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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: jaroff
cipher variations:
kbspgg lctqhh mdurii nevsjj ofwtkk
pgxull qhyvmm rizwnn sjaxoo tkbypp
ulczqq vmdarr wnebss xofctt ypgduu
zqhevv arifww bsjgxx ctkhyy dulizz
evmjaa fwnkbb gxolcc hypmdd izqnee

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: jaroff
Cipher: qziluu

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: jaroff

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: jaroff
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: jaroff
Cipher: wnebss

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: jaroff
Cipher: 421124431212

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: jaroff
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j a r o f f 
4 1 2 4 1 1 
2 1 4 3 2 2 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: jaroff
Cipher: drabog

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Method #3

Plaintext: jaroff
method variations:
bftcbr ftcbrb tcbrbf
cbrbft brbftc rbftcb

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: jaroff

all 720 cipher variations:
jaroff jaroff jarfof jarffo jarffo jarfof jaorff jaorff jaofrf jaoffr jaoffr
jaofrf jaforf jafofr jafrof jafrfo jaffro jaffor jafofr jaforf jaffor jaffro
jafrfo jafrof jraoff jraoff jrafof jraffo jraffo jrafof jroaff jroaff jrofaf
jroffa jroffa jrofaf jrfoaf jrfofa jrfaof jrfafo jrffao jrffoa jrfofa jrfoaf
jrffoa jrffao jrfafo jrfaof joraff joraff jorfaf jorffa jorffa jorfaf joarff
joarff joafrf joaffr joaffr joafrf jofarf jofafr jofraf jofrfa joffra joffar
jofafr jofarf joffar joffra jofrfa jofraf jfroaf jfrofa jfraof jfrafo jfrfao
jfrfoa jforaf jforfa jfoarf jfoafr jfofar jfofra jfaorf jfaofr jfarof jfarfo
jfafro jfafor jffoar jffora jffaor jffaro jffrao jffroa jfrofa jfroaf jfrfoa
jfrfao jfrafo jfraof jforfa jforaf jfofra jfofar jfoafr jfoarf jffora jffoar
jffroa jffrao jffaro jffaor jfaofr jfaorf jfafor jfafro jfarfo jfarof ajroff
ajroff ajrfof ajrffo ajrffo ajrfof ajorff ajorff ajofrf ajoffr ajoffr ajofrf
ajforf ajfofr ajfrof ajfrfo ajffro ajffor ajfofr ajforf ajffor ajffro ajfrfo
ajfrof arjoff arjoff arjfof arjffo arjffo arjfof arojff arojff arofjf aroffj
aroffj arofjf arfojf arfofj arfjof arfjfo arffjo arffoj arfofj arfojf arffoj
arffjo arfjfo arfjof aorjff aorjff aorfjf aorffj aorffj aorfjf aojrff aojrff
aojfrf aojffr aojffr aojfrf aofjrf aofjfr aofrjf aofrfj aoffrj aoffjr aofjfr
aofjrf aoffjr aoffrj aofrfj aofrjf afrojf afrofj afrjof afrjfo afrfjo afrfoj
aforjf aforfj afojrf afojfr afofjr afofrj afjorf afjofr afjrof afjrfo afjfro
afjfor affojr afforj affjor affjro affrjo affroj afrofj afrojf afrfoj afrfjo
afrjfo afrjof aforfj aforjf afofrj afofjr afojfr afojrf afforj affojr affroj
affrjo affjro affjor afjofr afjorf afjfor afjfro afjrfo afjrof rajoff rajoff
rajfof rajffo rajffo rajfof raojff raojff raofjf raoffj raoffj raofjf rafojf
rafofj rafjof rafjfo raffjo raffoj rafofj rafojf raffoj raffjo rafjfo rafjof
rjaoff rjaoff rjafof rjaffo rjaffo rjafof rjoaff rjoaff rjofaf rjoffa rjoffa
rjofaf rjfoaf rjfofa rjfaof rjfafo rjffao rjffoa rjfofa rjfoaf rjffoa rjffao
rjfafo rjfaof rojaff rojaff rojfaf rojffa rojffa rojfaf roajff roajff roafjf
roaffj roaffj roafjf rofajf rofafj rofjaf rofjfa roffja roffaj rofafj rofajf
roffaj roffja rofjfa rofjaf rfjoaf rfjofa rfjaof rfjafo rfjfao rfjfoa rfojaf
rfojfa rfoajf rfoafj rfofaj rfofja rfaojf rfaofj rfajof rfajfo rfafjo rfafoj
rffoaj rffoja rffaoj rffajo rffjao rffjoa rfjofa rfjoaf rfjfoa rfjfao rfjafo
rfjaof rfojfa rfojaf rfofja rfofaj rfoafj rfoajf rffoja rffoaj rffjoa rffjao
rffajo rffaoj rfaofj rfaojf rfafoj rfafjo rfajfo rfajof oarjff oarjff oarfjf
oarffj oarffj oarfjf oajrff oajrff oajfrf oajffr oajffr oajfrf oafjrf oafjfr
oafrjf oafrfj oaffrj oaffjr oafjfr oafjrf oaffjr oaffrj oafrfj oafrjf orajff
orajff orafjf oraffj oraffj orafjf orjaff orjaff orjfaf orjffa orjffa orjfaf
orfjaf orfjfa orfajf orfafj orffaj orffja orfjfa orfjaf orffja orffaj orfafj
orfajf ojraff ojraff ojrfaf ojrffa ojrffa ojrfaf ojarff ojarff ojafrf ojaffr
ojaffr ojafrf ojfarf ojfafr ojfraf ojfrfa ojffra ojffar ojfafr ojfarf ojffar
ojffra ojfrfa ojfraf ofrjaf ofrjfa ofrajf ofrafj ofrfaj ofrfja ofjraf ofjrfa
ofjarf ofjafr ofjfar ofjfra ofajrf ofajfr ofarjf ofarfj ofafrj ofafjr offjar
offjra offajr offarj offraj offrja ofrjfa ofrjaf ofrfja ofrfaj ofrafj ofrajf
ofjrfa ofjraf ofjfra ofjfar ofjafr ofjarf offjra offjar offrja offraj offarj
offajr ofajfr ofajrf ofafjr ofafrj ofarfj ofarjf farojf farofj farjof farjfo
farfjo farfoj faorjf faorfj faojrf faojfr faofjr faofrj fajorf fajofr fajrof
fajrfo fajfro fajfor fafojr faforj fafjor fafjro fafrjo fafroj fraojf fraofj
frajof frajfo frafjo frafoj froajf froafj frojaf frojfa frofja frofaj frjoaf
frjofa frjaof frjafo frjfao frjfoa frfoja frfoaj frfjoa frfjao frfajo frfaoj
forajf forafj forjaf forjfa forfja forfaj foarjf foarfj foajrf foajfr foafjr
foafrj fojarf fojafr fojraf fojrfa fojfra fojfar fofajr fofarj fofjar fofjra
fofrja fofraj fjroaf fjrofa fjraof fjrafo fjrfao fjrfoa fjoraf fjorfa fjoarf
fjoafr fjofar fjofra fjaorf fjaofr fjarof fjarfo fjafro fjafor fjfoar fjfora
fjfaor fjfaro fjfrao fjfroa ffroja ffroaj ffrjoa ffrjao ffrajo ffraoj fforja
fforaj ffojra ffojar ffoajr ffoarj ffjora ffjoar ffjroa ffjrao ffjaro ffjaor
ffaojr ffaorj ffajor ffajro ffarjo ffaroj farofj farojf farfoj farfjo farjfo
farjof faorfj faorjf faofrj faofjr faojfr faojrf faforj fafojr fafroj fafrjo
fafjro fafjor fajofr fajorf fajfor fajfro fajrfo fajrof fraofj fraojf frafoj
frafjo frajfo frajof froafj froajf frofaj frofja frojfa frojaf frfoaj frfoja
frfaoj frfajo frfjao frfjoa frjofa frjoaf frjfoa frjfao frjafo frjaof forafj
forajf forfaj forfja forjfa forjaf foarfj foarjf foafrj foafjr foajfr foajrf
fofarj fofajr fofraj fofrja fofjra fofjar fojafr fojarf fojfar fojfra fojrfa
fojraf ffroaj ffroja ffraoj ffrajo ffrjao ffrjoa fforaj fforja ffoarj ffoajr
ffojar ffojra ffaorj ffaojr ffaroj ffarjo ffajro ffajor ffjoar ffjora ffjaor
ffjaro ffjrao ffjroa fjrofa fjroaf fjrfoa fjrfao fjrafo fjraof fjorfa fjoraf
fjofra fjofar fjoafr fjoarf fjfora fjfoar fjfroa fjfrao fjfaro fjfaor fjaofr
fjaorf fjafor fjafro fjarfo fjarof

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History of cryptography
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