddxatsnnfwlaxxnsdihhvo
wrsselozccmhghmmudypwwczqxggkvifqqsrsvkkijkduuqf
cleeybutoogxmbyyotejiiwpxsttfmpaddnihinnvezqxxda
ryhhlwjgrrtstwlljklevvrgdmffzcvupphynczzpufkjjxq
ytuugnqbeeojijoowfaryyebsziimxkhssutuxmmklmfwwsh
enggadwvqqizodaaqvglkkyrzuvvhorcffpkjkppxgbszzfc
tajjnylittvuvynnlmngxxtifohhbexwrrjapebbrwhmllzs
avwwipsdggqlklqqyhctaagdubkkozmjuuwvwzoomnohyyuj
gpiicfyxsskbqfccsxinmmatbwxxjqtehhrmlmrrzidubbhe
vcllpankvvxwxappnopizzvkhqjjdgzyttlcrgddtyjonnbu
cxyykrufiisnmnssajevccifwdmmqbolwwyxybqqopqjaawl
irkkehazuumdsheeuzkpoocvdyzzlsvgjjtonottbkfwddjg
xennrcpmxxzyzcrrpqrkbbxmjsllfibavvnetiffvalqppdw
ezaamtwhkkupopuuclgxeekhyfoosdqnyyazadssqrslccyn
ktmmgjcbwwofujggwbmrqqexfabbnuxillvqpqvvdmhyffli
zgppterozzbabettrstmddzolunnhkdcxxpgvkhhxcnsrrfy
gbccovyjmmwrqrwwenizggmjahqqufspaacbcfuustuneeap
mvooiledyyqhwliiydotssgzhcddpwzknnxsrsxxfojahhnk
birrvgtqbbdcdgvvtuvoffbqnwppjmfezzrixmjjzeputtha
ideeqxalooytstyygpkbiiolcjsswhurccedehwwuvwpggcr
oxqqkngfaasjynkkafqvuuibjeffrybmppzutuzzhqlcjjpm
dkttxivsddfefixxvwxqhhdspyrrlohgbbtkzollbgrwvvjc

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: jeffry
Cipher: wrssel

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: jeffry
Cipher: 425112122445

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: jeffry
method variations:
okllwdtpqqbiyuvvgodzaamt

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j e f f r y 
4 5 1 1 2 4 
2 1 2 2 4 5 
They are then read out in rows:
451124212245
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: jeffry
Cipher: yarbgy

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: jeffry
method variations:
wabgtu abgtuw bgtuwa
gtuwab tuwabg uwabgt

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: jeffry

all 720 cipher variations:
jeffry jeffyr jefrfy jefryf jefyrf jefyfr jeffry jeffyr jefrfy jefryf jefyrf
jefyfr jerffy jerfyf jerffy jerfyf jeryff jeryff jeyfrf jeyffr jeyrff jeyrff
jeyfrf jeyffr jfefry jfefyr jferfy jferyf jfeyrf jfeyfr jffery jffeyr jffrey
jffrye jffyre jffyer jfrfey jfrfye jfrefy jfreyf jfryef jfryfe jfyfre jfyfer
jfyrfe jfyref jfyerf jfyefr jffery jffeyr jffrey jffrye jffyre jffyer jfefry
jfefyr jferfy jferyf jfeyrf jfeyfr jfrefy jfreyf jfrfey jfrfye jfryfe jfryef
jfyerf jfyefr jfyref jfyrfe jfyfre jfyfer jrffey jrffye jrfefy jrfeyf jrfyef
jrfyfe jrffey jrffye jrfefy jrfeyf jrfyef jrfyfe jreffy jrefyf jreffy jrefyf
jreyff jreyff jryfef jryffe jryeff jryeff jryfef jryffe jyffre jyffer jyfrfe
jyfref jyferf jyfefr jyffre jyffer jyfrfe jyfref jyferf jyfefr jyrffe jyrfef
jyrffe jyrfef jyreff jyreff jyefrf jyeffr jyerff jyerff jyefrf jyeffr ejffry
ejffyr ejfrfy ejfryf ejfyrf ejfyfr ejffry ejffyr ejfrfy ejfryf ejfyrf ejfyfr
ejrffy ejrfyf ejrffy ejrfyf ejryff ejryff ejyfrf ejyffr ejyrff ejyrff ejyfrf
ejyffr efjfry efjfyr efjrfy efjryf efjyrf efjyfr effjry effjyr effrjy effryj
effyrj effyjr efrfjy efrfyj efrjfy efrjyf efryjf efryfj efyfrj efyfjr efyrfj
efyrjf efyjrf efyjfr effjry effjyr effrjy effryj effyrj effyjr efjfry efjfyr
efjrfy efjryf efjyrf efjyfr efrjfy efrjyf efrfjy efrfyj efryfj efryjf efyjrf
efyjfr efyrjf efyrfj efyfrj efyfjr erffjy erffyj erfjfy erfjyf erfyjf erfyfj
erffjy erffyj erfjfy erfjyf erfyjf erfyfj erjffy erjfyf erjffy erjfyf erjyff
erjyff eryfjf eryffj eryjff eryjff eryfjf eryffj eyffrj eyffjr eyfrfj eyfrjf
eyfjrf eyfjfr eyffrj eyffjr eyfrfj eyfrjf eyfjrf eyfjfr eyrffj eyrfjf eyrffj
eyrfjf eyrjff eyrjff eyjfrf eyjffr eyjrff eyjrff eyjfrf eyjffr fejfry fejfyr
fejrfy fejryf fejyrf fejyfr fefjry fefjyr fefrjy fefryj fefyrj fefyjr ferfjy
ferfyj ferjfy ferjyf feryjf feryfj feyfrj feyfjr feyrfj feyrjf feyjrf feyjfr
fjefry fjefyr fjerfy fjeryf fjeyrf fjeyfr fjfery fjfeyr fjfrey fjfrye fjfyre
fjfyer fjrfey fjrfye fjrefy fjreyf fjryef fjryfe fjyfre fjyfer fjyrfe fjyref
fjyerf fjyefr ffjery ffjeyr ffjrey ffjrye ffjyre ffjyer ffejry ffejyr fferjy
fferyj ffeyrj ffeyjr ffrejy ffreyj ffrjey ffrjye ffryje ffryej ffyerj ffyejr
ffyrej ffyrje ffyjre ffyjer frjfey frjfye frjefy frjeyf frjyef frjyfe frfjey
frfjye frfejy frfeyj frfyej frfyje frefjy frefyj frejfy frejyf freyjf freyfj
fryfej fryfje fryefj fryejf fryjef fryjfe fyjfre fyjfer fyjrfe fyjref fyjerf
fyjefr fyfjre fyfjer fyfrje fyfrej fyferj fyfejr fyrfje fyrfej fyrjfe fyrjef
fyrejf fyrefj fyefrj fyefjr fyerfj fyerjf fyejrf fyejfr fefjry fefjyr fefrjy
fefryj fefyrj fefyjr fejfry fejfyr fejrfy fejryf fejyrf fejyfr ferjfy ferjyf
ferfjy ferfyj feryfj feryjf feyjrf feyjfr feyrjf feyrfj feyfrj feyfjr ffejry
ffejyr fferjy fferyj ffeyrj ffeyjr ffjery ffjeyr ffjrey ffjrye ffjyre ffjyer
ffrjey ffrjye ffrejy ffreyj ffryej ffryje ffyjre ffyjer ffyrje ffyrej ffyerj
ffyejr fjfery fjfeyr fjfrey fjfrye fjfyre fjfyer fjefry fjefyr fjerfy fjeryf
fjeyrf fjeyfr fjrefy fjreyf fjrfey fjrfye fjryfe fjryef fjyerf fjyefr fjyref
fjyrfe fjyfre fjyfer frfjey frfjye frfejy frfeyj frfyej frfyje frjfey frjfye
frjefy frjeyf frjyef frjyfe frejfy frejyf frefjy frefyj freyfj freyjf fryjef
fryjfe fryejf fryefj fryfej fryfje fyfjre fyfjer fyfrje fyfrej fyferj fyfejr
fyjfre fyjfer fyjrfe fyjref fyjerf fyjefr fyrjfe fyrjef fyrfje fyrfej fyrefj
fyrejf fyejrf fyejfr fyerjf fyerfj fyefrj fyefjr reffjy reffyj refjfy refjyf
refyjf refyfj reffjy reffyj refjfy refjyf refyjf refyfj rejffy rejfyf rejffy
rejfyf rejyff rejyff reyfjf reyffj reyjff reyjff reyfjf reyffj rfefjy rfefyj
rfejfy rfejyf rfeyjf rfeyfj rffejy rffeyj rffjey rffjye rffyje rffyej rfjfey
rfjfye rfjefy rfjeyf rfjyef rfjyfe rfyfje rfyfej rfyjfe rfyjef rfyejf rfyefj
rffejy rffeyj rffjey rffjye rffyje rffyej rfefjy rfefyj rfejfy rfejyf rfeyjf
rfeyfj rfjefy rfjeyf rfjfey rfjfye rfjyfe rfjyef rfyejf rfyefj rfyjef rfyjfe
rfyfje rfyfej rjffey rjffye rjfefy rjfeyf rjfyef rjfyfe rjffey rjffye rjfefy
rjfeyf rjfyef rjfyfe rjeffy rjefyf rjeffy rjefyf rjeyff rjeyff rjyfef rjyffe
rjyeff rjyeff rjyfef rjyffe ryffje ryffej ryfjfe ryfjef ryfejf ryfefj ryffje
ryffej ryfjfe ryfjef ryfejf ryfefj ryjffe ryjfef ryjffe ryjfef ryjeff ryjeff
ryefjf ryeffj ryejff ryejff ryefjf ryeffj yeffrj yeffjr yefrfj yefrjf yefjrf
yefjfr yeffrj yeffjr yefrfj yefrjf yefjrf yefjfr yerffj yerfjf yerffj yerfjf
yerjff yerjff yejfrf yejffr yejrff yejrff yejfrf yejffr yfefrj yfefjr yferfj
yferjf yfejrf yfejfr yfferj yffejr yffrej yffrje yffjre yffjer yfrfej yfrfje
yfrefj yfrejf yfrjef yfrjfe yfjfre yfjfer yfjrfe yfjref yfjerf yfjefr yfferj
yffejr yffrej yffrje yffjre yffjer yfefrj yfefjr yferfj yferjf yfejrf yfejfr
yfrefj yfrejf yfrfej yfrfje yfrjfe yfrjef yfjerf yfjefr yfjref yfjrfe yfjfre
yfjfer yrffej yrffje yrfefj yrfejf yrfjef yrfjfe yrffej yrffje yrfefj yrfejf
yrfjef yrfjfe yreffj yrefjf yreffj yrefjf yrejff yrejff yrjfef yrjffe yrjeff
yrjeff yrjfef yrjffe yjffre yjffer yjfrfe yjfref yjferf yjfefr yjffre yjffer
yjfrfe yjfref yjferf yjfefr yjrffe yjrfef yjrffe yjrfef yjreff yjreff yjefrf
yjeffr yjerff yjerff yjefrf yjeffr

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History of cryptography
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