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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: hottie
cipher variations:
ipuujf jqvvkg krwwlh lsxxmi mtyynj
nuzzok ovaapl pwbbqm qxccrn ryddso
szeetp taffuq ubggvr vchhws wdiixt
xejjyu yfkkzv zgllaw ahmmbx binncy
cjoodz dkppea elqqfb fmrrgc gnsshd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: hottie
Cipher: slggrv

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: hottie
Cipher: AABBB ABBAB BAABA BAABA ABAAA AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: hottie
cipher variations:
ipuujfwrggznktsspvyveefdmxqqvlazccltcdaarjqfmmhr
ehyyxzsjkknhglwwdpuniitxjqvvkgxshhaoluttqwzwffge
nyrrwmbaddmudebbskrgnnisfizzyatklloihmxxeqvojjuy
krwwlhytiibpmvuurxaxgghfozssxncbeenvefcctlshoojt
gjaazbulmmpjinyyfrwpkkvzlsxxmizujjcqnwvvsybyhhig
pattyodcffowfgddumtippkuhkbbacvmnnqkjozzgsxqllwa
mtyynjavkkdroxwwtzcziijhqbuuzpedggpxgheevnujqqlv
ilccbdwnoorlkpaahtyrmmxbnuzzokbwllespyxxuadajjki
rcvvaqfehhqyhiffwovkrrmwjmddcexoppsmlqbbiuzsnnyc
ovaaplcxmmftqzyyvbebkkljsdwwbrgfiirzijggxpwlssnx
kneedfypqqtnmrccjvatoozdpwbbqmdynngurazzwcfcllmk
texxcshgjjsajkhhyqxmttoyloffegzqrruonsddkwbuppae
qxccrnezoohvsbaaxdgdmmnlufyydtihkktbkliizrynuupz
mpggfharssvpoteelxcvqqbfryddsofappiwtcbbyehennom
vgzzeujilluclmjjaszovvqanqhhgibsttwqpuffmydwrrcg
szeetpgbqqjxudcczfifoopnwhaafvkjmmvdmnkkbtapwwrb
oriihjctuuxrqvggnzexssdhtaffuqhcrrkyveddagjgppqo
xibbgwlknnwenollcubqxxscpsjjikduvvysrwhhoafyttei
ubggvridsslzwfeebhkhqqrpyjcchxmlooxfopmmdvcryytd
qtkkjlevwwztsxiipbgzuufjvchhwsjettmaxgffcilirrsq
zkddiynmppygpqnnewdszzuerullkmfwxxautyjjqchavvgk
wdiixtkfuunbyhggdjmjsstraleejzonqqzhqroofxetaavf
svmmlngxyybvuzkkrdibwwhlxejjyulgvvoczihheknkttus
bmffkaporrairsppgyfubbwgtwnnmohyzzcwvallsejcxxim
yfkkzvmhwwpdajiifloluuvtcngglbqpssbjstqqhzgvccxh
uxoonpizaadxwbmmtfkdyyjnzgllawnixxqebkjjgmpmvvwu
dohhmcrqttckturriahwddyivyppoqjabbeyxcnnuglezzko
ahmmbxojyyrfclkkhnqnwwxvepiindsruudluvssjbixeezj
wzqqprkbccfzydoovhmfaalpbinncypkzzsgdmllioroxxyw
fqjjoetsvvemvwttkcjyffakxarrqslcddgazeppwingbbmq
cjoodzqlaathenmmjpspyyzxgrkkpfutwwfnwxuuldkzggbl
ybssrtmdeehbafqqxjohccnrdkppearmbbuifonnkqtqzzay
hsllqgvuxxgoxyvvmelahhcmzcttsunefficbgrrykpiddos
elqqfbsnccvjgpoolruraabzitmmrhwvyyhpyzwwnfmbiidn
aduutvofggjdchsszlqjeeptfmrrgctoddwkhqppmsvsbbca
junnsixwzziqzaxxogncjjeobevvuwpghhkedittamrkffqu
gnsshdupeexlirqqntwtccdbkvootjyxaajrabyyphodkkfp
cfwwvxqhiilfejuubnslggrvhottievqffymjsrrouxuddec
lwppukzybbksbczzqipellgqdgxxwyrijjmgfkvvcotmhhsw

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: hottie
Cipher: ubggvr

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: hottie
Cipher: 324344444251

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: hottie
method variations:
ntyyoksyddtpxdiiyucioodz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
h o t t i e 
3 4 4 4 4 5 
2 3 4 4 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
344445234421
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: hottie
Cipher: stymtb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: hottie
method variations:
rsttwl sttwlr ttwlrs
twlrst wlrstt lrsttw

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: hottie

all 720 cipher variations:
hottie hottei hotite hotiet hoteit hoteti hottie hottei hotite hotiet hoteit
hoteti hoitte hoitet hoitte hoitet hoiett hoiett hoetit hoetti hoeitt hoeitt
hoetit hoetti htotie htotei htoite htoiet htoeit htoeti httoie httoei httioe
httieo htteio htteoi htitoe htiteo htiote htioet htieot htieto htetio htetoi
hteito hteiot hteoit hteoti httoie httoei httioe httieo htteio htteoi htotie
htotei htoite htoiet htoeit htoeti htiote htioet htitoe htiteo htieto htieot
hteoit hteoti hteiot hteito htetio htetoi hittoe hitteo hitote hitoet hiteot
hiteto hittoe hitteo hitote hitoet hiteot hiteto hiotte hiotet hiotte hiotet
hioett hioett hietot hietto hieott hieott hietot hietto hettio hettoi hetito
hetiot hetoit hetoti hettio hettoi hetito hetiot hetoit hetoti heitto heitot
heitto heitot heiott heiott heotit heotti heoitt heoitt heotit heotti ohttie
ohttei ohtite ohtiet ohteit ohteti ohttie ohttei ohtite ohtiet ohteit ohteti
ohitte ohitet ohitte ohitet ohiett ohiett ohetit ohetti oheitt oheitt ohetit
ohetti othtie othtei othite othiet otheit otheti otthie otthei ottihe ottieh
otteih ottehi otithe otiteh otihte otihet otieht otieth otetih otethi oteith
oteiht otehit otehti otthie otthei ottihe ottieh otteih ottehi othtie othtei
othite othiet otheit otheti otihte otihet otithe otiteh otieth otieht otehit
otehti oteiht oteith otetih otethi oitthe oitteh oithte oithet oiteht oiteth
oitthe oitteh oithte oithet oiteht oiteth oihtte oihtet oihtte oihtet oihett
oihett oietht oietth oiehtt oiehtt oietht oietth oettih oetthi oetith oetiht
oethit oethti oettih oetthi oetith oetiht oethit oethti oeitth oeitht oeitth
oeitht oeihtt oeihtt oehtit oehtti oehitt oehitt oehtit oehtti tohtie tohtei
tohite tohiet toheit toheti tothie tothei totihe totieh toteih totehi toithe
toiteh toihte toihet toieht toieth toetih toethi toeith toeiht toehit toehti
thotie thotei thoite thoiet thoeit thoeti thtoie thtoei thtioe thtieo thteio
thteoi thitoe thiteo thiote thioet thieot thieto thetio thetoi theito theiot
theoit theoti tthoie tthoei tthioe tthieo ttheio ttheoi ttohie ttohei ttoihe
ttoieh ttoeih ttoehi ttiohe ttioeh ttihoe ttiheo ttieho ttieoh tteoih tteohi
tteioh tteiho ttehio ttehoi tihtoe tihteo tihote tihoet tiheot tiheto tithoe
titheo titohe titoeh titeoh titeho tiothe tioteh tiohte tiohet tioeht tioeth
tietoh tietho tieoth tieoht tiehot tiehto tehtio tehtoi tehito tehiot tehoit
tehoti tethio tethoi tetiho tetioh tetoih tetohi teitho teitoh teihto teihot
teioht teioth teotih teothi teoith teoiht teohit teohti tothie tothei totihe
totieh toteih totehi tohtie tohtei tohite tohiet toheit toheti toihte toihet
toithe toiteh toieth toieht toehit toehti toeiht toeith toetih toethi ttohie
ttohei ttoihe ttoieh ttoeih ttoehi tthoie tthoei tthioe tthieo ttheio ttheoi
ttihoe ttiheo ttiohe ttioeh ttieoh ttieho ttehio ttehoi tteiho tteioh tteoih
tteohi thtoie thtoei thtioe thtieo thteio thteoi thotie thotei thoite thoiet
thoeit thoeti thiote thioet thitoe thiteo thieto thieot theoit theoti theiot
theito thetio thetoi tithoe titheo titohe titoeh titeoh titeho tihtoe tihteo
tihote tihoet tiheot tiheto tiohte tiohet tiothe tioteh tioeth tioeht tiehot
tiehto tieoht tieoth tietoh tietho tethio tethoi tetiho tetioh tetoih tetohi
tehtio tehtoi tehito tehiot tehoit tehoti teihto teihot teitho teitoh teioth
teioht teohit teohti teoiht teoith teotih teothi iotthe iotteh iothte iothet
ioteht ioteth iotthe iotteh iothte iothet ioteht ioteth iohtte iohtet iohtte
iohtet iohett iohett ioetht ioetth ioehtt ioehtt ioetht ioetth itothe itoteh
itohte itohet itoeht itoeth ittohe ittoeh itthoe ittheo itteho itteoh ithtoe
ithteo ithote ithoet itheot itheto itetho itetoh itehto itehot iteoht iteoth
ittohe ittoeh itthoe ittheo itteho itteoh itothe itoteh itohte itohet itoeht
itoeth ithote ithoet ithtoe ithteo itheto itheot iteoht iteoth itehot itehto
itetho itetoh ihttoe ihtteo ihtote ihtoet ihteot ihteto ihttoe ihtteo ihtote
ihtoet ihteot ihteto ihotte ihotet ihotte ihotet ihoett ihoett ihetot ihetto
iheott iheott ihetot ihetto iettho iettoh iethto iethot ietoht ietoth iettho
iettoh iethto iethot ietoht ietoth iehtto iehtot iehtto iehtot iehott iehott
ieotht ieotth ieohtt ieohtt ieotht ieotth eottih eotthi eotith eotiht eothit
eothti eottih eotthi eotith eotiht eothit eothti eoitth eoitht eoitth eoitht
eoihtt eoihtt eohtit eohtti eohitt eohitt eohtit eohtti etotih etothi etoith
etoiht etohit etohti ettoih ettohi ettioh ettiho etthio etthoi etitoh etitho
etioth etioht etihot etihto ethtio ethtoi ethito ethiot ethoit ethoti ettoih
ettohi ettioh ettiho etthio etthoi etotih etothi etoith etoiht etohit etohti
etioth etioht etitoh etitho etihto etihot ethoit ethoti ethiot ethito ethtio
ethtoi eittoh eittho eitoth eitoht eithot eithto eittoh eittho eitoth eitoht
eithot eithto eiotth eiotht eiotth eiotht eiohtt eiohtt eihtot eihtto eihott
eihott eihtot eihtto ehttio ehttoi ehtito ehtiot ehtoit ehtoti ehttio ehttoi
ehtito ehtiot ehtoit ehtoti ehitto ehitot ehitto ehitot ehiott ehiott ehotit
ehotti ehoitt ehoitt ehotit ehotti

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History of cryptography
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