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hysterix

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corium

dynamitism

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modique

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existimabo

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foreman

dakir

engining


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: isbill
cipher variations:
jtcjmm kudknn lveloo mwfmpp nxgnqq
oyhorr pzipss qajqtt rbkruu sclsvv
tdmtww uenuxx vfovyy wgpwzz xhqxaa
yirybb zjszcc aktadd blubee cmvcff
dnwdgg eoxehh fpyfii gqzgjj hrahkk

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: isbill
Cipher: rhyroo

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: isbill
Cipher: ABAAA BAAAB AAAAB ABAAA ABABA ABABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: isbill
cipher variations:
jtcjmmzdeziipngpeefxifaavhkvwwlrmlssrlqrkkhvshgg
xfuxccnpwnyydzyduutjatqqkudknnaefajjqohqffgyjgbb
wilwxxmsnmttsmrslliwtihhygvyddoqxozzeazevvukburr
lveloobfgbkkrpirgghzkhccxjmxyyntonuutnstmmjxujii
zhwzeeprypaafbafwwvlcvssmwfmppcghcllsqjshhialidd
yknyzzoupovvuotunnkyvkjjaixaffqszqbbgcbgxxwmdwtt
nxgnqqdhidmmtrktiijbmjeezlozaapvqpwwvpuvoolzwlkk
bjybggrtarcchdchyyxnexuuoyhorreijennuslujjkcnkff
ampabbqwrqxxwqvwppmaxmllckzchhsubsddiedizzyofyvv
pzipssfjkfoovtmvkkldolggbnqbccrxsryyxrwxqqnbynmm
dladiitvcteejfejaazpgzwwqajqttgklgppwunwllmepmhh
corcddsytszzysxyrroczonnembejjuwduffkgfkbbaqhaxx
rbkruuhlmhqqxvoxmmnfqniidpsdeetzutaaztyzsspdapoo
fncfkkvxevgglhglccbribyysclsvvimnirrywpynnogrojj
eqteffuavubbauzattqebqppgodgllwyfwhhmihmddcsjczz
tdmtwwjnojsszxqzoophspkkfrufggvbwvccbvabuurfcrqq
hpehmmxzgxiinjineedtkdaauenuxxkopkttayrappqitqll
gsvghhwcxwddcwbcvvsgdsrriqfinnyahyjjokjoffeulebb
vfovyylpqluubzsbqqrjurmmhtwhiixdyxeedxcdwwthetss
jrgjoozbizkkplkpggfvmfccwgpwzzmqrmvvcatcrrskvsnn
iuxijjyezyffeydexxuifuttkshkppacjallqmlqhhgwngdd
xhqxaanrsnwwdbudsstlwtoojvyjkkzfazggfzefyyvjgvuu
ltilqqbdkbmmrnmriihxoheeyirybbostoxxecvettumxupp
kwzkllagbahhgafgzzwkhwvvmujmrrcelcnnsonsjjiypiff
zjszccptupyyfdwfuuvnyvqqlxalmmbhcbiihbghaaxlixww
nvknssdfmdootpotkkjzqjggaktaddquvqzzgexgvvwozwrr
mybmnncidcjjichibbymjyxxowlottegneppuqpullkarkhh
blubeervwraahfyhwwxpaxssnzcnoodjedkkjdijccznkzyy
pxmpuufhofqqvrqvmmlbsliicmvcffswxsbbigzixxyqbytt
oadoppekfellkejkddaolazzqynqvvgipgrrwsrwnnmctmjj
dnwdggtxytccjhajyyzrczuupbepqqflgfmmlfkleebpmbaa
rzorwwhjqhssxtsxoondunkkeoxehhuyzuddkibkzzasdavv
qcfqrrgmhgnnmglmffcqncbbsapsxxikrittyutyppoevoll
fpyfiivzaveeljclaabtebwwrdgrsshnihoonhmnggdrodcc
tbqtyyjlsjuuzvuzqqpfwpmmgqzgjjwabwffmkdmbbcufcxx
sehsttiojippoinohhespedducruzzkmtkvvawvarrqgxqnn
hrahkkxbcxggnlenccdvgdyytfituujpkjqqpjopiiftqfee
vdsvaalnulwwbxwbssrhyrooisbillycdyhhomfoddewhezz
ugjuvvkqlkrrqkpqjjgurgffwetwbbmovmxxcyxcttsizspp

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: isbill
Cipher: vfovyy

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: isbill
Cipher: 423421421313

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: isbill
method variations:
oxgoqqtcmtvvyhryaadnwdff

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
i s b i l l 
4 3 2 4 1 1 
2 4 1 2 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
432411241233
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: isbill
Cipher: orarfn

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: isbill
method variations:
miqbcs iqbcsm qbcsmi
bcsmiq csmiqb smiqbc

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: isbill

all 720 cipher variations:
isbill isbill isblil isblli isblli isblil isibll isibll isilbl isillb isillb
isilbl islibl islilb islbil islbli isllbi isllib islilb islibl isllib isllbi
islbli islbil ibsill ibsill ibslil ibslli ibslli ibslil ibisll ibisll ibilsl
ibills ibills ibilsl iblisl iblils iblsil iblsli ibllsi ibllis iblils iblisl
ibllis ibllsi iblsli iblsil iibsll iibsll iiblsl iiblls iiblls iiblsl iisbll
iisbll iislbl iisllb iisllb iislbl iilsbl iilslb iilbsl iilbls iillbs iillsb
iilslb iilsbl iillsb iillbs iilbls iilbsl ilbisl ilbils ilbsil ilbsli ilblsi
ilblis ilibsl ilibls ilisbl ilislb ililsb ililbs ilsibl ilsilb ilsbil ilsbli
ilslbi ilslib illisb illibs illsib illsbi illbsi illbis ilbils ilbisl ilblis
ilblsi ilbsli ilbsil ilibls ilibsl ililbs ililsb ilislb ilisbl illibs illisb
illbis illbsi illsbi illsib ilsilb ilsibl ilslib ilslbi ilsbli ilsbil sibill
sibill siblil siblli siblli siblil siibll siibll siilbl siillb siillb siilbl
silibl sililb silbil silbli sillbi sillib sililb silibl sillib sillbi silbli
silbil sbiill sbiill sbilil sbilli sbilli sbilil sbiill sbiill sbilil sbilli
sbilli sbilil sbliil sblili sbliil sblili sbllii sbllii sblili sbliil sbllii
sbllii sblili sbliil sibill sibill siblil siblli siblli siblil siibll siibll
siilbl siillb siillb siilbl silibl sililb silbil silbli sillbi sillib sililb
silibl sillib sillbi silbli silbil slbiil slbili slbiil slbili slblii slblii
slibil slibli sliibl sliilb slilib slilbi sliibl sliilb slibil slibli slilbi
slilib slliib sllibi slliib sllibi sllbii sllbii slbili slbiil slblii slblii
slbili slbiil slibli slibil slilbi slilib sliilb sliibl sllibi slliib sllbii
sllbii sllibi slliib sliilb sliibl slilib slilbi slibli slibil bsiill bsiill
bsilil bsilli bsilli bsilil bsiill bsiill bsilil bsilli bsilli bsilil bsliil
bslili bsliil bslili bsllii bsllii bslili bsliil bsllii bsllii bslili bsliil
bisill bisill bislil bislli bislli bislil biisll biisll biilsl biills biills
biilsl bilisl bilils bilsil bilsli billsi billis bilils bilisl billis billsi
bilsli bilsil biisll biisll biilsl biills biills biilsl bisill bisill bislil
bislli bislli bislil bilsil bilsli bilisl bilils billis billsi bilsli bilsil
billsi billis bilils bilisl bliisl bliils blisil blisli blilsi blilis bliisl
bliils blisil blisli blilsi blilis blsiil blsili blsiil blsili blslii blslii
bllisi blliis bllsii bllsii bllisi blliis bliils bliisl blilis blilsi blisli
blisil bliils bliisl blilis blilsi blisli blisil blliis bllisi blliis bllisi
bllsii bllsii blsili blsiil blslii blslii blsili blsiil isbill isbill isblil
isblli isblli isblil isibll isibll isilbl isillb isillb isilbl islibl islilb
islbil islbli isllbi isllib islilb islibl isllib isllbi islbli islbil ibsill
ibsill ibslil ibslli ibslli ibslil ibisll ibisll ibilsl ibills ibills ibilsl
iblisl iblils iblsil iblsli ibllsi ibllis iblils iblisl ibllis ibllsi iblsli
iblsil iibsll iibsll iiblsl iiblls iiblls iiblsl iisbll iisbll iislbl iisllb
iisllb iislbl iilsbl iilslb iilbsl iilbls iillbs iillsb iilslb iilsbl iillsb
iillbs iilbls iilbsl ilbisl ilbils ilbsil ilbsli ilblsi ilblis ilibsl ilibls
ilisbl ilislb ililsb ililbs ilsibl ilsilb ilsbil ilsbli ilslbi ilslib illisb
illibs illsib illsbi illbsi illbis ilbils ilbisl ilblis ilblsi ilbsli ilbsil
ilibls ilibsl ililbs ililsb ilislb ilisbl illibs illisb illbis illbsi illsbi
illsib ilsilb ilsibl ilslib ilslbi ilsbli ilsbil lsbiil lsbili lsbiil lsbili
lsblii lsblii lsibil lsibli lsiibl lsiilb lsilib lsilbi lsiibl lsiilb lsibil
lsibli lsilbi lsilib lsliib lslibi lsliib lslibi lslbii lslbii lbsiil lbsili
lbsiil lbsili lbslii lbslii lbisil lbisli lbiisl lbiils lbilis lbilsi lbiisl
lbiils lbisil lbisli lbilsi lbilis lbliis lblisi lbliis lblisi lblsii lblsii
libsil libsli libisl libils liblis liblsi lisbil lisbli lisibl lisilb lislib
lislbi liisbl liislb liibsl liibls liilbs liilsb lilsib lilsbi lilisb lilibs
lilbis lilbsi libisl libils libsil libsli liblsi liblis liibsl liibls liisbl
liislb liilsb liilbs lisibl lisilb lisbil lisbli lislbi lislib lilisb lilibs
lilsib lilsbi lilbsi lilbis llbiis llbisi llbiis llbisi llbsii llbsii llibis
llibsi lliibs lliisb llisib llisbi lliibs lliisb llibis llibsi llisbi llisib
llsiib llsibi llsiib llsibi llsbii llsbii lsbili lsbiil lsblii lsblii lsbili
lsbiil lsibli lsibil lsilbi lsilib lsiilb lsiibl lslibi lsliib lslbii lslbii
lslibi lsliib lsiilb lsiibl lsilib lsilbi lsibli lsibil lbsili lbsiil lbslii
lbslii lbsili lbsiil lbisli lbisil lbilsi lbilis lbiils lbiisl lblisi lbliis
lblsii lblsii lblisi lbliis lbiils lbiisl lbilis lbilsi lbisli lbisil libsli
libsil liblsi liblis libils libisl lisbli lisbil lislbi lislib lisilb lisibl
lilsbi lilsib lilbsi lilbis lilibs lilisb liislb liisbl liilsb liilbs liibls
liibsl llbisi llbiis llbsii llbsii llbisi llbiis llibsi llibis llisbi llisib
lliisb lliibs llsibi llsiib llsbii llsbii llsibi llsiib lliisb lliibs llisib
llisbi llibsi llibis libils libisl liblis liblsi libsli libsil liibls liibsl
liilbs liilsb liislb liisbl lilibs lilisb lilbis lilbsi lilsbi lilsib lisilb
lisibl lislib lislbi lisbli lisbil

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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