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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: impark
cipher variations:
jnqbsl korctm lpsdun mqtevo nrufwp
osvgxq ptwhyr quxizs rvyjat swzkbu
txalcv uybmdw vzcnex wadofy xbepgz
ycfqha zdgrib aehsjc bfitkd cgjule
dhkvmf eilwng fjmxoh gknypi hlozqj

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: impark
Cipher: rnkzip

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: impark

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: impark
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: impark
Cipher: vzcnex

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: impark
Cipher: 422353112452

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: impark
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
i m p a r k 
4 2 5 1 2 5 
2 3 3 1 4 2 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: impark
Cipher: iewmci

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Method #3

Plaintext: impark
method variations:
gxcfyr xcfyrg cfyrgx
fyrgxc yrgxcf rgxcfy

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: impark

all 720 cipher variations:
impark impakr imprak imprka impkra impkar imaprk imapkr imarpk imarkp imakrp
imakpr imrapk imrakp imrpak imrpka imrkpa imrkap imkarp imkapr imkrap imkrpa
imkpra imkpar ipmark ipmakr ipmrak ipmrka ipmkra ipmkar ipamrk ipamkr iparmk
iparkm ipakrm ipakmr ipramk iprakm iprmak iprmka iprkma iprkam ipkarm ipkamr
ipkram ipkrma ipkmra ipkmar iapmrk iapmkr iaprmk iaprkm iapkrm iapkmr iamprk
iampkr iamrpk iamrkp iamkrp iamkpr iarmpk iarmkp iarpmk iarpkm iarkpm iarkmp
iakmrp iakmpr iakrmp iakrpm iakprm iakpmr irpamk irpakm irpmak irpmka irpkma
irpkam irapmk irapkm irampk iramkp irakmp irakpm irmapk irmakp irmpak irmpka
irmkpa irmkap irkamp irkapm irkmap irkmpa irkpma irkpam ikparm ikpamr ikpram
ikprma ikpmra ikpmar ikaprm ikapmr ikarpm ikarmp ikamrp ikampr ikrapm ikramp
ikrpam ikrpma ikrmpa ikrmap ikmarp ikmapr ikmrap ikmrpa ikmpra ikmpar mipark
mipakr miprak miprka mipkra mipkar miaprk miapkr miarpk miarkp miakrp miakpr
mirapk mirakp mirpak mirpka mirkpa mirkap mikarp mikapr mikrap mikrpa mikpra
mikpar mpiark mpiakr mpirak mpirka mpikra mpikar mpairk mpaikr mparik mparki
mpakri mpakir mpraik mpraki mpriak mprika mprkia mprkai mpkari mpkair mpkrai
mpkria mpkira mpkiar mapirk mapikr maprik maprki mapkri mapkir maiprk maipkr
mairpk mairkp maikrp maikpr maripk marikp marpik marpki markpi markip makirp
makipr makrip makrpi makpri makpir mrpaik mrpaki mrpiak mrpika mrpkia mrpkai
mrapik mrapki mraipk mraikp mrakip mrakpi mriapk mriakp mripak mripka mrikpa
mrikap mrkaip mrkapi mrkiap mrkipa mrkpia mrkpai mkpari mkpair mkprai mkpria
mkpira mkpiar mkapri mkapir mkarpi mkarip mkairp mkaipr mkrapi mkraip mkrpai
mkrpia mkripa mkriap mkiarp mkiapr mkirap mkirpa mkipra mkipar pmiark pmiakr
pmirak pmirka pmikra pmikar pmairk pmaikr pmarik pmarki pmakri pmakir pmraik
pmraki pmriak pmrika pmrkia pmrkai pmkari pmkair pmkrai pmkria pmkira pmkiar
pimark pimakr pimrak pimrka pimkra pimkar piamrk piamkr piarmk piarkm piakrm
piakmr piramk pirakm pirmak pirmka pirkma pirkam pikarm pikamr pikram pikrma
pikmra pikmar paimrk paimkr pairmk pairkm paikrm paikmr pamirk pamikr pamrik
pamrki pamkri pamkir parmik parmki parimk parikm parkim parkmi pakmri pakmir
pakrmi pakrim pakirm pakimr priamk priakm primak primka prikma prikam praimk
praikm pramik pramki prakmi prakim prmaik prmaki prmiak prmika prmkia prmkai
prkami prkaim prkmai prkmia prkima prkiam pkiarm pkiamr pkiram pkirma pkimra
pkimar pkairm pkaimr pkarim pkarmi pkamri pkamir pkraim pkrami pkriam pkrima
pkrmia pkrmai pkmari pkmair pkmrai pkmria pkmira pkmiar ampirk ampikr amprik
amprki ampkri ampkir amiprk amipkr amirpk amirkp amikrp amikpr amripk amrikp
amrpik amrpki amrkpi amrkip amkirp amkipr amkrip amkrpi amkpri amkpir apmirk
apmikr apmrik apmrki apmkri apmkir apimrk apimkr apirmk apirkm apikrm apikmr
aprimk aprikm aprmik aprmki aprkmi aprkim apkirm apkimr apkrim apkrmi apkmri
apkmir aipmrk aipmkr aiprmk aiprkm aipkrm aipkmr aimprk aimpkr aimrpk aimrkp
aimkrp aimkpr airmpk airmkp airpmk airpkm airkpm airkmp aikmrp aikmpr aikrmp
aikrpm aikprm aikpmr arpimk arpikm arpmik arpmki arpkmi arpkim aripmk aripkm
arimpk arimkp arikmp arikpm armipk armikp armpik armpki armkpi armkip arkimp
arkipm arkmip arkmpi arkpmi arkpim akpirm akpimr akprim akprmi akpmri akpmir
akiprm akipmr akirpm akirmp akimrp akimpr akripm akrimp akrpim akrpmi akrmpi
akrmip akmirp akmipr akmrip akmrpi akmpri akmpir rmpaik rmpaki rmpiak rmpika
rmpkia rmpkai rmapik rmapki rmaipk rmaikp rmakip rmakpi rmiapk rmiakp rmipak
rmipka rmikpa rmikap rmkaip rmkapi rmkiap rmkipa rmkpia rmkpai rpmaik rpmaki
rpmiak rpmika rpmkia rpmkai rpamik rpamki rpaimk rpaikm rpakim rpakmi rpiamk
rpiakm rpimak rpimka rpikma rpikam rpkaim rpkami rpkiam rpkima rpkmia rpkmai
rapmik rapmki rapimk rapikm rapkim rapkmi rampik rampki ramipk ramikp ramkip
ramkpi raimpk raimkp raipmk raipkm raikpm raikmp rakmip rakmpi rakimp rakipm
rakpim rakpmi ripamk ripakm ripmak ripmka ripkma ripkam riapmk riapkm riampk
riamkp riakmp riakpm rimapk rimakp rimpak rimpka rimkpa rimkap rikamp rikapm
rikmap rikmpa rikpma rikpam rkpaim rkpami rkpiam rkpima rkpmia rkpmai rkapim
rkapmi rkaipm rkaimp rkamip rkampi rkiapm rkiamp rkipam rkipma rkimpa rkimap
rkmaip rkmapi rkmiap rkmipa rkmpia rkmpai kmpari kmpair kmprai kmpria kmpira
kmpiar kmapri kmapir kmarpi kmarip kmairp kmaipr kmrapi kmraip kmrpai kmrpia
kmripa kmriap kmiarp kmiapr kmirap kmirpa kmipra kmipar kpmari kpmair kpmrai
kpmria kpmira kpmiar kpamri kpamir kparmi kparim kpairm kpaimr kprami kpraim
kprmai kprmia kprima kpriam kpiarm kpiamr kpiram kpirma kpimra kpimar kapmri
kapmir kaprmi kaprim kapirm kapimr kampri kampir kamrpi kamrip kamirp kamipr
karmpi karmip karpmi karpim karipm karimp kaimrp kaimpr kairmp kairpm kaiprm
kaipmr krpami krpaim krpmai krpmia krpima krpiam krapmi krapim krampi kramip
kraimp kraipm krmapi krmaip krmpai krmpia krmipa krmiap kriamp kriapm krimap
krimpa kripma kripam kiparm kipamr kipram kiprma kipmra kipmar kiaprm kiapmr
kiarpm kiarmp kiamrp kiampr kirapm kiramp kirpam kirpma kirmpa kirmap kimarp
kimapr kimrap kimrpa kimpra kimpar

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History of cryptography
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