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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hpclpj
cipher variations:
iqdmqk jrenrl ksfosm ltgptn muhquo
nvirvp owjswq pxktxr qyluys rzmvzt
sanwau tboxbv ucpycw vdqzdx weraey
xfsbfz ygtcga zhudhb aiveic bjwfjd
ckxgke dlyhlf emzimg fnajnh gobkoi

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hpclpj
Cipher: skxokq

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hpclpj
Cipher: AABBB ABBBA AAABA ABABA ABBBA BBBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hpclpj
cipher variations:
iqdmqkwuhiuckyleyuycpacmmgtwgeakxskwcsfksgqwjgwy
eancaqseryeigivuiaumzqmsjrenrlxvijvdlzmfzvzdqbdn
nhuxhfblytlxdtglthrxkhxzfbodbrtfszfjhjwvjbvnarnt
ksfosmywjkwemangawaerceooivyigcmzumyeuhmuisyliya
gcpecsugtagkikxwkcwobsoultgptnzxklxfnbohbxbfsdfp
pjwzjhdnavnzfvinvjtzmjzbhdqfdtvhubhljlyxldxpctpv
muhquoaylmygocpicycgtegqqkxakieobwoagwjowkuankac
iergeuwivcimkmzymeyqduqwnvirvpbzmnzhpdqjdzdhufhr
rlybljfpcxpbhxkpxlvbolbdjfshfvxjwdjnlnaznfzrevrx
owjswqcanoaiqerkeaeivgissmzcmkgqdyqciylqymwcpmce
kgtigwykxekomobaogasfwsypxktxrdbopbjrfslfbfjwhjt
tnadnlhrezrdjzmrznxdqndflhujhxzlyflpnpcbphbtgxtz
qyluysecpqcksgtmgcgkxikuuobeomisfasekansaoyeroeg
mivkiyamzgmqoqdcqicuhyuarzmvztfdqrdlthunhdhlyjlv
vpcfpnjtgbtflbotbpzfspfhnjwljzbnahnrpredrjdvizvb
sanwaugersemuivoieimzkmwwqdgqokuhcugmcpucqagtqgi
okxmkacobiosqsfeskewjawctboxbvhfstfnvjwpjfjnalnx
xrehrplvidvhndqvdrbhurhjplynlbdpcjptrtgftlfxkbxd
ucpycwigtugowkxqkgkobmoyysfisqmwjewioerwescivsik
qmzomceqdkqusuhgumgylcyevdqzdxjhuvhpxlyrlhlpcnpz
ztgjtrnxkfxjpfsxftdjwtjlrnapndfrelrvtvihvnhzmdzf
weraeykivwiqymzsmimqdoqaauhkusoylgykqgtyguekxukm
sobqoegsfmswuwjiwoianeagxfsbfzljwxjrznatnjnreprb
bvilvtpzmhzlrhuzhvflyvlntpcrpfhtgntxvxkjxpjbofbh
ygtcgamkxyksaobuokosfqsccwjmwuqaniamsivaiwgmzwmo
uqdsqgiuhouywylkyqkcpgcizhudhbnlyzltbpcvplptgrtd
dxknxvrbojbntjwbjxhnaxnpvretrhjvipvzxzmlzrldqhdj
aiveicomzamucqdwqmquhsueeyloywscpkcoukxckyiobyoq
wsfusikwjqwayanmasmeriekbjwfjdpnabnvdrexrnrvitvf
fzmpzxtdqldpvlydlzjpczprxtgvtjlxkrxbzbonbtnfsjfl
ckxgkeqobcowesfysoswjuwgganqayuermeqwmzemakqdaqs
yuhwukmylsycacpocuogtkgmdlyhlfrpcdpxftgztptxkvxh
hborbzvfsnfrxnafnblrebrtzvixvlnzmtzdbdqpdvphulhn
emzimgsqdeqyguhauquylwyiicpscawgtogsyobgocmsfcsu
awjywmoanuaecerqewqivmiofnajnhtrefrzhvibvrvzmxzj
jdqtdbxhuphtzpchpdntgdtvbxkzxnpbovbfdfsrfxrjwnjp
gobkoiusfgsaiwjcwswanyakkeruecyivqiuaqdiqeouheuw
cylayoqcpwcgegtsgyskxokqhpclpjvtghtbjxkdxtxbozbl
lfsvfdzjwrjvbrejrfpvifvxdzmbzprdqxdhfhuthztlyplr

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hpclpj
Cipher: ucpycw

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hpclpj
Cipher: 325331135342

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hpclpj
method variations:
nuhquosznvztxesaeyckxfkd

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h p c l p j 
3 5 3 1 5 4 
2 3 1 3 3 2 
They are then read out in rows:
353154231332
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hpclpj
Cipher: xcumlh

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: hpclpj
method variations:
wnaxsm naxsmw axsmwn
xsmwna smwnax mwnaxs

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hpclpj

all 720 cipher variations:
hpclpj hpcljp hpcplj hpcpjl hpcjpl hpcjlp hplcpj hplcjp hplpcj hplpjc hpljpc
hpljcp hpplcj hppljc hppclj hppcjl hppjcl hppjlc hpjlpc hpjlcp hpjplc hpjpcl
hpjcpl hpjclp hcplpj hcpljp hcpplj hcppjl hcpjpl hcpjlp hclppj hclpjp hclppj
hclpjp hcljpp hcljpp hcplpj hcpljp hcpplj hcppjl hcpjpl hcpjlp hcjlpp hcjlpp
hcjplp hcjppl hcjppl hcjplp hlcppj hlcpjp hlcppj hlcpjp hlcjpp hlcjpp hlpcpj
hlpcjp hlppcj hlppjc hlpjpc hlpjcp hlppcj hlppjc hlpcpj hlpcjp hlpjcp hlpjpc
hljppc hljpcp hljppc hljpcp hljcpp hljcpp hpclpj hpcljp hpcplj hpcpjl hpcjpl
hpcjlp hplcpj hplcjp hplpcj hplpjc hpljpc hpljcp hpplcj hppljc hppclj hppcjl
hppjcl hppjlc hpjlpc hpjlcp hpjplc hpjpcl hpjcpl hpjclp hjclpp hjclpp hjcplp
hjcppl hjcppl hjcplp hjlcpp hjlcpp hjlpcp hjlppc hjlppc hjlpcp hjplcp hjplpc
hjpclp hjpcpl hjppcl hjpplc hjplpc hjplcp hjpplc hjppcl hjpcpl hjpclp phclpj
phcljp phcplj phcpjl phcjpl phcjlp phlcpj phlcjp phlpcj phlpjc phljpc phljcp
phplcj phpljc phpclj phpcjl phpjcl phpjlc phjlpc phjlcp phjplc phjpcl phjcpl
phjclp pchlpj pchljp pchplj pchpjl pchjpl pchjlp pclhpj pclhjp pclphj pclpjh
pcljph pcljhp pcplhj pcpljh pcphlj pcphjl pcpjhl pcpjlh pcjlph pcjlhp pcjplh
pcjphl pcjhpl pcjhlp plchpj plchjp plcphj plcpjh plcjph plcjhp plhcpj plhcjp
plhpcj plhpjc plhjpc plhjcp plphcj plphjc plpchj plpcjh plpjch plpjhc pljhpc
pljhcp pljphc pljpch pljcph pljchp ppclhj ppcljh ppchlj ppchjl ppcjhl ppcjlh
pplchj pplcjh pplhcj pplhjc ppljhc ppljch pphlcj pphljc pphclj pphcjl pphjcl
pphjlc ppjlhc ppjlch ppjhlc ppjhcl ppjchl ppjclh pjclph pjclhp pjcplh pjcphl
pjchpl pjchlp pjlcph pjlchp pjlpch pjlphc pjlhpc pjlhcp pjplch pjplhc pjpclh
pjpchl pjphcl pjphlc pjhlpc pjhlcp pjhplc pjhpcl pjhcpl pjhclp cphlpj cphljp
cphplj cphpjl cphjpl cphjlp cplhpj cplhjp cplphj cplpjh cpljph cpljhp cpplhj
cppljh cpphlj cpphjl cppjhl cppjlh cpjlph cpjlhp cpjplh cpjphl cpjhpl cpjhlp
chplpj chpljp chpplj chppjl chpjpl chpjlp chlppj chlpjp chlppj chlpjp chljpp
chljpp chplpj chpljp chpplj chppjl chpjpl chpjlp chjlpp chjlpp chjplp chjppl
chjppl chjplp clhppj clhpjp clhppj clhpjp clhjpp clhjpp clphpj clphjp clpphj
clppjh clpjph clpjhp clpphj clppjh clphpj clphjp clpjhp clpjph cljpph cljphp
cljpph cljphp cljhpp cljhpp cphlpj cphljp cphplj cphpjl cphjpl cphjlp cplhpj
cplhjp cplphj cplpjh cpljph cpljhp cpplhj cppljh cpphlj cpphjl cppjhl cppjlh
cpjlph cpjlhp cpjplh cpjphl cpjhpl cpjhlp cjhlpp cjhlpp cjhplp cjhppl cjhppl
cjhplp cjlhpp cjlhpp cjlphp cjlpph cjlpph cjlphp cjplhp cjplph cjphlp cjphpl
cjpphl cjpplh cjplph cjplhp cjpplh cjpphl cjphpl cjphlp lpchpj lpchjp lpcphj
lpcpjh lpcjph lpcjhp lphcpj lphcjp lphpcj lphpjc lphjpc lphjcp lpphcj lpphjc
lppchj lppcjh lppjch lppjhc lpjhpc lpjhcp lpjphc lpjpch lpjcph lpjchp lcphpj
lcphjp lcpphj lcppjh lcpjph lcpjhp lchppj lchpjp lchppj lchpjp lchjpp lchjpp
lcphpj lcphjp lcpphj lcppjh lcpjph lcpjhp lcjhpp lcjhpp lcjphp lcjpph lcjpph
lcjphp lhcppj lhcpjp lhcppj lhcpjp lhcjpp lhcjpp lhpcpj lhpcjp lhppcj lhppjc
lhpjpc lhpjcp lhppcj lhppjc lhpcpj lhpcjp lhpjcp lhpjpc lhjppc lhjpcp lhjppc
lhjpcp lhjcpp lhjcpp lpchpj lpchjp lpcphj lpcpjh lpcjph lpcjhp lphcpj lphcjp
lphpcj lphpjc lphjpc lphjcp lpphcj lpphjc lppchj lppcjh lppjch lppjhc lpjhpc
lpjhcp lpjphc lpjpch lpjcph lpjchp ljchpp ljchpp ljcphp ljcpph ljcpph ljcphp
ljhcpp ljhcpp ljhpcp ljhppc ljhppc ljhpcp ljphcp ljphpc ljpchp ljpcph ljppch
ljpphc ljphpc ljphcp ljpphc ljppch ljpcph ljpchp ppclhj ppcljh ppchlj ppchjl
ppcjhl ppcjlh pplchj pplcjh pplhcj pplhjc ppljhc ppljch pphlcj pphljc pphclj
pphcjl pphjcl pphjlc ppjlhc ppjlch ppjhlc ppjhcl ppjchl ppjclh pcplhj pcpljh
pcphlj pcphjl pcpjhl pcpjlh pclphj pclpjh pclhpj pclhjp pcljhp pcljph pchlpj
pchljp pchplj pchpjl pchjpl pchjlp pcjlhp pcjlph pcjhlp pcjhpl pcjphl pcjplh
plcphj plcpjh plchpj plchjp plcjhp plcjph plpchj plpcjh plphcj plphjc plpjhc
plpjch plhpcj plhpjc plhcpj plhcjp plhjcp plhjpc pljphc pljpch pljhpc pljhcp
pljchp pljcph phclpj phcljp phcplj phcpjl phcjpl phcjlp phlcpj phlcjp phlpcj
phlpjc phljpc phljcp phplcj phpljc phpclj phpcjl phpjcl phpjlc phjlpc phjlcp
phjplc phjpcl phjcpl phjclp pjclhp pjclph pjchlp pjchpl pjcphl pjcplh pjlchp
pjlcph pjlhcp pjlhpc pjlphc pjlpch pjhlcp pjhlpc pjhclp pjhcpl pjhpcl pjhplc
pjplhc pjplch pjphlc pjphcl pjpchl pjpclh jpclph jpclhp jpcplh jpcphl jpchpl
jpchlp jplcph jplchp jplpch jplphc jplhpc jplhcp jpplch jpplhc jppclh jppchl
jpphcl jpphlc jphlpc jphlcp jphplc jphpcl jphcpl jphclp jcplph jcplhp jcpplh
jcpphl jcphpl jcphlp jclpph jclphp jclpph jclphp jclhpp jclhpp jcplph jcplhp
jcpplh jcpphl jcphpl jcphlp jchlpp jchlpp jchplp jchppl jchppl jchplp jlcpph
jlcphp jlcpph jlcphp jlchpp jlchpp jlpcph jlpchp jlppch jlpphc jlphpc jlphcp
jlppch jlpphc jlpcph jlpchp jlphcp jlphpc jlhppc jlhpcp jlhppc jlhpcp jlhcpp
jlhcpp jpclph jpclhp jpcplh jpcphl jpchpl jpchlp jplcph jplchp jplpch jplphc
jplhpc jplhcp jpplch jpplhc jppclh jppchl jpphcl jpphlc jphlpc jphlcp jphplc
jphpcl jphcpl jphclp jhclpp jhclpp jhcplp jhcppl jhcppl jhcplp jhlcpp jhlcpp
jhlpcp jhlppc jhlppc jhlpcp jhplcp jhplpc jhpclp jhpcpl jhppcl jhpplc jhplpc
jhplcp jhpplc jhppcl jhpcpl jhpclp

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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