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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: javors
cipher variations:
kbwpst lcxqtu mdyruv nezsvw ofatwx
pgbuxy qhcvyz ridwza sjexab tkfybc
ulgzcd vmhade wnibef xojcfg ypkdgh
zqlehi armfij bsngjk ctohkl dupilm
evqjmn fwrkno gxslop hytmpq izunqr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: javors
Cipher: qzelih

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: javors

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: javors
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: javors
Cipher: wnibef

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: javors
Cipher: 421115432434

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: javors
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j a v o r s 
4 1 1 4 2 3 
2 1 5 3 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: javors
Cipher: dqmbpt

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Method #3

Plaintext: javors
method variations:
bauhot auhotb uhotba
hotbau otbauh tbauho

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: javors

all 720 cipher variations:
javors javosr javros javrso javsro javsor jaovrs jaovsr jaorvs jaorsv jaosrv
jaosvr jarovs jarosv jarvos jarvso jarsvo jarsov jasorv jasovr jasrov jasrvo
jasvro jasvor jvaors jvaosr jvaros jvarso jvasro jvasor jvoars jvoasr jvoras
jvorsa jvosra jvosar jvroas jvrosa jvraos jvraso jvrsao jvrsoa jvsora jvsoar
jvsroa jvsrao jvsaro jvsaor jovars jovasr jovras jovrsa jovsra jovsar joavrs
joavsr joarvs joarsv joasrv joasvr joravs jorasv jorvas jorvsa jorsva jorsav
josarv josavr josrav josrva josvra josvar jrvoas jrvosa jrvaos jrvaso jrvsao
jrvsoa jrovas jrovsa jroavs jroasv jrosav jrosva jraovs jraosv jravos jravso
jrasvo jrasov jrsoav jrsova jrsaov jrsavo jrsvao jrsvoa jsvora jsvoar jsvroa
jsvrao jsvaro jsvaor jsovra jsovar jsorva jsorav jsoarv jsoavr jsrova jsroav
jsrvoa jsrvao jsravo jsraov jsaorv jsaovr jsarov jsarvo jsavro jsavor ajvors
ajvosr ajvros ajvrso ajvsro ajvsor ajovrs ajovsr ajorvs ajorsv ajosrv ajosvr
ajrovs ajrosv ajrvos ajrvso ajrsvo ajrsov ajsorv ajsovr ajsrov ajsrvo ajsvro
ajsvor avjors avjosr avjros avjrso avjsro avjsor avojrs avojsr avorjs avorsj
avosrj avosjr avrojs avrosj avrjos avrjso avrsjo avrsoj avsorj avsojr avsroj
avsrjo avsjro avsjor aovjrs aovjsr aovrjs aovrsj aovsrj aovsjr aojvrs aojvsr
aojrvs aojrsv aojsrv aojsvr aorjvs aorjsv aorvjs aorvsj aorsvj aorsjv aosjrv
aosjvr aosrjv aosrvj aosvrj aosvjr arvojs arvosj arvjos arvjso arvsjo arvsoj
arovjs arovsj arojvs arojsv arosjv arosvj arjovs arjosv arjvos arjvso arjsvo
arjsov arsojv arsovj arsjov arsjvo arsvjo arsvoj asvorj asvojr asvroj asvrjo
asvjro asvjor asovrj asovjr asorvj asorjv asojrv asojvr asrovj asrojv asrvoj
asrvjo asrjvo asrjov asjorv asjovr asjrov asjrvo asjvro asjvor vajors vajosr
vajros vajrso vajsro vajsor vaojrs vaojsr vaorjs vaorsj vaosrj vaosjr varojs
varosj varjos varjso varsjo varsoj vasorj vasojr vasroj vasrjo vasjro vasjor
vjaors vjaosr vjaros vjarso vjasro vjasor vjoars vjoasr vjoras vjorsa vjosra
vjosar vjroas vjrosa vjraos vjraso vjrsao vjrsoa vjsora vjsoar vjsroa vjsrao
vjsaro vjsaor vojars vojasr vojras vojrsa vojsra vojsar voajrs voajsr voarjs
voarsj voasrj voasjr vorajs vorasj vorjas vorjsa vorsja vorsaj vosarj vosajr
vosraj vosrja vosjra vosjar vrjoas vrjosa vrjaos vrjaso vrjsao vrjsoa vrojas
vrojsa vroajs vroasj vrosaj vrosja vraojs vraosj vrajos vrajso vrasjo vrasoj
vrsoaj vrsoja vrsaoj vrsajo vrsjao vrsjoa vsjora vsjoar vsjroa vsjrao vsjaro
vsjaor vsojra vsojar vsorja vsoraj vsoarj vsoajr vsroja vsroaj vsrjoa vsrjao
vsrajo vsraoj vsaorj vsaojr vsaroj vsarjo vsajro vsajor oavjrs oavjsr oavrjs
oavrsj oavsrj oavsjr oajvrs oajvsr oajrvs oajrsv oajsrv oajsvr oarjvs oarjsv
oarvjs oarvsj oarsvj oarsjv oasjrv oasjvr oasrjv oasrvj oasvrj oasvjr ovajrs
ovajsr ovarjs ovarsj ovasrj ovasjr ovjars ovjasr ovjras ovjrsa ovjsra ovjsar
ovrjas ovrjsa ovrajs ovrasj ovrsaj ovrsja ovsjra ovsjar ovsrja ovsraj ovsarj
ovsajr ojvars ojvasr ojvras ojvrsa ojvsra ojvsar ojavrs ojavsr ojarvs ojarsv
ojasrv ojasvr ojravs ojrasv ojrvas ojrvsa ojrsva ojrsav ojsarv ojsavr ojsrav
ojsrva ojsvra ojsvar orvjas orvjsa orvajs orvasj orvsaj orvsja orjvas orjvsa
orjavs orjasv orjsav orjsva orajvs orajsv oravjs oravsj orasvj orasjv orsjav
orsjva orsajv orsavj orsvaj orsvja osvjra osvjar osvrja osvraj osvarj osvajr
osjvra osjvar osjrva osjrav osjarv osjavr osrjva osrjav osrvja osrvaj osravj
osrajv osajrv osajvr osarjv osarvj osavrj osavjr ravojs ravosj ravjos ravjso
ravsjo ravsoj raovjs raovsj raojvs raojsv raosjv raosvj rajovs rajosv rajvos
rajvso rajsvo rajsov rasojv rasovj rasjov rasjvo rasvjo rasvoj rvaojs rvaosj
rvajos rvajso rvasjo rvasoj rvoajs rvoasj rvojas rvojsa rvosja rvosaj rvjoas
rvjosa rvjaos rvjaso rvjsao rvjsoa rvsoja rvsoaj rvsjoa rvsjao rvsajo rvsaoj
rovajs rovasj rovjas rovjsa rovsja rovsaj roavjs roavsj roajvs roajsv roasjv
roasvj rojavs rojasv rojvas rojvsa rojsva rojsav rosajv rosavj rosjav rosjva
rosvja rosvaj rjvoas rjvosa rjvaos rjvaso rjvsao rjvsoa rjovas rjovsa rjoavs
rjoasv rjosav rjosva rjaovs rjaosv rjavos rjavso rjasvo rjasov rjsoav rjsova
rjsaov rjsavo rjsvao rjsvoa rsvoja rsvoaj rsvjoa rsvjao rsvajo rsvaoj rsovja
rsovaj rsojva rsojav rsoajv rsoavj rsjova rsjoav rsjvoa rsjvao rsjavo rsjaov
rsaojv rsaovj rsajov rsajvo rsavjo rsavoj savorj savojr savroj savrjo savjro
savjor saovrj saovjr saorvj saorjv saojrv saojvr sarovj sarojv sarvoj sarvjo
sarjvo sarjov sajorv sajovr sajrov sajrvo sajvro sajvor svaorj svaojr svaroj
svarjo svajro svajor svoarj svoajr svoraj svorja svojra svojar svroaj svroja
svraoj svrajo svrjao svrjoa svjora svjoar svjroa svjrao svjaro svjaor sovarj
sovajr sovraj sovrja sovjra sovjar soavrj soavjr soarvj soarjv soajrv soajvr
soravj sorajv sorvaj sorvja sorjva sorjav sojarv sojavr sojrav sojrva sojvra
sojvar srvoaj srvoja srvaoj srvajo srvjao srvjoa srovaj srovja sroavj sroajv
srojav srojva sraovj sraojv sravoj sravjo srajvo srajov srjoav srjova srjaov
srjavo srjvao srjvoa sjvora sjvoar sjvroa sjvrao sjvaro sjvaor sjovra sjovar
sjorva sjorav sjoarv sjoavr sjrova sjroav sjrvoa sjrvao sjravo sjraov sjaorv
sjaovr sjarov sjarvo sjavro sjavor

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History of cryptography
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