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fairlop

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unomniscient


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: howton
cipher variations:
ipxupo jqyvqp krzwrq lsaxsr mtbyts
nuczut ovdavu pwebwv qxfcxw rygdyx
szhezy taifaz ubjgba vckhcb wdlidc
xemjed yfnkfe zgolgf ahpmhg biqnih
cjroji dkspkj eltqlk fmurml gnvsnm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: howton
Cipher: sldglm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: howton
Cipher: AABBB ABBAB BABAA BAABA ABBAB ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: howton
cipher variations:
ipxupowrpgrokthstoyvzevomxrqxoazjczocdtadoqflmfo
ehdyhosjvkjoglnwlounfinojqyvqpxsqhspluitupzwafwp
nysrypbakdapdeubeprgmngpfieziptkwlkphmoxmpvogjop
krzwrqytritqmvjuvqaxbgxqoztszqcblebqefvcfqshnohq
gjfajqulxmlqinpynqwphkpqlsaxsrzusjurnwkvwrbychyr
pautardcmfcrfgwdgrtiopirhkgbkrvmynmrjoqzorxqilqr
mtbytsavtkvsoxlwxsczdizsqbvubsedngdsghxehsujpqjs
ilhclswnzonskprapsyrjmrsnuczutbwulwtpymxytdaejat
rcwvctfeohethiyfitvkqrktjmidmtxoapotlqsbqtzsknst
ovdavucxvmxuqznyzuebfkbusdxwdugfpifuijzgjuwlrslu
knjenuypbqpumrtcruatlotupwebwvdywnyvraozavfcglcv
teyxevhgqjgvjkahkvxmstmvlokfovzqcrqvnsudsvbumpuv
qxfcxwezxozwsbpabwgdhmdwufzyfwihrkhwklbilwyntunw
mplgpwardsrwotvetwcvnqvwrygdyxfaypaxtcqbcxheinex
vgazgxjislixlmcjmxzouvoxnqmhqxbsetsxpuwfuxdworwx
szhezygbzqbyudrcdyifjofywhbahykjtmjymndknyapvwpy
orniryctfutyqvxgvyexpsxytaifazhcarczvesdezjgkpgz
xicbizlkunkznoelozbqwxqzpsojszdugvuzrwyhwzfyqtyz
ubjgbaidbsdawftefakhlqhayjdcjamlvolaopfmpacrxyra
qtpktaevhwvasxzixagzruzavckhcbjectebxgufgblimrib
zkedkbnmwpmbpqgnqbdsyzsbruqlubfwixwbtyajybhasvab
wdlidckfdufcyhvghcmjnsjcalfelconxqncqrhorcetzatc
svrmvcgxjyxcuzbkzcibtwbcxemjedlgevgdziwhidnkotkd
bmgfmdpoyrodrsipsdfuabudtwsnwdhykzydvacladjcuxcd
yfnkfemhfwheajxijeolpulecnhgneqpzspestjqtegvbcve
uxtoxeizlazewbdmbekdvydezgolgfnigxifbkyjkfpmqvmf
doihofrqatqftukrufhwcdwfvyupyfjambafxcencflewzef
ahpmhgojhyjgclzklgqnrwngepjipgsrburguvlsvgixdexg
wzvqzgkbncbgydfodgmfxafgbiqnihpkizkhdmalmhrosxoh
fqkjqhtscvshvwmtwhjyefyhxawrahlcodchzegpehngybgh
cjrojiqljalienbmnisptypigrlkriutdwtiwxnuxikzfgzi
ybxsbimdpediafhqfiohzchidkspkjrmkbmjfocnojtquzqj
hsmlsjvuexujxyovyjlaghajzcytcjneqfejbgirgjpiadij
eltqlksnlcnkgpdopkurvarkitnmtkwvfyvkyzpwzkmbhibk
adzudkofrgfkchjshkqjbejkfmurmltomdolhqepqlvswbsl
juonulxwgzwlzaqxalncijclbeavelpgshgldiktilrkcfkl
gnvsnmupnepmirfqrmwtxctmkvpovmyxhaxmabrybmodjkdm
cfbwfmqhtihmejlujmsldglmhowtonvqofqnjsgrsnxuydun
lwqpwnzyibynbcszcnpeklendgcxgnriujinfkmvkntmehmn

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: howton
Cipher: ubjgba

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: howton
Cipher: 324325444333

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: howton
method variations:
ntbytssygdyxxdmidcciroih

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h o w t o n 
3 4 2 4 4 3 
2 3 5 4 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
342443235433
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: howton
Cipher: sromun

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: howton
method variations:
rhutnn hutnnr utnnrh
tnnrhu nnrhut nrhutn

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: howton

all 720 cipher variations:
howton howtno howotn howont hownot hownto hotwon hotwno hotown hotonw hotnow
hotnwo hootwn hootnw hoowtn hoownt hoonwt hoontw hontow hontwo honotw honowt
honwot honwto hwoton hwotno hwootn hwoont hwonot hwonto hwtoon hwtono hwtoon
hwtono hwtnoo hwtnoo hwoton hwotno hwootn hwoont hwonot hwonto hwntoo hwntoo
hwnoto hwnoot hwnoot hwnoto htwoon htwono htwoon htwono htwnoo htwnoo htowon
htowno htoown htoonw htonow htonwo htoown htoonw htowon htowno htonwo htonow
htnoow htnowo htnoow htnowo htnwoo htnwoo howton howtno howotn howont hownot
hownto hotwon hotwno hotown hotonw hotnow hotnwo hootwn hootnw hoowtn hoownt
hoonwt hoontw hontow hontwo honotw honowt honwot honwto hnwtoo hnwtoo hnwoto
hnwoot hnwoot hnwoto hntwoo hntwoo hntowo hntoow hntoow hntowo hnotwo hnotow
hnowto hnowot hnoowt hnootw hnotow hnotwo hnootw hnoowt hnowot hnowto ohwton
ohwtno ohwotn ohwont ohwnot ohwnto ohtwon ohtwno ohtown ohtonw ohtnow ohtnwo
ohotwn ohotnw ohowtn ohownt ohonwt ohontw ohntow ohntwo ohnotw ohnowt ohnwot
ohnwto owhton owhtno owhotn owhont owhnot owhnto owthon owthno owtohn owtonh
owtnoh owtnho owothn owotnh owohtn owohnt owonht owonth owntoh owntho ownoth
ownoht ownhot ownhto otwhon otwhno otwohn otwonh otwnoh otwnho othwon othwno
othown othonw othnow othnwo otohwn otohnw otowhn otownh otonwh otonhw otnhow
otnhwo otnohw otnowh otnwoh otnwho oowthn oowtnh oowhtn oowhnt oownht oownth
ootwhn ootwnh oothwn oothnw ootnhw ootnwh oohtwn oohtnw oohwtn oohwnt oohnwt
oohntw oonthw oontwh oonhtw oonhwt oonwht oonwth onwtoh onwtho onwoth onwoht
onwhot onwhto ontwoh ontwho ontowh ontohw onthow onthwo onotwh onothw onowth
onowht onohwt onohtw onhtow onhtwo onhotw onhowt onhwot onhwto wohton wohtno
wohotn wohont wohnot wohnto wothon wothno wotohn wotonh wotnoh wotnho woothn
wootnh woohtn woohnt woonht woonth wontoh wontho wonoth wonoht wonhot wonhto
whoton whotno whootn whoont whonot whonto whtoon whtono whtoon whtono whtnoo
whtnoo whoton whotno whootn whoont whonot whonto whntoo whntoo whnoto whnoot
whnoot whnoto wthoon wthono wthoon wthono wthnoo wthnoo wtohon wtohno wtoohn
wtoonh wtonoh wtonho wtoohn wtoonh wtohon wtohno wtonho wtonoh wtnooh wtnoho
wtnooh wtnoho wtnhoo wtnhoo wohton wohtno wohotn wohont wohnot wohnto wothon
wothno wotohn wotonh wotnoh wotnho woothn wootnh woohtn woohnt woonht woonth
wontoh wontho wonoth wonoht wonhot wonhto wnhtoo wnhtoo wnhoto wnhoot wnhoot
wnhoto wnthoo wnthoo wntoho wntooh wntooh wntoho wnotho wnotoh wnohto wnohot
wnooht wnooth wnotoh wnotho wnooth wnooht wnohot wnohto towhon towhno towohn
towonh townoh townho tohwon tohwno tohown tohonw tohnow tohnwo toohwn toohnw
toowhn toownh toonwh toonhw tonhow tonhwo tonohw tonowh tonwoh tonwho twohon
twohno twoohn twoonh twonoh twonho twhoon twhono twhoon twhono twhnoo twhnoo
twohon twohno twoohn twoonh twonoh twonho twnhoo twnhoo twnoho twnooh twnooh
twnoho thwoon thwono thwoon thwono thwnoo thwnoo thowon thowno thoown thoonw
thonow thonwo thoown thoonw thowon thowno thonwo thonow thnoow thnowo thnoow
thnowo thnwoo thnwoo towhon towhno towohn towonh townoh townho tohwon tohwno
tohown tohonw tohnow tohnwo toohwn toohnw toowhn toownh toonwh toonhw tonhow
tonhwo tonohw tonowh tonwoh tonwho tnwhoo tnwhoo tnwoho tnwooh tnwooh tnwoho
tnhwoo tnhwoo tnhowo tnhoow tnhoow tnhowo tnohwo tnohow tnowho tnowoh tnoowh
tnoohw tnohow tnohwo tnoohw tnoowh tnowoh tnowho oowthn oowtnh oowhtn oowhnt
oownht oownth ootwhn ootwnh oothwn oothnw ootnhw ootnwh oohtwn oohtnw oohwtn
oohwnt oohnwt oohntw oonthw oontwh oonhtw oonhwt oonwht oonwth owothn owotnh
owohtn owohnt owonht owonth owtohn owtonh owthon owthno owtnho owtnoh owhton
owhtno owhotn owhont owhnot owhnto owntho owntoh ownhto ownhot ownoht ownoth
otwohn otwonh otwhon otwhno otwnho otwnoh otowhn otownh otohwn otohnw otonhw
otonwh othown othonw othwon othwno othnwo othnow otnohw otnowh otnhow otnhwo
otnwho otnwoh ohwton ohwtno ohwotn ohwont ohwnot ohwnto ohtwon ohtwno ohtown
ohtonw ohtnow ohtnwo ohotwn ohotnw ohowtn ohownt ohonwt ohontw ohntow ohntwo
ohnotw ohnowt ohnwot ohnwto onwtho onwtoh onwhto onwhot onwoht onwoth ontwho
ontwoh onthwo onthow ontohw ontowh onhtwo onhtow onhwto onhwot onhowt onhotw
onothw onotwh onohtw onohwt onowht onowth nowtoh nowtho nowoth nowoht nowhot
nowhto notwoh notwho notowh notohw nothow nothwo nootwh noothw noowth noowht
noohwt noohtw nohtow nohtwo nohotw nohowt nohwot nohwto nwotoh nwotho nwooth
nwooht nwohot nwohto nwtooh nwtoho nwtooh nwtoho nwthoo nwthoo nwotoh nwotho
nwooth nwooht nwohot nwohto nwhtoo nwhtoo nwhoto nwhoot nwhoot nwhoto ntwooh
ntwoho ntwooh ntwoho ntwhoo ntwhoo ntowoh ntowho ntoowh ntoohw ntohow ntohwo
ntoowh ntoohw ntowoh ntowho ntohwo ntohow nthoow nthowo nthoow nthowo nthwoo
nthwoo nowtoh nowtho nowoth nowoht nowhot nowhto notwoh notwho notowh notohw
nothow nothwo nootwh noothw noowth noowht noohwt noohtw nohtow nohtwo nohotw
nohowt nohwot nohwto nhwtoo nhwtoo nhwoto nhwoot nhwoot nhwoto nhtwoo nhtwoo
nhtowo nhtoow nhtoow nhtowo nhotwo nhotow nhowto nhowot nhoowt nhootw nhotow
nhotwo nhootw nhoowt nhowot nhowto

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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