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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: jairus
cipher variations:
kbjsvt lcktwu mdluxv nemvyw ofnwzx
pgoxay qhpybz riqzca sjradb tksbec
ultcfd vmudge wnvehf xowfig ypxgjh
zqyhki arzilj bsajmk ctbknl duclom
evdmpn fwenqo gxforp hygpsq izhqtr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: jairus
Cipher: qzrifh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: jairus

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: jairus
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: jairus
Cipher: wnvehf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: jairus
Cipher: 421142245434

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: jairus
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
j a i r u s 
4 1 4 2 5 3 
2 1 2 4 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: jairus
Cipher: dipbrt

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Method #3

Plaintext: jairus
method variations:
bqgyot qgyotb gyotbq
yotbqg otbqgy tbqgyo

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: jairus

all 720 cipher variations:
jairus jairsu jaiurs jaiusr jaisur jaisru jarius jarisu jaruis jarusi jarsui
jarsiu jauris jaursi jauirs jauisr jausir jausri jasrui jasriu jasuri jasuir
jasiur jasiru jiarus jiarsu jiaurs jiausr jiasur jiasru jiraus jirasu jiruas
jirusa jirsua jirsau jiuras jiursa jiuars jiuasr jiusar jiusra jisrua jisrau
jisura jisuar jisaur jisaru jriaus jriasu jriuas jriusa jrisua jrisau jraius
jraisu jrauis jrausi jrasui jrasiu jruais jruasi jruias jruisa jrusia jrusai
jrsaui jrsaiu jrsuai jrsuia jrsiua jrsiau juiras juirsa juiars juiasr juisar
juisra jurias jurisa jurais jurasi jursai jursia juaris juarsi juairs juaisr
juasir juasri jusrai jusria jusari jusair jusiar jusira jsirua jsirau jsiura
jsiuar jsiaur jsiaru jsriua jsriau jsruia jsruai jsraui jsraiu jsuria jsurai
jsuira jsuiar jsuair jsuari jsarui jsariu jsauri jsauir jsaiur jsairu ajirus
ajirsu ajiurs ajiusr ajisur ajisru ajrius ajrisu ajruis ajrusi ajrsui ajrsiu
ajuris ajursi ajuirs ajuisr ajusir ajusri ajsrui ajsriu ajsuri ajsuir ajsiur
ajsiru aijrus aijrsu aijurs aijusr aijsur aijsru airjus airjsu airujs airusj
airsuj airsju aiurjs aiursj aiujrs aiujsr aiusjr aiusrj aisruj aisrju aisurj
aisujr aisjur aisjru arijus arijsu ariujs ariusj arisuj arisju arjius arjisu
arjuis arjusi arjsui arjsiu arujis arujsi aruijs aruisj arusij arusji arsjui
arsjiu arsuji arsuij arsiuj arsiju auirjs auirsj auijrs auijsr auisjr auisrj
aurijs aurisj aurjis aurjsi aursji aursij aujris aujrsi aujirs aujisr aujsir
aujsri ausrji ausrij ausjri ausjir ausijr ausirj asiruj asirju asiurj asiujr
asijur asijru asriuj asriju asruij asruji asrjui asrjiu asurij asurji asuirj
asuijr asujir asujri asjrui asjriu asjuri asjuir asjiur asjiru iajrus iajrsu
iajurs iajusr iajsur iajsru iarjus iarjsu iarujs iarusj iarsuj iarsju iaurjs
iaursj iaujrs iaujsr iausjr iausrj iasruj iasrju iasurj iasujr iasjur iasjru
ijarus ijarsu ijaurs ijausr ijasur ijasru ijraus ijrasu ijruas ijrusa ijrsua
ijrsau ijuras ijursa ijuars ijuasr ijusar ijusra ijsrua ijsrau ijsura ijsuar
ijsaur ijsaru irjaus irjasu irjuas irjusa irjsua irjsau irajus irajsu iraujs
irausj irasuj irasju iruajs iruasj irujas irujsa irusja irusaj irsauj irsaju
irsuaj irsuja irsjua irsjau iujras iujrsa iujars iujasr iujsar iujsra iurjas
iurjsa iurajs iurasj iursaj iursja iuarjs iuarsj iuajrs iuajsr iuasjr iuasrj
iusraj iusrja iusarj iusajr iusjar iusjra isjrua isjrau isjura isjuar isjaur
isjaru isrjua isrjau isruja isruaj israuj israju isurja isuraj isujra isujar
isuajr isuarj isaruj isarju isaurj isaujr isajur isajru raijus raijsu raiujs
raiusj raisuj raisju rajius rajisu rajuis rajusi rajsui rajsiu raujis raujsi
rauijs rauisj rausij rausji rasjui rasjiu rasuji rasuij rasiuj rasiju riajus
riajsu riaujs riausj riasuj riasju rijaus rijasu rijuas rijusa rijsua rijsau
riujas riujsa riuajs riuasj riusaj riusja risjua risjau risuja risuaj risauj
risaju rjiaus rjiasu rjiuas rjiusa rjisua rjisau rjaius rjaisu rjauis rjausi
rjasui rjasiu rjuais rjuasi rjuias rjuisa rjusia rjusai rjsaui rjsaiu rjsuai
rjsuia rjsiua rjsiau ruijas ruijsa ruiajs ruiasj ruisaj ruisja rujias rujisa
rujais rujasi rujsai rujsia ruajis ruajsi ruaijs ruaisj ruasij ruasji rusjai
rusjia rusaji rusaij rusiaj rusija rsijua rsijau rsiuja rsiuaj rsiauj rsiaju
rsjiua rsjiau rsjuia rsjuai rsjaui rsjaiu rsujia rsujai rsuija rsuiaj rsuaij
rsuaji rsajui rsajiu rsauji rsauij rsaiuj rsaiju uairjs uairsj uaijrs uaijsr
uaisjr uaisrj uarijs uarisj uarjis uarjsi uarsji uarsij uajris uajrsi uajirs
uajisr uajsir uajsri uasrji uasrij uasjri uasjir uasijr uasirj uiarjs uiarsj
uiajrs uiajsr uiasjr uiasrj uirajs uirasj uirjas uirjsa uirsja uirsaj uijras
uijrsa uijars uijasr uijsar uijsra uisrja uisraj uisjra uisjar uisajr uisarj
uriajs uriasj urijas urijsa urisja urisaj uraijs uraisj urajis urajsi urasji
urasij urjais urjasi urjias urjisa urjsia urjsai ursaji ursaij ursjai ursjia
ursija ursiaj ujiras ujirsa ujiars ujiasr ujisar ujisra ujrias ujrisa ujrais
ujrasi ujrsai ujrsia ujaris ujarsi ujairs ujaisr ujasir ujasri ujsrai ujsria
ujsari ujsair ujsiar ujsira usirja usiraj usijra usijar usiajr usiarj usrija
usriaj usrjia usrjai usraji usraij usjria usjrai usjira usjiar usjair usjari
usarji usarij usajri usajir usaijr usairj sairuj sairju saiurj saiujr saijur
saijru sariuj sariju saruij saruji sarjui sarjiu saurij saurji sauirj sauijr
saujir saujri sajrui sajriu sajuri sajuir sajiur sajiru siaruj siarju siaurj
siaujr siajur siajru sirauj siraju siruaj siruja sirjua sirjau siuraj siurja
siuarj siuajr siujar siujra sijrua sijrau sijura sijuar sijaur sijaru sriauj
sriaju sriuaj sriuja srijua srijau sraiuj sraiju srauij srauji srajui srajiu
sruaij sruaji sruiaj sruija srujia srujai srjaui srjaiu srjuai srjuia srjiua
srjiau suiraj suirja suiarj suiajr suijar suijra suriaj surija suraij suraji
surjai surjia suarij suarji suairj suaijr suajir suajri sujrai sujria sujari
sujair sujiar sujira sjirua sjirau sjiura sjiuar sjiaur sjiaru sjriua sjriau
sjruia sjruai sjraui sjraiu sjuria sjurai sjuira sjuiar sjuair sjuari sjarui
sjariu sjauri sjauir sjaiur sjairu

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History of cryptography
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