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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hovora
cipher variations:
ipwpsb jqxqtc kryrud lszsve mtatwf
nubuxg ovcvyh pwdwzi qxexaj ryfybk
szgzcl tahadm ubiben vcjcfo wdkdgp
xelehq yfmfir zgngjs ahohkt bipilu
cjqjmv dkrknw elslox fmtmpy gnunqz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hovora
Cipher: sleliz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hovora
Cipher: AABBB ABBAB BBBAB ABBAB BAAAA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hovora
cipher variations:
ipwpsbwrmrabktctibyvsvqbmxixybazyzgbcdedwbqfufeb
ehkhmbsjajubglqlcbungnkbjqxqtcxsnsbcludujczwtwrc
nyjyzcbazahcdefexcrgvgfcfilinctkbkvchmrmdcvoholc
kryrudytotcdmvevkdaxuxsdozkzadcbabidefgfydshwhgd
gjmjodulclwdinsnedwpipmdlszsvezupudenwfwlebyvyte
palabedcbcjefghgzetixihehknkpevmdmxejotofexqjqne
mtatwfavqvefoxgxmfczwzufqbmbcfedcdkfghihafujyjif
ilolqfwnenyfkpupgfyrkrofnubuxgbwrwfgpyhyngdaxavg
rcncdgfedelghijibgvkzkjgjmpmrgxofozglqvqhgzslspg
ovcvyhcxsxghqzizohebybwhsdodehgfefmhijkjchwlalkh
knqnshypgpahmrwrihatmtqhpwdwzidytyhirajapifczcxi
tepefihgfgnijklkdixmbmlilorotizqhqbinsxsjibunuri
qxexajezuzijsbkbqjgdadyjufqfgjihghojklmlejyncnmj
mpspujarircjotytkjcvovsjryfybkfavajktclcrkhebezk
vgrghkjihipklmnmfkzodonknqtqvkbsjsdkpuzulkdwpwtk
szgzclgbwbkludmdslifcfalwhshilkjijqlmnonglapepol
orurwlctktelqvavmlexqxultahadmhcxclmvenetmjgdgbm
xitijmlkjkrmnopohmbqfqpmpsvsxmdulufmrwbwnmfyryvm
ubibenidydmnwfofunkhehcnyjujknmlklsnopqpincrgrqn
qtwtynevmvgnsxcxongzszwnvcjcfojezenoxgpgvolifido
zkvklonmlmtopqrqjodshsroruxuzofwnwhotydypohataxo
wdkdgpkfafopyhqhwpmjgjepalwlmponmnupqrsrkpetitsp
svyvapgxoxipuzezqpibubypxelehqlgbgpqzirixqnkhkfq
bmxmnqponovqrstslqfujutqtwzwbqhypyjqvafarqjcvczq
yfmfirmhchqrajsjyrolilgrcnynorqpopwrstutmrgvkvur
uxaxcrizqzkrwbgbsrkdwdarzgngjsnidirsbktkzspmjmhs
dozopsrqpqxstuvunshwlwvsvybydsjaralsxchctslexebs
ahohktojejstclulatqnknitepapqtsrqrytuvwvotixmxwt
wzczetkbsbmtydidutmfyfctbipilupkfktudmvmburoloju
fqbqrutsrszuvwxwpujynyxuxadafulctcnuzejevungzgdu
cjqjmvqlgluvenwncvspmpkvgrcrsvutstavwxyxqvkzozyv
ybebgvmdudovafkfwvohahevdkrknwrmhmvwfoxodwtqnqlw
hsdstwvutubwxyzyrwlapazwzcfchwnevepwbglgxwpibifw
elsloxsninwxgpypexurormxitetuxwvuvcxyzazsxmbqbax
adgdixofwfqxchmhyxqjcjgxfmtmpytojoxyhqzqfyvspsny
jufuvyxwvwdyzabatyncrcbybehejypgxgrydinizyrkdkhy
gnunqzupkpyzirargzwtqtozkvgvwzyxwxezabcbuzodsdcz
cfifkzqhyhszejojazslelizhovoravqlqzajsbshaxurupa
lwhwxazyxyfabcdcvapetedadgjglarizitafkpkbatmfmja

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hovora
Cipher: ubiben

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hovora
Cipher: 324315432411

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hovora
method variations:
ntatwfsyfyblxdldgqciqimv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h o v o r a 
3 4 1 4 2 1 
2 3 5 3 4 1 
They are then read out in rows:
341421235341
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hovora
Cipher: sqbmpd

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: hovora
method variations:
rcuhdl cuhdlr uhdlrc
hdlrcu dlrcuh lrcuhd

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hovora

all 720 cipher variations:
hovora hovoar hovroa hovrao hovaro hovaor hoovra hoovar hoorva hoorav hooarv
hooavr horova horoav horvoa horvao horavo horaov hoaorv hoaovr hoarov hoarvo
hoavro hoavor hvoora hvooar hvoroa hvorao hvoaro hvoaor hvoora hvooar hvoroa
hvorao hvoaro hvoaor hvrooa hvroao hvrooa hvroao hvraoo hvraoo hvaoro hvaoor
hvaroo hvaroo hvaoro hvaoor hovora hovoar hovroa hovrao hovaro hovaor hoovra
hoovar hoorva hoorav hooarv hooavr horova horoav horvoa horvao horavo horaov
hoaorv hoaovr hoarov hoarvo hoavro hoavor hrvooa hrvoao hrvooa hrvoao hrvaoo
hrvaoo hrovoa hrovao hroova hrooav hroaov hroavo hroova hrooav hrovoa hrovao
hroavo hroaov hraoov hraovo hraoov hraovo hravoo hravoo havoro havoor havroo
havroo havoro havoor haovro haovor haorvo haorov haoorv haoovr harovo haroov
harvoo harvoo harovo haroov haoorv haoovr haorov haorvo haovro haovor ohvora
ohvoar ohvroa ohvrao ohvaro ohvaor ohovra ohovar ohorva ohorav ohoarv ohoavr
ohrova ohroav ohrvoa ohrvao ohravo ohraov ohaorv ohaovr oharov oharvo ohavro
ohavor ovhora ovhoar ovhroa ovhrao ovharo ovhaor ovohra ovohar ovorha ovorah
ovoarh ovoahr ovroha ovroah ovrhoa ovrhao ovraho ovraoh ovaorh ovaohr ovaroh
ovarho ovahro ovahor oovhra oovhar oovrha oovrah oovarh oovahr oohvra oohvar
oohrva oohrav ooharv oohavr oorhva oorhav oorvha oorvah ooravh oorahv ooahrv
ooahvr ooarhv ooarvh ooavrh ooavhr orvoha orvoah orvhoa orvhao orvaho orvaoh
orovha orovah orohva orohav oroahv oroavh orhova orhoav orhvoa orhvao orhavo
orhaov oraohv oraovh orahov orahvo oravho oravoh oavorh oavohr oavroh oavrho
oavhro oavhor oaovrh oaovhr oaorvh oaorhv oaohrv oaohvr oarovh oarohv oarvoh
oarvho oarhvo oarhov oahorv oahovr oahrov oahrvo oahvro oahvor vohora vohoar
vohroa vohrao voharo vohaor voohra voohar voorha voorah vooarh vooahr voroha
voroah vorhoa vorhao voraho voraoh voaorh voaohr voaroh voarho voahro voahor
vhoora vhooar vhoroa vhorao vhoaro vhoaor vhoora vhooar vhoroa vhorao vhoaro
vhoaor vhrooa vhroao vhrooa vhroao vhraoo vhraoo vhaoro vhaoor vharoo vharoo
vhaoro vhaoor vohora vohoar vohroa vohrao voharo vohaor voohra voohar voorha
voorah vooarh vooahr voroha voroah vorhoa vorhao voraho voraoh voaorh voaohr
voaroh voarho voahro voahor vrhooa vrhoao vrhooa vrhoao vrhaoo vrhaoo vrohoa
vrohao vrooha vrooah vroaoh vroaho vrooha vrooah vrohoa vrohao vroaho vroaoh
vraooh vraoho vraooh vraoho vrahoo vrahoo vahoro vahoor vahroo vahroo vahoro
vahoor vaohro vaohor vaorho vaoroh vaoorh vaoohr varoho varooh varhoo varhoo
varoho varooh vaoorh vaoohr vaoroh vaorho vaohro vaohor oovhra oovhar oovrha
oovrah oovarh oovahr oohvra oohvar oohrva oohrav ooharv oohavr oorhva oorhav
oorvha oorvah ooravh oorahv ooahrv ooahvr ooarhv ooarvh ooavrh ooavhr ovohra
ovohar ovorha ovorah ovoarh ovoahr ovhora ovhoar ovhroa ovhrao ovharo ovhaor
ovrhoa ovrhao ovroha ovroah ovraoh ovraho ovahro ovahor ovarho ovaroh ovaorh
ovaohr ohvora ohvoar ohvroa ohvrao ohvaro ohvaor ohovra ohovar ohorva ohorav
ohoarv ohoavr ohrova ohroav ohrvoa ohrvao ohravo ohraov ohaorv ohaovr oharov
oharvo ohavro ohavor orvhoa orvhao orvoha orvoah orvaoh orvaho orhvoa orhvao
orhova orhoav orhaov orhavo orohva orohav orovha orovah oroavh oroahv orahov
orahvo oraohv oraovh oravoh oravho oavhro oavhor oavrho oavroh oavorh oavohr
oahvro oahvor oahrvo oahrov oahorv oahovr oarhvo oarhov oarvho oarvoh oarovh
oarohv oaohrv oaohvr oaorhv oaorvh oaovrh oaovhr rovoha rovoah rovhoa rovhao
rovaho rovaoh roovha roovah roohva roohav rooahv rooavh rohova rohoav rohvoa
rohvao rohavo rohaov roaohv roaovh roahov roahvo roavho roavoh rvooha rvooah
rvohoa rvohao rvoaho rvoaoh rvooha rvooah rvohoa rvohao rvoaho rvoaoh rvhooa
rvhoao rvhooa rvhoao rvhaoo rvhaoo rvaoho rvaooh rvahoo rvahoo rvaoho rvaooh
rovoha rovoah rovhoa rovhao rovaho rovaoh roovha roovah roohva roohav rooahv
rooavh rohova rohoav rohvoa rohvao rohavo rohaov roaohv roaovh roahov roahvo
roavho roavoh rhvooa rhvoao rhvooa rhvoao rhvaoo rhvaoo rhovoa rhovao rhoova
rhooav rhoaov rhoavo rhoova rhooav rhovoa rhovao rhoavo rhoaov rhaoov rhaovo
rhaoov rhaovo rhavoo rhavoo ravoho ravooh ravhoo ravhoo ravoho ravooh raovho
raovoh raohvo raohov raoohv raoovh rahovo rahoov rahvoo rahvoo rahovo rahoov
raoohv raoovh raohov raohvo raovho raovoh aovorh aovohr aovroh aovrho aovhro
aovhor aoovrh aoovhr aoorvh aoorhv aoohrv aoohvr aorovh aorohv aorvoh aorvho
aorhvo aorhov aohorv aohovr aohrov aohrvo aohvro aohvor avoorh avoohr avoroh
avorho avohro avohor avoorh avoohr avoroh avorho avohro avohor avrooh avroho
avrooh avroho avrhoo avrhoo avhoro avhoor avhroo avhroo avhoro avhoor aovorh
aovohr aovroh aovrho aovhro aovhor aoovrh aoovhr aoorvh aoorhv aoohrv aoohvr
aorovh aorohv aorvoh aorvho aorhvo aorhov aohorv aohovr aohrov aohrvo aohvro
aohvor arvooh arvoho arvooh arvoho arvhoo arvhoo arovoh arovho aroovh aroohv
arohov arohvo aroovh aroohv arovoh arovho arohvo arohov arhoov arhovo arhoov
arhovo arhvoo arhvoo ahvoro ahvoor ahvroo ahvroo ahvoro ahvoor ahovro ahovor
ahorvo ahorov ahoorv ahoovr ahrovo ahroov ahrvoo ahrvoo ahrovo ahroov ahoorv
ahoovr ahorov ahorvo ahovro ahovor

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

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