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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: jamuga
cipher variations:
kbnvhb lcowic mdpxjd neqyke ofrzlf
pgsamg qhtbnh riucoi sjvdpj tkweqk
ulxfrl vmygsm wnzhtn xoaiuo ypbjvp
zqckwq ardlxr bsemys ctfnzt dugoau
evhpbv fwiqcw gxjrdx hyksey izltfz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: jamuga
Cipher: qznftz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: jamuga
Cipher: BBBAA AAAAA ABABB BAABB AABBA AAAAA

Read more ...

 

Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: jamuga
cipher variations:
kbnvhbcbljtbubjxfbmbhlrbebfzdbwbdnpbgbzpnbybxdzb
qbvrlbibtfxbabrtjbsbphvblcowicdcmkucvckygcncimsc
fcgaecxceoqchcaqoczcyeacrcwsmcjcugycbcsukctcqiwc
mdpxjdednlvdwdlzhdodjntdgdhbfdydfprdidbrpdadzfbd
sdxtndkdvhzdcdtvldudrjxdneqykefeomwexemaiepekoue
heicgezegqsejecsqebeagceteyuoelewiaedeuwmeveskye
ofrzlfgfpnxfyfnbjfqflpvfifjdhfafhrtfkfdtrfcfbhdf
ufzvpfmfxjbfefvxnfwftlzfpgsamghgqoygzgockgrgmqwg
jgkeigbgisuglgeusgdgciegvgawqgngykcgfgwyogxgumag
qhtbnhihrpzhahpdlhshnrxhkhlfjhchjtvhmhfvthehdjfh
whbxrhohzldhghxzphyhvnbhriucoijisqaibiqemitiosyi
limgkidikuwinigwuifiekgixicysipiameihiyaqiziwoci
sjvdpjkjtrbjcjrfnjujptzjmjnhljejlvxjojhxvjgjflhj
yjdztjqjbnfjijzbrjajxpdjtkweqklkusckdksgokvkquak
nkoimkfkmwykpkiywkhkgmikzkeaukrkcogkjkacskbkyqek
ulxfrlmlvtdlelthplwlrvblolpjnlglnxzlqljzxlilhnjl
alfbvlsldphlklbdtlclzrflvmygsmnmwuemfmuiqmxmswcm
pmqkomhmoyamrmkaymjmiokmbmgcwmtmeqimlmceumdmasgm
wnzhtnonxvfngnvjrnyntxdnqnrlpninpzbnsnlbznknjpln
cnhdxnunfrjnmndfvnenbthnxoaiuopoywgohowksozouyeo
rosmqojoqacotomcaolokqmodoieyovogskonoegwofocuio
ypbjvpqpzxhpipxltpapvzfpsptnrpkprbdpupndbpmplrnp
epjfzpwphtlpopfhxpgpdvjpzqckwqrqayiqjqymuqbqwagq
tquosqlqsceqvqoecqnqmsoqfqkgaqxqiumqpqgiyqhqewkq
ardlxrsrbzjrkrznvrcrxbhrurvptrmrtdfrwrpfdrorntpr
grlhbryrjvnrqrhjzrirfxlrbsemystscakslsaowsdsycis
vswqusnsuegsxsqgespsouqshsmicszskwosrsikasjsgyms
ctfnztutdbltmtbpxtetzdjtwtxrvtotvfhtytrhftqtpvrt
itnjdtatlxptstjlbtkthzntdugoauvuecmunucqyufuaeku
xuyswupuwgiuzusiguruqwsujuokeubumyqutukmculuiaou
evhpbvwvfdnvovdrzvgvbflvyvztxvqvxhjvavtjhvsvrxtv
kvplfvcvnzrvuvlndvmvjbpvfwiqcwxwgeowpwesawhwcgmw
zwauywrwyikwbwukiwtwsyuwlwqmgwdwoaswvwmoewnwkcqw
gxjrdxyxhfpxqxftbxixdhnxaxbvzxsxzjlxcxvljxuxtzvx
mxrnhxexpbtxwxnpfxoxldrxhykseyzyigqyrygucyjyeioy
bycwaytyakmydywmkyvyuawynysoiyfyqcuyxyoqgypymesy
izltfzazjhrzszhvdzkzfjpzczdxbzuzblnzezxnlzwzvbxz
oztpjzgzrdvzyzprhzqznftzjamugabakisataiwealagkqa
daeycavacmoafayomaxawcyapauqkahasewazaqsiaraogua

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: jamuga
Cipher: wnzhtn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: jamuga
Cipher: 421123542211

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: jamuga
method variations:
ofrzmftlwerlyqbkwqdvgpbv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j a m u g a 
4 1 2 5 2 1 
2 1 3 4 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
412521213421
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: jamuga
Cipher: dwbbsb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: jamuga
method variations:
bfxibq fxibqb xibqbf
ibqbfx bqbfxi qbfxib

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: jamuga

all 720 cipher variations:
jamuga jamuag jamgua jamgau jamagu jamaug jaumga jaumag jaugma jaugam jauagm
jauamg jaguma jaguam jagmua jagmau jagamu jagaum jaaugm jaaumg jaagum jaagmu
jaamgu jaamug jmauga jmauag jmagua jmagau jmaagu jmaaug jmuaga jmuaag jmugaa
jmugaa jmuaga jmuaag jmguaa jmguaa jmgaua jmgaau jmgaau jmgaua jmauga jmauag
jmagua jmagau jmaagu jmaaug jumaga jumaag jumgaa jumgaa jumaga jumaag juamga
juamag juagma juagam juaagm juaamg jugama jugaam jugmaa jugmaa jugama jugaam
juaagm juaamg juagam juagma juamga juamag jgmuaa jgmuaa jgmaua jgmaau jgmaau
jgmaua jgumaa jgumaa jguama jguaam jguaam jguama jgauma jgauam jgamua jgamau
jgaamu jgaaum jgauam jgauma jgaaum jgaamu jgamau jgamua jamuga jamuag jamgua
jamgau jamagu jamaug jaumga jaumag jaugma jaugam jauagm jauamg jaguma jaguam
jagmua jagmau jagamu jagaum jaaugm jaaumg jaagum jaagmu jaamgu jaamug ajmuga
ajmuag ajmgua ajmgau ajmagu ajmaug ajumga ajumag ajugma ajugam ajuagm ajuamg
ajguma ajguam ajgmua ajgmau ajgamu ajgaum ajaugm ajaumg ajagum ajagmu ajamgu
ajamug amjuga amjuag amjgua amjgau amjagu amjaug amujga amujag amugja amugaj
amuagj amuajg amguja amguaj amgjua amgjau amgaju amgauj amaugj amaujg amaguj
amagju amajgu amajug aumjga aumjag aumgja aumgaj aumagj aumajg aujmga aujmag
aujgma aujgam aujagm aujamg augjma augjam augmja augmaj augamj augajm auajgm
auajmg auagjm auagmj auamgj auamjg agmuja agmuaj agmjua agmjau agmaju agmauj
agumja agumaj agujma agujam aguajm aguamj agjuma agjuam agjmua agjmau agjamu
agjaum agaujm agaumj agajum agajmu agamju agamuj aamugj aamujg aamguj aamgju
aamjgu aamjug aaumgj aaumjg aaugmj aaugjm aaujgm aaujmg aagumj aagujm aagmuj
aagmju aagjmu aagjum aajugm aajumg aajgum aajgmu aajmgu aajmug majuga majuag
majgua majgau majagu majaug maujga maujag maugja maugaj mauagj mauajg maguja
maguaj magjua magjau magaju magauj maaugj maaujg maaguj maagju maajgu maajug
mjauga mjauag mjagua mjagau mjaagu mjaaug mjuaga mjuaag mjugaa mjugaa mjuaga
mjuaag mjguaa mjguaa mjgaua mjgaau mjgaau mjgaua mjauga mjauag mjagua mjagau
mjaagu mjaaug mujaga mujaag mujgaa mujgaa mujaga mujaag muajga muajag muagja
muagaj muaagj muaajg mugaja mugaaj mugjaa mugjaa mugaja mugaaj muaagj muaajg
muagaj muagja muajga muajag mgjuaa mgjuaa mgjaua mgjaau mgjaau mgjaua mgujaa
mgujaa mguaja mguaaj mguaaj mguaja mgauja mgauaj mgajua mgajau mgaaju mgaauj
mgauaj mgauja mgaauj mgaaju mgajau mgajua majuga majuag majgua majgau majagu
majaug maujga maujag maugja maugaj mauagj mauajg maguja maguaj magjua magjau
magaju magauj maaugj maaujg maaguj maagju maajgu maajug uamjga uamjag uamgja
uamgaj uamagj uamajg uajmga uajmag uajgma uajgam uajagm uajamg uagjma uagjam
uagmja uagmaj uagamj uagajm uaajgm uaajmg uaagjm uaagmj uaamgj uaamjg umajga
umajag umagja umagaj umaagj umaajg umjaga umjaag umjgaa umjgaa umjaga umjaag
umgjaa umgjaa umgaja umgaaj umgaaj umgaja umajga umajag umagja umagaj umaagj
umaajg ujmaga ujmaag ujmgaa ujmgaa ujmaga ujmaag ujamga ujamag ujagma ujagam
ujaagm ujaamg ujgama ujgaam ujgmaa ujgmaa ujgama ujgaam ujaagm ujaamg ujagam
ujagma ujamga ujamag ugmjaa ugmjaa ugmaja ugmaaj ugmaaj ugmaja ugjmaa ugjmaa
ugjama ugjaam ugjaam ugjama ugajma ugajam ugamja ugamaj ugaamj ugaajm ugajam
ugajma ugaajm ugaamj ugamaj ugamja uamjga uamjag uamgja uamgaj uamagj uamajg
uajmga uajmag uajgma uajgam uajagm uajamg uagjma uagjam uagmja uagmaj uagamj
uagajm uaajgm uaajmg uaagjm uaagmj uaamgj uaamjg gamuja gamuaj gamjua gamjau
gamaju gamauj gaumja gaumaj gaujma gaujam gauajm gauamj gajuma gajuam gajmua
gajmau gajamu gajaum gaaujm gaaumj gaajum gaajmu gaamju gaamuj gmauja gmauaj
gmajua gmajau gmaaju gmaauj gmuaja gmuaaj gmujaa gmujaa gmuaja gmuaaj gmjuaa
gmjuaa gmjaua gmjaau gmjaau gmjaua gmauja gmauaj gmajua gmajau gmaaju gmaauj
gumaja gumaaj gumjaa gumjaa gumaja gumaaj guamja guamaj guajma guajam guaajm
guaamj gujama gujaam gujmaa gujmaa gujama gujaam guaajm guaamj guajam guajma
guamja guamaj gjmuaa gjmuaa gjmaua gjmaau gjmaau gjmaua gjumaa gjumaa gjuama
gjuaam gjuaam gjuama gjauma gjauam gjamua gjamau gjaamu gjaaum gjauam gjauma
gjaaum gjaamu gjamau gjamua gamuja gamuaj gamjua gamjau gamaju gamauj gaumja
gaumaj gaujma gaujam gauajm gauamj gajuma gajuam gajmua gajmau gajamu gajaum
gaaujm gaaumj gaajum gaajmu gaamju gaamuj aamugj aamujg aamguj aamgju aamjgu
aamjug aaumgj aaumjg aaugmj aaugjm aaujgm aaujmg aagumj aagujm aagmuj aagmju
aagjmu aagjum aajugm aajumg aajgum aajgmu aajmgu aajmug amaugj amaujg amaguj
amagju amajgu amajug amuagj amuajg amugaj amugja amujga amujag amguaj amguja
amgauj amgaju amgjau amgjua amjuga amjuag amjgua amjgau amjagu amjaug aumagj
aumajg aumgaj aumgja aumjga aumjag auamgj auamjg auagmj auagjm auajgm auajmg
augamj augajm augmaj augmja augjma augjam aujagm aujamg aujgam aujgma aujmga
aujmag agmuaj agmuja agmauj agmaju agmjau agmjua agumaj agumja aguamj aguajm
agujam agujma agaumj agaujm agamuj agamju agajmu agajum agjuam agjuma agjaum
agjamu agjmau agjmua ajmuga ajmuag ajmgua ajmgau ajmagu ajmaug ajumga ajumag
ajugma ajugam ajuagm ajuamg ajguma ajguam ajgmua ajgmau ajgamu ajgaum ajaugm
ajaumg ajagum ajagmu ajamgu ajamug

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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