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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: infeft
cipher variations:
jogfgu kphghv lqihiw mrjijx nskjky
otlklz pumlma qvnmnb rwonoc sxpopd
tyqpqe uzrqrf vasrsg wbtsth xcutui
ydvuvj zewvwk afxwxl bgyxym chzyzn
diazao ejbabp fkcbcq gldcdr hmedes

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: infeft
Cipher: rmuvug

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: infeft
Cipher: ABAAA ABBAA AABAB AABAA AABAB BAABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: infeft
cipher variations:
jogfguzoqnqgpoavasfokdkevouluqloetecroyjyahoirim
xoszsynochckdompmwtowxwikphghvaprorhqpbwbtgplelf
wpvmvrmpfufdspzkzbipjsjnyptatzopdidlepnqnxupxyxj
lqihiwbqspsirqcxcuhqmfmgxqwnwsnqgvgetqalacjqktko
zqubuapqejemfqoroyvqyzykmrjijxcrtqtjsrdydvirngnh
yrxoxtorhwhfurbmbdkrlulparvcvbqrfkfngrpspzwrzazl
nskjkydsuruktsezewjsohoizsypyupsixigvscncelsmvmq
bswdwcrsglgohsqtqaxsabamotlklzetvsvlutfafxktpipj
atzqzvqtjyjhwtdodfmtnwnrctxexdsthmhpitrurbytbcbn
pumlmafuwtwmvugbgyluqjqkbuarawrukzkixuepegnuoxos
duyfyetuiniqjusvsczucdcoqvnmnbgvxuxnwvhchzmvrkrl
cvbsbxsvlaljyvfqfhovpyptevzgzfuvjojrkvtwtdavdedp
rwonochwyvyoxwidianwslsmdwctcytwmbmkzwgrgipwqzqu
fwahagvwkpkslwuxuebwefeqsxpopdixzwzpyxjejboxtmtn
exdudzuxncnlaxhshjqxrarvgxbibhwxlqltmxvyvfcxfgfr
tyqpqejyaxaqzykfkcpyunuofyeveavyodombyitikrysbsw
hycjcixymrmunywzwgdyghgsuzrqrfkzbybrazlgldqzvovp
gzfwfbwzpepnczjujlsztctxizdkdjyznsnvozxaxhezhiht
vasrsglaczcsbamhmerawpwqhagxgcxaqfqodakvkmtauduy
jaelekzaotowpaybyifaijiuwbtsthmbdadtcbninfsbxqxr
ibhyhdybrgrpeblwlnubvevzkbfmflabpupxqbzczjgbjkjv
xcutuincebeudcojogtcyrysjciziezcshsqfcmxmovcwfwa
lcgngmbcqvqyrcadakhcklkwydvuvjodfcfvedpkphudzszt
kdjajfadtitrgdnynpwdxgxbmdhohncdrwrzsdbeblidlmlx
zewvwkpegdgwfeqlqiveataulekbkgbeujusheozoqxeyhyc
neipiodesxsatecfcmjemnmyafxwxlqfhehxgfrmrjwfbubv
mflclhcfvkvtifpapryfzizdofjqjpeftytbufdgdnkfnonz
bgyxymrgifiyhgsnskxgcvcwngmdmidgwlwujgqbqszgajae
pgkrkqfguzucvgeheolgopoachzyznshjgjzihtotlyhdwdx
ohnenjehxmxvkhrcrtahbkbfqhlslrghvavdwhfifpmhpqpb
diazaotikhkajiupumziexeypiofokfiynywlisdsubiclcg
rimtmshiwbwexigjgqniqrqcejbabpujlilbkjvqvnajfyfz
qjpgplgjzozxmjtetvcjdmdhsjnuntijxcxfyjhkhrojrsrd
fkcbcqvkmjmclkwrwobkgzgarkqhqmhkapaynkufuwdkenei
tkovoujkydygzkilispkstsegldcdrwlnkndmlxsxpclhahb
slrirnilbqbzolvgvxelfofjulpwpvklzezhaljmjtqltutf
hmedesxmoloenmytyqdmibictmsjsojmcrcapmwhwyfmgpgk
vmqxqwlmafaibmknkurmuvuginfeftynpmpfonzuzrenjcjd
untktpkndsdbqnxixzgnhqhlwnryrxmnbgbjcnlolvsnvwvh

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: infeft
Cipher: vasrsg

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: infeft
Cipher: 423312511244

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: infeft
method variations:
oslklytxqpqdycvuvidhazao

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
i n f e f t 
4 3 1 5 1 4 
2 3 2 1 2 4 
They are then read out in rows:
431514232124
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: infeft
Cipher: ovqmbr

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: infeft
method variations:
mcwart cwartm wartmc
artmcw rtmcwa tmcwar

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: infeft

all 720 cipher variations:
infeft infetf inffet inffte inftfe inftef inefft ineftf inefft ineftf inetff
inetff infeft infetf inffet inffte inftfe inftef inteff inteff intfef intffe
intffe intfef ifneft ifnetf ifnfet ifnfte ifntfe ifntef ifenft ifentf ifefnt
ifeftn ifetfn ifetnf iffent iffetn iffnet iffnte ifftne ifften iftefn iftenf
iftfen iftfne iftnfe iftnef iefnft iefntf ieffnt iefftn ieftfn ieftnf ienfft
ienftf ienfft ienftf ientff ientff iefnft iefntf ieffnt iefftn ieftfn ieftnf
ietnff ietnff ietfnf ietffn ietffn ietfnf iffent iffetn iffnet iffnte ifftne
ifften ifefnt ifeftn ifenft ifentf ifetnf ifetfn ifneft ifnetf ifnfet ifnfte
ifntfe ifntef iftenf iftefn iftnef iftnfe iftfne iftfen itfefn itfenf itffen
itffne itfnfe itfnef iteffn itefnf iteffn itefnf itenff itenff itfefn itfenf
itffen itffne itfnfe itfnef itneff itneff itnfef itnffe itnffe itnfef nifeft
nifetf niffet niffte niftfe niftef niefft nieftf niefft nieftf nietff nietff
nifeft nifetf niffet niffte niftfe niftef niteff niteff nitfef nitffe nitffe
nitfef nfieft nfietf nfifet nfifte nfitfe nfitef nfeift nfeitf nfefit nfefti
nfetfi nfetif nffeit nffeti nffiet nffite nfftie nfftei nftefi nfteif nftfei
nftfie nftife nftief nefift nefitf neffit neffti neftfi neftif neifft neiftf
neifft neiftf neitff neitff nefift nefitf neffit neffti neftfi neftif netiff
netiff netfif netffi netffi netfif nffeit nffeti nffiet nffite nfftie nfftei
nfefit nfefti nfeift nfeitf nfetif nfetfi nfieft nfietf nfifet nfifte nfitfe
nfitef nfteif nftefi nftief nftife nftfie nftfei ntfefi ntfeif ntffei ntffie
ntfife ntfief nteffi ntefif nteffi ntefif nteiff nteiff ntfefi ntfeif ntffei
ntffie ntfife ntfief ntieff ntieff ntifef ntiffe ntiffe ntifef fnieft fnietf
fnifet fnifte fnitfe fnitef fneift fneitf fnefit fnefti fnetfi fnetif fnfeit
fnfeti fnfiet fnfite fnftie fnftei fntefi fnteif fntfei fntfie fntife fntief
fineft finetf finfet finfte fintfe fintef fienft fientf fiefnt fieftn fietfn
fietnf fifent fifetn fifnet fifnte fiftne fiften fitefn fitenf fitfen fitfne
fitnfe fitnef feinft feintf feifnt feiftn feitfn feitnf fenift fenitf fenfit
fenfti fentfi fentif fefnit fefnti fefint fefitn feftin feftni fetnfi fetnif
fetfni fetfin fetifn fetinf ffient ffietn ffinet ffinte ffitne ffiten ffeint
ffeitn ffenit ffenti ffetni ffetin ffneit ffneti ffniet ffnite ffntie ffntei
ffteni fftein fftnei fftnie fftine fftien ftiefn ftienf ftifen ftifne ftinfe
ftinef fteifn fteinf ftefin ftefni ftenfi ftenif ftfein ftfeni ftfien ftfine
ftfnie ftfnei ftnefi ftneif ftnfei ftnfie ftnife ftnief enfift enfitf enffit
enffti enftfi enftif enifft eniftf enifft eniftf enitff enitff enfift enfitf
enffit enffti enftfi enftif entiff entiff entfif entffi entffi entfif efnift
efnitf efnfit efnfti efntfi efntif efinft efintf efifnt efiftn efitfn efitnf
effint effitn effnit effnti efftni efftin eftifn eftinf eftfin eftfni eftnfi
eftnif eifnft eifntf eiffnt eifftn eiftfn eiftnf einfft einftf einfft einftf
eintff eintff eifnft eifntf eiffnt eifftn eiftfn eiftnf eitnff eitnff eitfnf
eitffn eitffn eitfnf effint effitn effnit effnti efftni efftin efifnt efiftn
efinft efintf efitnf efitfn efnift efnitf efnfit efnfti efntfi efntif eftinf
eftifn eftnif eftnfi eftfni eftfin etfifn etfinf etffin etffni etfnfi etfnif
etiffn etifnf etiffn etifnf etinff etinff etfifn etfinf etffin etffni etfnfi
etfnif etniff etniff etnfif etnffi etnffi etnfif fnfeit fnfeti fnfiet fnfite
fnftie fnftei fnefit fnefti fneift fneitf fnetif fnetfi fnieft fnietf fnifet
fnifte fnitfe fnitef fnteif fntefi fntief fntife fntfie fntfei ffneit ffneti
ffniet ffnite ffntie ffntei ffenit ffenti ffeint ffeitn ffetin ffetni ffient
ffietn ffinet ffinte ffitne ffiten fftein ffteni fftien fftine fftnie fftnei
fefnit fefnti fefint fefitn feftin feftni fenfit fenfti fenift fenitf fentif
fentfi feinft feintf feifnt feiftn feitfn feitnf fetnif fetnfi fetinf fetifn
fetfin fetfni fifent fifetn fifnet fifnte fiftne fiften fiefnt fieftn fienft
fientf fietnf fietfn fineft finetf finfet finfte fintfe fintef fitenf fitefn
fitnef fitnfe fitfne fitfen ftfein ftfeni ftfien ftfine ftfnie ftfnei ftefin
ftefni fteifn fteinf ftenif ftenfi ftiefn ftienf ftifen ftifne ftinfe ftinef
ftneif ftnefi ftnief ftnife ftnfie ftnfei tnfefi tnfeif tnffei tnffie tnfife
tnfief tneffi tnefif tneffi tnefif tneiff tneiff tnfefi tnfeif tnffei tnffie
tnfife tnfief tnieff tnieff tnifef tniffe tniffe tnifef tfnefi tfneif tfnfei
tfnfie tfnife tfnief tfenfi tfenif tfefni tfefin tfeifn tfeinf tffeni tffein
tffnei tffnie tffine tffien tfiefn tfienf tfifen tfifne tfinfe tfinef tefnfi
tefnif teffni teffin tefifn tefinf tenffi tenfif tenffi tenfif teniff teniff
tefnfi tefnif teffni teffin tefifn tefinf teinff teinff teifnf teiffn teiffn
teifnf tffeni tffein tffnei tffnie tffine tffien tfefni tfefin tfenfi tfenif
tfeinf tfeifn tfnefi tfneif tfnfei tfnfie tfnife tfnief tfienf tfiefn tfinef
tfinfe tfifne tfifen tifefn tifenf tiffen tiffne tifnfe tifnef tieffn tiefnf
tieffn tiefnf tienff tienff tifefn tifenf tiffen tiffne tifnfe tifnef tineff
tineff tinfef tinffe tinffe tinfef

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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